HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Introduction Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases"

Transcription

1 UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius and J. C. Maxwell developed the mathematical concept of the random motion of the gas molecules in a gas which helped to explain not only the properties of gases but also that of free electrons in metals... ostulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases. A gas consists of a large number of minute particles known as molecules of the same size and mass.. The interaction between molecules is negligible unlike solids.. The molecules in a gas are in a state of random motion in all directions with different velocities ranging from zero to infinity. 4. The size of the molecules is negligible in comparison with the volume of a gas. 5. During the motion, molecules collide with each other which is perfectly elastic. 6. The impact of molecules on the walls of the container exerts a pressure. ressure of a gas is the average force per unit area of the molecules on the walls of the container during impact. Larger the number of impacts, greater will be the pressure. 7. Due to random motion of molecules in gas, the molecules have kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy of a gas molecule varies as absolute temperature. According to kinetic theory of gases, the molecules of a gas are in random motion. So, the average velocity of the molecules is zero. Hence we find the rms velocity of a molecule.

2 Engineering hysics ol. II If c, c, c,... c n are the velocities of the molecules of a gas at any instant, the mean square velocity of the molecules of the gas is, velocity of a molecule is c + c + c +... c. Hence root mean square n c rm... n c + c + c + c n.. ressure Exerted by a Gas Let us enclose a gas in a cubical box of dimension metre. Let m be the mass of the molecule and n be the total number of molecules in this cubical vessel of volume m. Consider a molecule D moving in the x-direction with a velocity v towards the wall B. It hits the wall B with a velocity v and rebounds with the same velocity v as the collision is perfectly elastic. Momentum of the molecule D before collision is mv and the momentum of the molecule after collision is equal to mv. Thus change in momentum of the molecule on the wall B due to a single collision of the molecule D is mv ( mv) mv. In metres the molecule undergo collision. For v metre it will undergo v collisions (in a sec). Thus force exerted by the single molecule on the wall B change in momentum v time mv mv. A B D Fig.. We shall now consider the combined effect of collisions of all molecules on the wall B. All the n molecules in the cubical vessel are not moving along the x-axis between the walls B and A. Since there are only three independent directions x, y and z, it is reasonable

3 Heat n to assume that, at any instant, there may be molecules moving along the x-axis between walls B and A. Therefore, force exerted by the molecules on the walls B mnv. Being the area of the surface B is sq. m., the pressure exerted on the wall B is mnv But all molecules are not moving with the same velocity. Hence it is reasonable to substitute c, the mean square velocity of the molecule, for v. If c, c, c,... c n are the velocities of the molecules at any instant, then Therefore,... n c c + c + c + c mnc Since m is the mass of the molecule and n is the number of molecules per unit volume of the gas, then mn ρ i.e., ρc Further discussion is possible by choosing unit volume or molar volume ( m ). Let us consider one mole of a gas which occupies a volume m. The pressure exerted by the gas is mnac m mn Ac RT, where R is universal gas constant. Thus mc m RT N R as Boltzmann constant k B. N A A B k T

4 4 Engineering hysics ol. II or mc k B T...() This is kinetic energy of a molecule. Hence, average kinetic energy of one mole of the gas is mc NA NAkBT RT...() It is now evident that K.E. of a molecule of the gas is k B T or K.E. µ T. Conclusion: Let us consider any amount of a gas. Let,, T and n be the pressure, volume, temperature and number of the molecules of the gas. K.E. of a molecule of a gas k B T Hence, K.E. of the gas nk BT. If M is the mass of a given gas with as the volume, then Mc Mc K. E. of the gas...() nk BT or nk BT...(4)..4 Boyle s Law and Charles Law (i) Kinetic energy of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Hence from equations () and (), it is obvious that at constant temperature constant or µ. This is Boyle s law. (ii) Since K.E. of the gas is proportional to the absolute temperature, from equations () and (4), µ T. Conclusions (a) At constant pressure [from Eqns. and 4] µ T. This is Charles first law (b) At constant volume µ T. This is Charles second law.

