Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014"

Transcription

1 Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014

2 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures that show up in the picture that are not in the narrative.

3 Mammalian Digestive System 1 Our digestive system is essentially one tube with an opening for bringing food in, and an opening for getting rid of waste. Anything we want to keep for the body must be moved from the digestive tube into our cells of the body. If it is not absorbed, it will go out as waste.

4 Stages of Food Processing 2 There are four stages: 1. Ingestion bringing the food into the digestive system (in the mouth) 2. Digestion breaking the food into smaller pieces (polymers into monomers) so the monomers can be absorbed. 3. Absorption the process of moving nutrients (monomers) from the digestive tract into the blood stream to travel to cells 4. Elimination Anything that stays in the tube is removed as waste

5 Stages of Food Processing 3

6 The Mouth 4 What happens in the mouth when I eat? (in this case, a potato) Mechanical digestion (chewing) This breaks food down into smaller pieces so we don t choke while swallowing Breaking food into smaller pieces also provides more surface area for enzymes to attach to macromolecules (polymers) to break them down

7 The Mouth 5 What happens in the mouth when I eat? Chemical digestion (the chemical part refers to the action of enzymes) Saliva is released into the mouth. It contains: Enzymes to break down (digest) polymers. An example is amylase, an enzyme that digests starch (remember we saw starch in the potato in lab!). It breaks starch (polymer) into glucose (monomer) What kind of reaction is this? Hydrolysis reaction. Mucin (mucus): thick liquid that protects & lubricates the mouth and throat as food travels to the stomach. Buffers: acids or bases to neutralizes ph of what you ate.

8 Next stop - the Stomach 6 Its function is to stores & digest food What happens in the stomach? Secretes digestive juices, which include: HCL (hydrochloric acid). HCL has a ph of 2. This is very acidic. It causes proteins to denature (unfold). Remember that when proteins denature they lose their ability to function.

9 The Stomach 7 Digestive juices also contain enzymes (they do the actual digesting) Pepsin is an enzyme that digests proteins (polymer), breaking the covalent bonds to separate the amino acids (monomers). Because HCL has caused the protein to denature (unfold back to its primary structure), pepsin now has access to it and is able to digests it. What kind of reaction is this? Hydrolysis reaction. It is important to note that HCL cannot digest proteins that requires an enzyme to break the covalent bonds (perform the hydrolysis reaction.

10 The Small Intestine-upper region After the stomach, food arrives in the small intestine. We will break the small intestine into two parts (upper and lower) because they have completely different functions. What happens in the upper small intestine? More digestion (hydrolysis reactions by enzymes). The liver, pancreas & small intestine produce more digestive enzymes to continue to break polymers into monomers. By the time the food has traveled through the upper region of the small intestine, it is now all in its monomer form. simple sugars (e.g., glucose) amino acids glycerol & fatty acids nucleotides 8

11 The Small Intestine lower region Next food goes to the lower region of the small intestine. This is where absorption occurs. Nutrients (monomers) are transported from this lower region of the small intestine into the bloodstream. 9

12 Nutrients brought to cells 10 Our circulatory system (bloodstream) takes the nutrients to all the cells in the body. Once the nutrients (monomers) are in the cells, then other enzymes use the monomers to build polymers. What kind of reaction is this? Dehydration reaction. Simple sugars (e.g. glucose) can be stored as glycogen (or used by mitochondria to make ATP) Amino acids get built into proteins by ribosomes. Nucleotides move into the nucleus to make more DNA and RNA. Glycerol and fatty acids get used to make more complex lipids, like phospholipids, or moved into the smooth ER to make steroid hormones.

13 The Large Intestine 11 What happens to the food that is not absorbed? It stays in the digestive tract and moves through the large intestine (also called the colon). Feces get stored in the rectum, and then expelled. The large intestine also absorbs water. But note that nutrient absorption is done by the lower region of the small intestine, not the large intestine

14 Flow of matter from food 12 to cells Now you can explain how we can take matter from food (e.g., starch from the potato), digest it through a hydrolysis reaction to turn it into its monomer form (glucose), absorb the monomer and send it to our cells, where we then use dehydration reactions to build it into something we need (e.g., the polymer glycogen).

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition THE CONTENTS OF FOOD Food contains nutrients: Nutrients include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nutrients must be small enough to enter our cells. If they are too large they must be digested

More information

The Excretory and Digestive Systems

The Excretory and Digestive Systems The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures

More information

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood.

