Elektrofahrzeug mit Range Extender die Entwicklungsherausforderung Electric Vehicle with Range Extender. The developement challenge

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1 Elektrofahrzeug mit Range Extender die Entwicklungsherausforderung Electric Vehicle with Range Extender Dr. M. Korman AVL-List GmbH The developement challenge Stärkung regionaler Kooperationen in der Elektromobilität 13. Oktober 2010

2 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Range Extender in Real World Operation Why Range Extender? Concept Definition - Reciprocating Piston Engine - Rotary Engine Development Methodology Real World Operation - Cold climate operation - Operation Strategy

3 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Challenge The key for market success of EVs are affordable batteries

4 Battery Weight- kg Battery Cost -Euro AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Electric Range vs. Battery weight and Cost Vehicle: 1350 kg / 75 kw Battery: 80 Wh/kg, 250 /kwh Cost / Weight versus RANGE ANXIETY NYCC + AC (1.5 kw) NEDC + AC (1,5 kw) NYCC NEDC All Electrical Range - km 0

5 Battery Weight- kg Battery Cost -Euro AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Electric Range vs. Battery weight and Cost Vehicle: 1350 kg / 75 kw Battery: 80 Wh/kg, 250 /kwh RANGE ANXIETY 500 RANGE EXTENSION Range Extender Battery All Total Electrical Range Range - km - km

6 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Distribution of Daily Driving Distances in Germany 9% 8% 45% of vehicles do not exceed 30 km and account for 20% of total driving 7% 6% >70% of vehicles do not exceed 50 km (50% of annual mileage) 5% 4% 3% City Vehicle (EV) City Vehicle (EV) + RE 2% 1% All Purpose Vehicle 0% Drive Distance [km] 2,50 27,50 52,50 77,50 102,50 127,50 Reference: IVT, [km]

7 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Range Extender in Real World Operation Why Range Extender? Concept Definition - Reciprocating Piston Engine - Rotary Engine Development Methodology Real World Operation - Cold climate operation - Operation Strategy

8 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE The Vehicle Usage Profile defines the most effective Electrification Approach Plug-In Hybrid Serial / Parallel Range Extender Serial / Parallel (direct drive ) 2- / 3- / 4 cyl. reciprocating piston engine Range Extender Pure Serial 2- / 3-cyl. reciprocating piston engine Rotary engine + - pure ICE operation pure battery operation Share of energy from battery charged by the power grid - %

9 EV + Range Extender AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Degree of Electrification Pure ICE Pure electric 100 Degree of electrification - % 9

10 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Demonstrator AVL electric vehicle Plug-in vehicle demonstrator designed for mega-city driving AVL Range Extender System for at least 250km driving range Open requirement definition and dedicated system design No passenger compartment restrictions Acceptable cost of energy storage system Competitive driving performance No performance restrictions with Range-Extender operation 10

11 AVL ELECTRIV VEHICLES Targets for Range Extender Development 1. NVH, Comfort 2. Reliability 3. Package and Weight 4. Costs 5. Performance / Efficiency 12

12 PURE RANGE EXTENDER CONCEPT INVESTIGATIONS Otto 2-cycle 1-cylinder piston controlled balancer shaft Otto 2-cycle 2-cylinder opposed pistons piston controlled Rotary Engine single piston Otto 4-cycle 2-cylinder inline balancer shaft Diesel 4-cycle 2-cylinder inline balancer shaft I NVH o + ++ o - II Package o o III Weight o o ++ o - IV Product Cost o o - o - V Efficiency o ++ Concept Studies 13

13 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Concept Study: Wankel Engine 14

14 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Key Specifications Rotary Engine Engine configuration: Single disk rotary engine Displacement : 254 cc Power: rpm Fuel consumption: 260 g/kwh Generator concept: Permanent magnet synchronous machine Thermal management: Single circuit liquid cooling Controller: AVL rapid prototyping control unit Software: Module embedded SW and CAN interface Electric output: V (12 kw above 250 V) Max. performance scaling potential: up to 36 kw electric output (= 240%) 1m averaged sound pressure: 65 dba System box dimension (L x H x W): 490 mm x 400 mm x 980 mm Engine generator unit weight: 29 kg Module weight: 65 kg 15

15 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE System Integration 16

16 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Vehicle Integration Range Extender integrated in vehicle back AVL Pure Range Extender Battery system in front of rear axle and in middle tunnel 75kW traction motor in vehicle front: - acceleration 0 60km/h: 6sec - top speed 130km/h Traction Motor High Voltage Li-Ion Battery 17

17 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER System integration Electric motor Air inlet: box cooling and intake air Gearbox Battery pack Generator Wankel engine Range Extender / Acoustic box Air outlet: exhaust gas mixed with cooling air 18

18 MODULE CONCEPTS OF AVL-PURE RANGE EXTENDER 1 st AND 2 nd GENERATION Gen 1 5,9 l 4,3 l Gen 2 7,8 l 18,2 l 19

19 MODULE CONCEPTS OF AVL-PURE RANGE EXTENDER 1 st UND 2 nd GENERATION Gen 1 Gen 2 Gen 1 Gen 2 Volume Intake System - l 4,3 7,8 Volume Exhaust System - l 5,9 18,2 Volume Box - l Power for box cooling - W 100 W >200W 100 W 20