5 Heat 5. SECIFIC HEAT.. Measurement of Heat and Unit of Heat Heat is a form of energy. Usually quantities of heat is measured by the effect they produce. Since heat is a form of energy it is measured in joule, in the same way as other forms of energy. Water was taken as the standard substance for defining heat units. Calorie is the unit of heat in C.G.S. unit. It is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water through C from 4.5 C to 5.5 C. Calorie 4. joule. Heat capacity of a body: It is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of the body by one degree kelvin, i.e., the unit of heat capacity of a body is joule/kelvin J/K. Specific heat capacity of a substance (C): It is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of the body by one degree kelvin. The unit is joule per kg per degree kelvin (J kg K ). The dimension is L T K. Specific heat of some substances Substance J kg K kj kg K J gm K Water Aluminium Copper Water equivalent: Water equivalent of a body is the mass of water having the same heat capacity as the given body. In S.I. unit, water equivalent (in kg) Heat capacity of the body. Specific heat of water Quantity of heat: If m is the mass of the body, C is the specific heat, then quantity of heat Q required to raise the temperature through θ is m C θ i.e., Q m C θ Method of mixtures: When a hot body is allowed to share its heat with a cold body, there is a flow of heat from the hot body to the cold body until both attain a common temperature. Then, if no heat is lost to or gained from the surroundings, then Heat lost by the hot body Heat gained by the cold body.

6 6 Engineering hysics ol. II.. Specific Heat of a Gas at Constant olume and at Constant ressure (i) C : The specific heat of a gas at constant volume is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the gas through one degree kelvin keeping its volume constant. Thus the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of the gas through one degree kelvin at constant volume is called molar specific heat at constant volume (C ). (ii) C : The specific heat of a gas at constant pressure is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the gas through one degree kelvin keeping its pressure constant. As discussed above, molar specific at constant pressure can be stated. The unit of specific heat is J kg K. Why C > C?: When a gas is heated at constant volume, the heat supplied is utilized only to increase the internal energy of the gas. But when it is heated at constant pressure, the heat supplied is used not only to increase the internal energy but also doing work during expansion. For the same temperature, the increase in internal energy is the same in both cases. Hence C > C... Mayer s Relations (C C R) Consider one mole of an ideal gas enclosed inside a non-conducting cylinder with a light smooth piston. d T Fig..

7 Heat 7 Let be its pressure, its volume and T its temperature. Keeping the volume constant, let the gas be heated so as to raise its temperature by one degree kelvin. The quantity of heat supplied, Q C This amount of heat is used only to raise, the internal energy of the gas. Now, let us imagine the gas be heated at constant pressure so as to raise the temperature by K. The quantity of heat supplied is given by Q C This amount of heat is partly used to raise the internal energy of the gas as the temperature raises by K and also used to do external work as the gas expands to keep the pressure constant. Therefore, C C + external work...() When the gas expands keeping pressure cosntant, let the piston be moved through a distance dx. Hence external work done by the gas, W F S A dx d where A is the area of cross-section of the piston and A dx d is the increase in volume of the gas. Thus, equation () can be written as C C + d...() For an ideal gas, RT After expansion, ( + d) R (T + ) i.e., + d RT + R RT d R i.e., C C + R or C C R This is the well known Mayer s relation. An Example: Let us consider air at constant pressure with C 966 J kg K. Density of air at ST.9 kg/m. Get the value of R using RT ressure (ST) N/m, T 7 K, ρ.9 kg/m. Gas constant for kg, M R as ρ T ρt.0 0 R.9 7 5