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood. The Digestive System Video on the digestive system (5 min) The digestive system is responsible for the breakdown of the we eat so that it can be absorbed into the. There are four main stages of the digestive

More information

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 The human digestive system is made up of a group of organs working together. The digestive tract is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and

More information

The Digestive System. You are what you eat!

The Digestive System. You are what you eat! The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules

More information

Magic School Bus Digestive System Brainpop Digestive System

Magic School Bus Digestive System Brainpop Digestive System The Digestive System Magic School Bus Digestive System Brainpop Digestive System 1 Functions of the Digestive System: 1. Break up food into smaller pieces 2. Absorbing nutrients into the blood 3. Excreting

More information

Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems

Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Organ Systems Organ systems must have the ability to to changes within and outside of your body to maintain life

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract.

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract. Digestive System CH-16 Lecture topics Functions of the digestive system: p. 488. 1. Ingestion: Taking food in 2. Propulsion: movement of food thru alimentary canal p.490. voluntary: swalloing : skeletal

More information

I. The basic function of the digestive system is

I. The basic function of the digestive system is Chapter 15, Digestive System - ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. The basic function of the digestive system is. This process is called. II. List 2 other names for the digestive tract: A. B. III. The digestive

More information

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion Digestion What we ll cover What are the digestive system structures and their functions? Where does carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion and absorption occur? What are the 3 accessory organs of digestion?

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System What do you know?? quiz-digestive-health Digestion Videos The Digestive System Inside-Dr-Ozs-Digestive-System-Video Now it is your turn to recreate the digestive system. How is food

More information

Digestive System Notes

Digestive System Notes Digestive System Notes Structure Function Relation Mouth cavity Mechanical digestion by teeth; chemical digestion of starch by saliva. Salivary glands Three pairs of glands which secrete saliva containing

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

Outline Digestive System

Outline Digestive System Outline Digestive System The Digestive System Digestive System Lecture Packet 19 Chapter 15 I. Function II. Layers of the GI tract III. Major parts: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption?

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? Digestion Review 1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? (a.) intestinal glands (b.) villi (c.) pseudopodia (d.) cilia (e.) flagella 2. The

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM What is digestion? Digestion is the process of breaking down food so that it's small enough to be absorbed and used by the body for energy or in other bodily functions. Digestion involves

More information

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System Gross Anatomy and Physiology I. Introduction A. Base Function: Working with the circulatory system the digestive system provides the body with fuel. B. Main players: 1. Digestive tract:

More information

Digestive System Functions

Digestive System Functions Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and

More information

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly)

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) 6 basic nutrients - 4 food groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetable,

More information

Digestive system Review

Digestive system Review Digestive system Review 1. Distinguish between chemical digestion and mechanical digestion. The physical breakdown of food begins in the mouth with two types of processes. The mouth is a complex structure

More information

The Human Digestive System

The Human Digestive System The Human Digestive System Name: Section: Date: Page 1 of 10 Page 2 of 10 Page 3 of 10 Page 4 of 10 Page 5 of 10 Page 6 of 10 Putting it All Together Digestive Enzymes Page 7 of 10 Page 8 of 10 Page 9

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Lec.13 Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Functions of the Digestive System The major functions of the digestive tract include the following six processes, summarized in Figure 1: 1. Ingestion Food must

More information

Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA

Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA Standards... 4 Next Generation Science Standards... 4 Learning

More information

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives Animal Nutrition What do animals need to live? Animals make energy using: food food oxygen Animals build bodies using: food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides O 2 ATP energy for synthesis

More information

Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems. Lesson 1 Understanding Animal Digestion

Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems. Lesson 1 Understanding Animal Digestion Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems Lesson 1 Understanding Animal Digestion 1 Terms Absorption Amino acids Anus Avian Bile Cecum Chyme Crop Cud Digestion Digestive system Enzymes Eructated Feces Gizzard

More information

Lesson 2: Digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates

Lesson 2: Digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Lesson 2: Digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Inquiry Focus: How does the body get energy from food? Student Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to do the following:

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Note Taking Guide. Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems

Note Taking Guide. Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems Note Taking Guide Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems Digestive Systems Overview 1. Digestion Digestion: Food enters the mouth and goes through mechanical and chemical changes as it passes through

More information

DIGESTION is the physical and

DIGESTION is the physical and Digestion DIGESTION is the physical and chemical breakdown of feeds as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The structures of the gastrointestinal tract include the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach,

More information

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal exercise 8 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Objectives 1. To define digestive tract, accessory glands, digestion, hydrolases, salivary amylase, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bile salts,

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

6023-1 - Page 1. Name: 4) The diagram below represents a beaker containing a solution of various molecules involved in digestion.