20 AUDI A1 E-TRON with AVL RANGE EXTENDER Source: AUDI 21

21 AUDI A1 E-TRON with AVL RANGE EXTENDER Source: AUDI 22

22 AUDI A1 E-TRON with AVL RANGE EXTENDER Source: AUDI 23

23 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Vehicle Architecture and HV-Safety Vehicle Architecture: AC-Compressor RE-Inverter (HV) DCDC Converter Charging Plug HV-Battery Internal chargers HV-Heating Element Range Extender (HV) Junctionbox E-Motor with Transmission 12 V Battery High Voltage Low Voltage CAN-Communication Int. Charger Control Unit emotor Control Unit HV-Battery Control Unit Vehicle Control Unit Range Extender Control Unit RE Motor Control Unit High-Voltage Safety: High-Voltage Interlock Loop Emergency Shutdown Button Isolation Observer Active Bus Voltage discharge HV-Battery Service disconnect 24

24 AVL BATTERY DEVELOPMENT Development Content Optimized, reliable and fully integrated battery system development to maximize vehicle fuel economy potential for AVL electric vehicle with Range Extender Pack volume: 94,4 L Pack mass: 125 kg Module configuration (6s2p): 12 cells per module Pack configuration: 20 modules Total number of cells: 240 Battery capacity: 11kWh Pack voltage, nominal: 384 V Peak current (discharge < 10s): 560 Amp Continuous current (discharge): 280 Amp BATTERY DESIGN AND SIMULATION BATTERY INTEGRATION AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE with Range Extender BATTERY FUNCTION AND SOFTWARE BATTERY TESTING AND VALIDATION 25

25 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Range Extender in Real World Operation Why Range Extender? Concept Definition - Reciprocating Piston Engine - Rotary Engine Development Methodology Real World Operation - Cold climate operation - Operation Strategy 26

26 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Development Process and Tools 27

27 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Development Process and Tools Electric Vehicle Development AVL CRUISE and DRIVE E-Motor and PE AVL Battery development SW Dev. and Integration AVL CRUISE E-Motor layout Battery simulation SW prototyping AVL InMotion E-Motor simulation AVL battery simulation system AVL CRETA AVL DRIVE E-Motor testing AVL battery testing unit AVL RPEMS 28

28 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Range Extender in Real World Operation Why Range Extender? Concept Definition - Reciprocating Piston Engine - Rotary Engine Development Methodology Real World Operation - Cold climate operation - Operation Strategy 29

29 Geschwindigkeit [km/h Höhe [m] AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Cyle Simulation Stop-and-Go traffik: Multiple load requirments Geschwindigkeit Höhe duration/distance: spec. fuel consumpt. of RE: total fuel consumtion: Delta SOC battery: Total vehicle range: 55 min, 50 km 295 gr/kwh 1,1 L % of usable energy 267 km E Zeit [s] L 10L 10L 10L F 100% E F 53% 50% E F 39% E F E F E F E F E F Pure Electric Operation E F 8,9L 47% E F 9,5L 43% E F 9,8L 39% E F 10L 39% E F E F E F E F RE Operation Pure Electric Operation RE Operation 30

30 Required Power [kw] Required Energy [kwh] Altitude [m] Vehicle Speed [km/h] AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Velocity, Altitude and Energy Profiles of the AVL Real World Driving Route City 12% Highway 40% Extra Urban 40% City 8% ca. ca km km slope slope ca. ca. 5% 5% Vehicle System-Simul. 100 AVL Drivetrain Testbed Distance [km] 130 AVL Vehicle Data Logging 32

31 Mean Energy Consumption [kwh/100km] Vehicle Speed km/h AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLES Energy Consumption of an EV under non warmed-up Conditions Start at 5 o C with cabin heating (1,7kW 0,8 kw) Start at 21 o C w/o cabin heating Start at 5 o C w/o cabin heating Time [s] 33

32 Vehicle Speed km/h Altitude - m AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE Borderline Tests for min. battery size and RE Charging Power Requirements 600 Extra Urban upward slope driving after 7 km City + 24 km Highway driving, limited battery energy hub (7 kwh) and limited RE charging power (10kW) SOC = 31% SOC = 58% 50 ca. ca km km slope slope ca. ca. 5% 5% Limited vehicle performance No performance limitation Time S 100 BASE STRATEGY: 1. Electric drive from SOC 90% SOC 30% 2. At 30% SOC Range Extender ON (10kW) REFINED STRATEGY: 1. Electric drive from SOC 90% SOC 30% 2. > 100 km/h Range Extender ON (10kW)

33 SUMMARY Real world operation of Battery Electric Vehicle: Range Extender is a base requirement for affordable electric mobility w/o risk of empty battery (RANGE ANXIETY) Depending on usage profile, different Range Extender solutions are the respective best approaches Vehicle and Powertrain Simulation is a key methodology in order to cope with the increasing powertrain complexity. The simulation model are utilized through out the entire development process by combining it with other tools and transferring it on real time environments Not only the hardware concept, but also the operation strategies including energy request prediction will become main differentiators with all Plug-In electrical vehicles 35

34 AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH RANGE EXTENDER 36

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