8 8 Engineering hysics ol. II R 87 J kg K...4 Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes Isothermal rocess: The process in which temperature is kept constant either by adding heat or taking heat away from a system is called isothermal process. Slow expansion of a gas enclosed in a perfectly conducting cylinder fitted with a perfectly conducting position. At constant temperature, suppose a certain mass of a perfect gas undergoes an isothermal expansion by d; then the total external work done is dw d. The total work done in an isothermal expansion from volume to under the same conditions is W ( ). If the pressure changes during the expansion, then the total work done is RT W d ;but RT or RT Thus, W d RT d. Hence in an isothermal change R and T are constants. Thus W RT log. e i.e., W RT.0log But Hence, W can also be written as or W RT.0 log. Adiabatic transformation: The process that takes place in a system under thermal isolation, such that heat is not transferred from the system to outside or from outside to a system is called an adiabatic process. It means that there is no exchange of heat between the system and surroundings. The expansion or compression of a gas enclosed in a perfectly non-conducting cylinder filled with a perfectly non-conducting frictionless piston. Since the system is thermally insulated no heat can enter or leave the system i.e., dq 0.

9 Heat 9 Hence du + d 0. Since perfect isolation is not practically possible, the physical changes should take place very rapidly so that heat produced during compression does not have enough time to leave the system and similarly during expansion heat does not have enough time to enter the system. When a certain mass of a perfect gas undergoes adiabatic changes, the total work done when the volume changes from and is W d For adiabatic change γ constant or k γ Thus, γ ( ) W k d k W k d γ γ γ γ γ γ γ Again, constant k Thus, W γ γ γ γ γ W γ γ [ ] ( ) If the temperature of the gas changes from T to T during the operation, then RT and RT R W T T γ ( ) Conclusion: The simple relation of isothermal change is k Differentiating this equation we get, d + d 0 d d d d

10 0 Engineering hysics ol. II Thus the slope of the isothermal equation is d d The adiabatic relation is γ constant. Differentiating this equation, γ γ d+ γ d 0 If, we get d + γ d 0 or d d γ Hence, the slope of adiabatic γ That is under same conditions of pressure and volume, the slope of adiabatic curve is γ-times that of isothermal formation. Mark Questions SHORT QUESTIONS. Give the dependence of root mean square velocity on absolute temperature.. Write down the relation connecting kinetic energy of a molecule, Boltzmann constant and absolute temperature.. State Boyle s Law..4 Give the unit of specific heat..5 What is Mayer s relation?.6 Dependence of K.E. of a molecule with temperature. Mark Questions.* State two important postulates of kinetic theory of gases.. Find the relation between and the kinetic energy of the gas.. The quantities required to measure the amount of heat in an experiment. Explain..4* Explain Charles Law..5 Discuss the principle of method of mixtures..6* Two kilogram of water is heated to raise the temperature from 0 C to 40 C. Compute the heat energy supplied in joule..7 Explain why C > C.

11 Heat ANSWERS TO STARRED QUESTIONS.* (i) The molecules in a gas are in a state of random motion in all directions with different velocities ranging from zero to infinity. (ii) Due to random motion of the molecules in a gas, the molecules have kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy of a gas molecule varies as absolute temperature..4* Since K.E. of the gas is proportional to the absolute temperature, µ T i.e., At constant pressure, µ T. This is Charles first law. Similarly at constant volume µ T. This is Charles second law..6* The general formula for heat lost or heat gained is ms θ. In this case m kg, s 400 joule kg K and θ (40 0) C. Thus, Q m s θ J Q joule. 0 Marks Questions REIEW QUESTIONS. (a) Bring out the important postulates of kinetic theory of gases. (b) Obtain the expression for the pressure exerted by a gas in a cubical box in terms of the density of the gas and root mean square velocity. (c) At ST, calculate the value of R using the equation RT.. (a) Discuss the pressure exerted by a gas and obtain an expression for the pressure using kinetic theory of gases. (b) Derive the expression for kinetic energy of a gas. (c) Deduce Boyle s law and Charles laws.. (a) Explain specific heat of a gas at constant volume and constant pressure (b) Obtain Mayer s relation. (c) Explain why C p > C?.4 (a) Explain isothermal expansion and obtain the expression for the work done during this process. (b) Show that for an adiabatic change in a perfect gas, γ constant. (c) A quantity of dry air at 7 C is compressed slowly to (/) of its original volume. What is the percentage change in pressure?