6023-1 - Page 1. Name: 4) The diagram below represents a beaker containing a solution of various molecules involved in digestion. Name: 6023-1 - Page 1 1) Which one of the following situations indicates a serious organ system malfunction? A) Mitochondria stop functioning in a unicellular organism exposed to pollutants. B) White blood

More information

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity.

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity. kufa university Physiology College of Nursing first year student Ass. Lect :- Hisham Qassem M. Lecture No :-3 The Digestive System Digestive system consists of: 1. Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT). 2. Accessory

More information

Hypnotic. Gastric Band. Paul McKenna

Hypnotic. Gastric Band. Paul McKenna Hypnotic Gastric Band Paul McKenna Hypnotic Gastric Band The Amazing Truth About A Hypnotic Gastric Band A Gastric Band is a radical, surgical operation that reduces the available space in your stomach

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier

H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier 1. What is a similarity between all bacteria and plants? A) They both have a nucleus B) They are both composed of cells C) They both have chloroplasts D) They both lack a

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS Digestive System GI TRACT ORGANS Oral cavity Oropharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Anus ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gall bladder GI TRACT LAYERS Mucosa Submucosa

More information

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube Chapter 17 Digestive System Functions of Digestive System ingestion mechanical digestion chemical digestion propulsion absorption defecation Consists of the alimentary canal and accessory organs 1 Alimentary

More information

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

More information

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm.

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm. Review for Unit Test: The Digestive System 1. Know the meaning of these terms: heterotrophs digestion peristalsis microvilli autotrophs chemical digestion chyme lacteal intracellular digestion mechanical

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Chapter 15 Digestive System.

Chapter 15 Digestive System. Chapter 15 Digestive System. I. The Gastrointestinal Tract. a. The digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food into molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream or lymph. Residues

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Digestive System Grou p & lndividual Activity checklist

Digestive System Grou p & lndividual Activity checklist Digestive System Grou p & lndividual Activity checklist oup Activitv: Each person in your group must research the following organs involved in the digestive process. They are listed below in sections (1-5).

More information

Weds 5/20/15. Membranes - finish last lecture outline. Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system

Weds 5/20/15. Membranes - finish last lecture outline. Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system Membranes - finish last lecture outline Weds 5/20/15 Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system structures and functions // accessory organs mechanism

More information

The Digestive System Grade 5

The Digestive System Grade 5 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) LIFE SCIENCE The Digestive System Grade 5 Created by: Shelly Bell (Kelseyville Elementary School), Bart Pontoni (Riviera Elementary School), Shane Lee (Pomo Elementary

More information

The Goat s Digestive System. Roy Beckford UF/IFAS Lee County

The Goat s Digestive System. Roy Beckford UF/IFAS Lee County The Goat s Digestive System Roy Beckford UF/IFAS Lee County Ruminants The goat is a member of a class of animals called ruminants. These animals ruminate (chew their cud). Unlike us, they have special

More information

By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford

By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford Body systems Digestive System Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Immune System Reproductive System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Endocrine

More information

The Digestive System. The large intestine, or colon, holds waste products until elimination can occur. Its main function is to absorb.

The Digestive System. The large intestine, or colon, holds waste products until elimination can occur. Its main function is to absorb. The Digestive System By: Joyce Green About the Digestive System The digestive system is responsible for the processing and uptake of nutrition. Every cell in an organism needs energy and an array of nutrients

More information

NAME: DATE: Home Economics: The parts of the digestive system and their functions. Home Economics

NAME: DATE: Home Economics: The parts of the digestive system and their functions. Home Economics Home Economics The parts of the digestive system and their functions It is not necessary to carry out all the activities contained in this unit. Please see Teachers Notes for explanations, additional activities,

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

[DIGESTIVE SYSTEM] [Grade 3-5]

[DIGESTIVE SYSTEM] [Grade 3-5] [DIGESTIVE SYSTEM] [Grade 3-5] BACKGROUND Tissue is the building block of body organs. Organs perform specialized functions in the body. Organs that work together to perform a particular function in the