12 Engineering hysics ol. II ROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS. The ratio of specific heat capacity of helium is.66. Calculate the specific heat capacity at constant volume and at constant pressure. Given: R 8.9 J/K/mol. Solution: C C R C C.66 or C.66C Thus.66C C R C (.66 ) R C R JK mol C.5 JK mol Answer.. Calculate the RMS velocity of a molecule of oxygen at 00 K. Given: 8. J/mol-K. Solution: The mean K.E., mc k B T or mn Ac N AkBT RT where N A is Avogadro s number and R is universal gas constant mn A M 0 A M Ac RT c RT M 0 A c m s Answer.. At what temperature, pressure remaining constant, the RMS velocity becomes double its value at T 7 K. Let C and C be the velocities corresponding to T and T.

13 Heat Solution: c c c c T T T T T or 4 T T K T 09 K Answer..4 Calculate the molecular energy of one gram of hydrogen gas at K. Given that the molecular weight of hydrogen is 0 kg and R 8. J/mol-K. Solution: 0 kg of hydrogen will have molecules. N 0 - A will have molecules. where N A is the Avogadro s number. The molecular energy is N A k T RT E 00.6 J Answer..5 Given C 4.65 J/mol-K for hydrogen. Find C for hydrogen. R kj/ mol-k. Solution: i.e., C C R C C R C 6.4 J mol-k Answer.

14 4 Engineering hysics ol. II.6 A quantity of air at 00 K and atmospheric pressure is suddenly compressed to half its original volume. Find the final pressure and temperature. Solution: (i) atmospheric pressure and During sudden compression, the process is adiabatic γ γ.4 ( ).66 atmosphere. (ii),, T 00 K and T? γ γ T T γ T [ ] [ ] T T 95.9 K Answer..7 Calculate the work done if one mole of an ideal gas expands isothermally at 7 C until its volume is doubled [R 8. J mol K ]. Express the answer in calorie. Solution: m mol, T 400 K;,. Work done RT ( ) log e i.e., W.0 0 J log0 or W calorie 4 W calorie Answer.

THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

More information

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

More information

momentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3

momentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3 Kinetic Molecular Theory This explains the Ideal Gas Pressure olume and Temperature behavior It s based on following ideas:. Any ordinary sized or macroscopic sample of gas contains large number of molecules.

More information

Boyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P

Boyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P Boyles Law At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 or k 1 Boyles Law Example ressure olume Initial 2.00 atm 100 cm 3

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

More information

(1) The size of a gas particle is negligible as compared to the volume of the container in which the gas is placed.

(1) The size of a gas particle is negligible as compared to the volume of the container in which the gas is placed. Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory The Gas Laws are based on experiments, and they describe how a gas behaves under certain conditions. However, Gas Laws do not attempt to explain the behavior of gases.

More information

PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII

PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 2.5 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

More information

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

More information

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

More information

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with

More information

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

More information

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

More information

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Physics 1425 Lecture 31 Michael Fowler, UVa Bernoulli s Picture Daniel Bernoulli, in 1738, was the first to understand air pressure in terms of molecules he visualized them shooting

More information

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10 Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

More information

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline Gases and Kinetic-Molecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he Volume-Pressure

More information

Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax-CNX module: m42217 1 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name:

Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name: Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

More information

Gases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6

Gases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 Gases Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass,

More information

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 0 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

More information

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids 1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids - both liquids and gases.

More information

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1 Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

More information

= 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

= 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

More information

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1 Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0

More information

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random)

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random) Gases States of Matter States of Matter Kinetic E (motion) Potential E(interaction) Distance Between (size) Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large

More information

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

More information

Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).

Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). CHEM110 Week 9 Notes (Gas Laws) Page 1 of 7 Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). Gases Are mostly empty space Occupy containers uniformly and completely Expand infinitely Diffuse

More information

Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas 1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

More information

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

More information

Vacuum Technology. Kinetic Theory of Gas. Dr. Philip D. Rack

Vacuum Technology. Kinetic Theory of Gas. Dr. Philip D. Rack Kinetic Theory of Gas Assistant Professor Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Tennessee 603 Dougherty Engineering Building Knoxville, TN 3793-00 Phone: (865) 974-5344 Fax (865)

More information

Problem Set 1 3.20 MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder Fall 2003

Problem Set 1 3.20 MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder Fall 2003 LEVEL 1 PROBLEMS Problem Set 1 3.0 MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder Fall 003 Problem 1.1 The internal energy per kg for a certain gas is given by U = 0. 17 T + C where U is in kj/kg, T is in Kelvin, and C

More information

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

More information

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theor of Matter Heat capacit of gases and metals Pressure of gas Average speed of electrons in semiconductors Electron noise in resistors Positive metal ion cores Free valence electrons

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases When a container of cold champagne, soda pop, or any other carbonated drink is opened, a slight fog forms around the opening and some of the liquid sprays outward. (In the

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 33. Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 33. Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 33 Kinetic theory of gases envisions gases as a collection of atoms or molecules. Atoms or molecules are considered as particles. This is based on

More information

1. Degenerate Pressure

1. Degenerate Pressure . Degenerate Pressure We next consider a Fermion gas in quite a different context: the interior of a white dwarf star. Like other stars, white dwarfs have fully ionized plasma interiors. The positively

More information

Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury

Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.

More information

01 The Nature of Fluids

01 The Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 1/17 01 The Nature of Fluids (Water Resources I) Dave Morgan Prepared using Lyx, and the Beamer class in L A TEX 2ε, on September 12, 2007 Recommended Text 01 The Nature of

More information

) and mass of each particle is m. We make an extremely small

) and mass of each particle is m. We make an extremely small Umeå Universitet, Fysik Vitaly Bychkov Prov i fysik, Thermodynamics, --6, kl 9.-5. Hjälpmedel: Students may use any book including the textbook Thermal physics. Present your solutions in details: it will

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS 1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS The comparison of any physical quantity with its standard unit is called measurement. Physical Quantities All the quantities in terms of

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

Problem Set 3 Solutions

Problem Set 3 Solutions Chemistry 360 Dr Jean M Standard Problem Set 3 Solutions 1 (a) One mole of an ideal gas at 98 K is expanded reversibly and isothermally from 10 L to 10 L Determine the amount of work in Joules We start

More information

Episode 603: Kinetic model of an ideal gas

Episode 603: Kinetic model of an ideal gas Episode 603: Kinetic model of an ideal gas This episode relates the gas laws to the behaviour of the particles of a gas. Summary Discussion and demonstration: explaining pressure in terms of particles.

More information

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF AN IDEAL GAS: THE EQUATION OF STATE MISN-0-157. THE EQUATION OF STATE by William C. Lane Michigan State University

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF AN IDEAL GAS: THE EQUATION OF STATE MISN-0-157. THE EQUATION OF STATE by William C. Lane Michigan State University MISN-0-157 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF AN IDEAL GAS: THE EQUATION OF STATE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF AN IDEAL GAS: THE EQUATION OF STATE by William C. Lane Michigan State University 1. Introduction a.