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3

Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3 Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3 The digestive system of the horse is different from that Mastication (chewing) is the mechanical reduction of of the other farm animals. Although

More information

Gateways to Science SAMPLE. STAAR Edition. Teacher Edition

Gateways to Science SAMPLE. STAAR Edition. Teacher Edition Gateways to Science STAAR Edition Grade 7 Teacher Edition What Are My Traits? Gateways to Science, STAAR Edition, Grade 7 Page 1 of 2 INTRODUCTION to Gateways Gateways to Science Features Safety Alert

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials The Digestive System Chapter 16 Introduction Structure of the digestive system A tube that extends from mouth to anus Accessory organs are attached Functions include Ingestion Movement Digestion Absorption

More information

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Digestive System AKA G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Overview GI System Consists of Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus About 30 in length Accessory Organs Teeth, tongue,

More information

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS Objectives At the end of lecture student should be able to know, Digestive system Digestive system secretions Small intestine Component of small intestine Intestinal

More information

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System Mouth - mastication, lubrication, digestion Pharynx and Esophagus - swallowing Stomach - some digestion Small intestine - most digestion and absorption Large

More information

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingested food is not technically in the body until it is absorbed so it needs to be: Mechanically and chemically reduced Transported by the blood to the cells Large portions are not

More information

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system.

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system. Chapter 5 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism Chapter 5 Lesson 5.1 Key Concepts Through a balanced system of mechanical and chemical digestion, food is broken down into smaller substances and the nutrients

More information

Getting Energy from Food Your Digestive System

Getting Energy from Food Your Digestive System 9 Getting Energy from Food Your Digestive System The Digestive System You know how your body gets the oxygen it needs. But how do your body s cells get the nutrients they need? Nutrients come from the

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page Digestive system secretion involves

More information

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline I. Anatomy of the Digestive Tract A. The Digestive Organs 1. Mouth to the Esophagus 2. Esophagus to the Stomach 3. The Small Intestine 4. The Large Intestine

More information

The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme

The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme KEEPING HEALTHY SECTION 2: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Notes to Teachers Learning Objectives: Processes of nutrition in human (0.25 hr) General plan

More information

A comparison of the different livestock systems. By: Kristy Baird

A comparison of the different livestock systems. By: Kristy Baird A comparison of the different livestock systems By: Kristy Baird Describe the basic function of the primary components of the digestive system. Compare the function and location of the digestive organs

More information

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System General Structure and Function of the Digestive System Do Now Why does food have to be digested before cells can use it? What are the typical four layers of the digestive tract wall? What is the name of

More information

Material AICLE. 5º de Primaria.: Food and nutrition (Solucionario)

Material AICLE. 5º de Primaria.: Food and nutrition (Solucionario) Material AICLE. 5º de Primaria.: Food and nutrition (Solucionario) 3 SOLUTIONS Activity 3. Listen to the following audio and complete this chart. Then, check your answers using the information in activity

More information

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic

More information

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued)

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued) Functions of the GI Tract Chapter 18 The Digestive System Motility: Movement of of food through the GI tract. Ingestion: Taking food into the mouth. Mastication: Chewing the food and mixing it with saliva.

More information

stomach this The Digestive System in American Sign Language and English with Paul Buttenhoff and Cara Barnett Click here to see ASL version of title

stomach this The Digestive System in American Sign Language and English with Paul Buttenhoff and Cara Barnett Click here to see ASL version of title t stomach this The Digestive System in American Sign Language and English with Paul Buttenhoff and Cara Barnett Click here to see ASL version of title Click here to go to Table of Contents This project

More information

Mammalian digestive tracts

Mammalian digestive tracts Mammalian digestive tracts Mouth: mastication, some digestive enzymes Esophagus: simple transport tube Stomach: most initial digestion, some physical processing Small intestine: digestion continues, some

More information

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit Chapter 3 Digestion and Absorption Key Terms 1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit taste information. 2. absorption: The movement of substances

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Teaching Basic Equine Nutrition Part II: Equine Digestive Anatomy and Physiology

Teaching Basic Equine Nutrition Part II: Equine Digestive Anatomy and Physiology Teaching Basic Equine Nutrition Part II: Equine Digestive Anatomy and Physiology Introduction A sound nutritional program is important to ensure that horses are happy, healthy, and perform to their best.

More information