More information

Energy Transport. Focus on heat transfer. Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids)

Energy Transport. Focus on heat transfer. Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Energy Transport Focus on heat transfer Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Conduction Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is physical contact

More information

CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7

CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7 CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7 Date: 1. Which of the following statements is not a part of kinetic molecular theory? A) Matter is composed of particles that are in constant motion. B) Particle velocity increases

More information

Type: Single Date: Kinetic Theory of Gases. Homework: Read (14.1), Do CONCEPT Q. # (1), Do PROBLEMS # (2, 3, 5) Ch. 14

Type: Single Date: Kinetic Theory of Gases. Homework: Read (14.1), Do CONCEPT Q. # (1), Do PROBLEMS # (2, 3, 5) Ch. 14 Type: Single Date: Objective: Kinetic Theory of Gases Homework: Read (14.1), Do CONCEPT Q. # (1), Do PROBLEMS # (2, 3, 5) Ch. 14 AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Theory of Gases Date Unlike the condensed phases

More information

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law Key Concepts 6.1 Systems Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law Systems, States, and Energy (Sections 6.1 6.8) thermodynamics, statistical thermodynamics, system, surroundings, open system, closed system,

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer

Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer 1 Opening items 1.1 Module introduction 1.2 Fast track questions 1.3 Ready to study?

More information

IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES 2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

More information

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND THERMODYNAMICS SECTION I Kinetic theory of gases

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND THERMODYNAMICS SECTION I Kinetic theory of gases KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND THERMODYNAMICS SECTION I Kinetic theory of gases Some important terms in kinetic theory of gases Macroscopic quantities: Physical quantities like pressure, temperature, volume,

More information

Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory

Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory What is temperature? We have developed some statistical language to simplify describing measurements on physical systems. When we measure the temperature of a system, what underlying

More information

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory The first scheduled quiz will be given next Tuesday during Lecture. It will last 5 minutes. Bring pencil, calculator, and your book. The coverage will be pp 364-44, i.e. Sections 0.0 through.4. 0.7 Theory

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015 The Mole Chapter 10 1 Objectives Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among moles, mass, and number of particles Determine the percent composition of the components of a compound Calculate empirical

More information

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

More information

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.

More information

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature: Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

More information

Thermodynamics worked examples

Thermodynamics worked examples An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Part hermodynamics worked examles. What is the absolute ressure, in SI units, of a fluid at a gauge ressure of. bar if atmosheric ressure is.0 bar? Absolute ressure

More information

Chapter 1 Classical Thermodynamics: The First Law. 1.2 The first law of thermodynamics. 1.3 Real and ideal gases: a review

Chapter 1 Classical Thermodynamics: The First Law. 1.2 The first law of thermodynamics. 1.3 Real and ideal gases: a review Chapter 1 Classical Thermodynamics: The First Law 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The first law of thermodynamics 1.3 Real and ideal gases: a review 1.4 First law for cycles 1.5 Reversible processes 1.6 Work 1.7

More information

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C 1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

More information

Chapter 29: Kinetic Theory of Gases: Equipartition of Energy and the Ideal Gas Law

Chapter 29: Kinetic Theory of Gases: Equipartition of Energy and the Ideal Gas Law Chapter 29: Kinetic Theory of Gases: Equipartition of Energy and the Ideal Gas Law 29.1 Introduction: Gas... 1 29.1.1 Macroscopic vs. Atomistic Description of a Gas... 1 29.1.2 Atoms, Moles, and Avogadro

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Problem Set 4 Solutions

Problem Set 4 Solutions Chemistry 360 Dr Jean M Standard Problem Set 4 Solutions 1 Two moles of an ideal gas are compressed isothermally and reversibly at 98 K from 1 atm to 00 atm Calculate q, w, ΔU, and ΔH For an isothermal

More information

Thermodynamics: Lecture 8, Kinetic Theory

Thermodynamics: Lecture 8, Kinetic Theory Thermodynamics: Lecture 8, Kinetic Theory Chris Glosser April 15, 1 1 OUTLINE I. Assumptions of Kinetic Theory (A) Molecular Flux (B) Pressure and the Ideal Gas Law II. The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributuion

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used. 5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

More information

Give all answers in MKS units: energy in Joules, pressure in Pascals, volume in m 3, etc. Only work the number of problems required. Chose wisely.

Give all answers in MKS units: energy in Joules, pressure in Pascals, volume in m 3, etc. Only work the number of problems required. Chose wisely. Chemistry 45/456 0 July, 007 Midterm Examination Professor G. Drobny Universal gas constant=r=8.3j/mole-k=0.08l-atm/mole-k Joule=J= Nt-m=kg-m /s 0J= L-atm. Pa=J/m 3 =N/m. atm=.0x0 5 Pa=.0 bar L=0-3 m 3.

More information

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2007 SOLUTIONS

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2007 SOLUTIONS AS COMPETITION PAPER 2007 Total Mark/50 SOLUTIONS Section A: Multiple Choice 1. C 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. C 1 Section B: Written Answer Question 9. A mass M is attached to the end of a horizontal

More information

Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K

Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 1. Large number of atoms/molecules in random motion 2.

More information

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three

More information

Define the notations you are using properly. Present your arguments in details. Good luck!

Define the notations you are using properly. Present your arguments in details. Good luck! Umeå Universitet, Fysik Vitaly Bychkov Prov i fysik, Thermodynamics, 0-0-4, kl 9.00-5.00 jälpmedel: Students may use any book(s) including the textbook Thermal physics. Minor notes in the books are also

More information

a) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L

a) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal

More information

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite

More information

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology The Continuum Hypothesis: We will regard macroscopic behavior of fluids as if the fluids are perfectly continuous in structure. In reality,

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic

More information

1 Introduction. Taking the logarithm of both sides of Equation 1.1:

1 Introduction. Taking the logarithm of both sides of Equation 1.1: j1 1 Introduction The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the basic processes, at the atomic or molecular level, which are responsible for kinetic processes at the microscopic and macroscopic

More information

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

More information

Heat and Work. First Law of Thermodynamics 9.1. Heat is a form of energy. Calorimetry. Work. First Law of Thermodynamics.

Heat and Work. First Law of Thermodynamics 9.1. Heat is a form of energy. Calorimetry. Work. First Law of Thermodynamics. Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics 9. Heat Heat and Thermodynamic rocesses Thermodynamics is the science of heat and work Heat is a form of energy Calorimetry Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical

More information

ES-7A Thermodynamics HW 1: 2-30, 32, 52, 75, 121, 125; 3-18, 24, 29, 88 Spring 2003 Page 1 of 6

ES-7A Thermodynamics HW 1: 2-30, 32, 52, 75, 121, 125; 3-18, 24, 29, 88 Spring 2003 Page 1 of 6 Spring 2003 Page 1 of 6 2-30 Steam Tables Given: Property table for H 2 O Find: Complete the table. T ( C) P (kpa) h (kj/kg) x phase description a) 120.23 200 2046.03 0.7 saturated mixture b) 140 361.3

More information

Technical Thermodynamics

Technical Thermodynamics Technical Thermodynamics Chapter 2: Basic ideas and some definitions Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Egon Hassel University of Rostock, Germany Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Building Institute of Technical

More information

CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS

CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS Onur AKAY Assistant Professor Okan University Department of Civil Engineering Akfırat Campus 34959 Tuzla-Istanbul/TURKEY Phone: +90-216-677-1630 ext.1974 Fax: +90-216-677-1486 E-mail:

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws I. Handout: Unit Notes II. Modeling at the Atomic Scale I. In another unit you learned about the history of the atom and the different models people had of what the

More information

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

More information

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES I. PROPERITIES OF GASES A. Gases have an indefinite shape. B. Gases have a low density C. Gases are very compressible D. Gases exert pressure equally in all

More information

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K 1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

More information

Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the

More information

Problem Set 12: Kinetic Theory; Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Solutions

Problem Set 12: Kinetic Theory; Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Solutions MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics Physics 8.01T Fall Term 2004 Problem Set 12: Kinetic Theory; Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Solutions Problem 1: Isothermal Ideal Gas Atmosphere

More information