Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids"

Transcription

1 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

2 Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability to form different types of bonds with other elements. It bonds easily with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorous the elements found in essential macromolecules! It easily forms long chains when bonded to itself these structures are called hydrocarbons.

3 Macromolecules The prefix macro- means large Macromolecules are extremely large molecules found within cells that may consist of thousands of atoms. There are 4 types: Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Proteins Nucleic Acids

4 Where does your body get the elements to make macromolecules? From the food you eat! you are what you eat Your body breaks the food you eat down to get energy and rearranges those molecules to form the essential macromolecules that make up cells!

5 Macromolecules Monomer means one part Many monomers join together to form polymers Polymer means many parts Macromolecules are large polymers formed by a process called polymerization.

6 Example of Polymerization What monomer did make in the Lego lab? What polymer did you make in the Lego lab? What molecule did you remove to connect your glucose molecules? What do you think you d have to do to unattach your molecules?

7 Carbohydrates

8 Carbohydrates Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 1:2:1 ratio Carbon : hydrogen : oxygen Types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

9 Carbohydrates Monomer: Monosaccharides Means single sugar Examples of monosaccharides: Glucose sugar made by plants Galactose sugar found in milk Fructose sugar found in fruits

10 Carbohydrates Two monosaccharides bonded together make a disaccharide or double sugar Examples: Sucrose Lactose Maltose

11 Carbohydrates Polymer: Polysaccharides (Carbohydrates) Examples: Starch plants store excess sugar as starch Cellulose found in plants; provides strength and rigidity. Glycogen Animals like us store excess sugar in the form of glycogen to use for short-term energy

12 Functions 1) Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. 2) Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes cellulose (plants) and chitin (makes up exoskeletons of some animals)

13 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Carbs Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Short term Energy Structure in plants (cellulose) Glucose Fructose Galactose Cellulose (plants) Starch (plants) Glycogen (animals)

14 Carbohydrates What is our bodies fuel source? How do we use carbs? Fats? What happens when we run out? What does it mean when runners hit a wall? Carbs and Fats Fueling the Body video clip Ironwomen video clip

15 Glucose, Glucose - song If you chew a plain saltine cracker for 5 minutes, can you taste the sugar? Starch is broken down by the enzyme salivary amylase in saliva in your mouth. Starch is a polysaccharide that breaks down into a monosaccharide.

16 Glucose -- ah, sugar sugar You are my favorite fuel From the blood-borne substrate pool. Glucose -- monosaccharide sugar You're sweeter than a woman's kiss 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles take you in. (For you, they'll open the door.) All it takes is a little bit of insulin (To upregulate GLUT4). Ah, glucose -- ah, sugar sugar You help me make ATP When my predators are chasing me. Ah, glucose -- you're an aldehyde sugar, And you're sweeter than a woman's kiss 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles break you down. (My glycogen is almost gone.) A few more seconds and I'll be rigor mortis-bound. (Acidosis done me wrong.) Your sweet is turning sour, baby. I'm losing all my power, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. No, no, no! I'm swimming in lactate, baby. Yes, I'm swimming in lactate, baby. Now I'm drowning in lactate, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. No, no, no! I'm drowning in lactate, baby. Ah, glucose -- ah, sugar sugar I used you up and you left me flat; Now I'll have to get my kicks from fat. Oh, glucose, glucose, sugar, sugar, The honeymoon is over now.

17 Proteins

18 Proteins Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Monomer: amino acids Two amino acids bonded together is a dipeptide

19 Proteins Polymer: Polypeptide Long, continuous chain of amino acids bonded together

20 Amino Acids The building blocks of proteins Made of an amino group (NH 3 ) on one end and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) on the other. There are 20 different amino acids They differ only in the R group

21

22 Functions of protein 1) Enzymes are a type of protein that control the speed of chemical reactions and regulate cell processes 2) Form transport molecules and aide in movement (hemoglobin) 3) Structure - Make up parts of organisms like hair, horns, nails, muscles 4) Help fight infection - antibodies

23 Lipid bilayer (phospholipid bilayer)

24 Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts or substances that speed up the rate of a reaction, but do not change as a result of the reaction. Found in meats, nuts, gelatin Amylase (saliva) Lactase Hemoglobin

25 Enzymes 1. Why do organisms need enzymes? Reactions occur very slow on their own Enzymes speed up reactions 2. How are enzymes specific? They have a specific shape that only allows them to work on specific substrates. Ex. Lactose (substrate) can only be broken down by lactase (enzyme)

26 Enzymes 3. Why can enzymes be reused? They are not changed in the chemical reaction 4. What is denaturing and how does it happen? Denaturing happens when the shape of the enzyme changes. This occurs because of excess heat or changes in ph. The enzyme can t work if this happens.

27 Let s Draw a Protein! There are 20 amino acids! You will draw and color one on an index card and then we will connect your amino acid monomers to make a long polypeptide chain!

28 Amino Acid Amino Group Carboxyl Group

29 NOW choose a R side chain to add to the center CARBON of your amino acid On the other side of your index card write your name in the bottom right corner and then the name of the amino acid you drew very large across the middle

30 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Proteins (Peptide) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen NITROGEN Amino Acid Polypeptide (Proteins) 1. Controls speed of rxn 2. Transports molecules in and out of cell 3. Fights infection (antibodies) 4. Makes up nails, muscles, hair, horns Enzymes Lactase Hemoglobin Get them from meat. 20 amino acids!

31 Now Out summary Pg 76 what you learned from You Are What You Eat lab Out summary Pg 78 summary of notes on carbs and proteins Finish the lab from yesterday. DUE THURSDAY See google drive for pink handout

32 Lipids

33 Lipids Made up of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon *Only macromolecules that don t dissolve in water. Monomer: glycerol and 3 fatty acids Polymer: Triglyceride

34 Functions of Lipids 1) Long-term energy storage in (C-H) bonds. 2) Phospholipids make up biological (cell) membranes 3) Act as protective coverings on plants waxy cuticle 4) Chemical messengers steriods Examples: Fats Waxes Steroids Phospholipid

35 Waxes Wax is a type of structural lipid that consists of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain It is waterproof Forms a protective coat on plant leaves

36 Biological (cell) Membranes Phospholipids- made of hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts

37 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids - carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible with only single bonds Lipids that contain saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats Examples: butter, animal fat *Solid at room temp

38 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated Fatty Acids - some of the carbon atoms double bond to other carbon atoms Does NOT contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Examples: Oils *Liquid at room temp

39 Saturated fats have a chemical makeup in which the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms. Fatty meats, cheese and butter are examples. Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. Another name for trans fats is partially hydrogenated oils." Look for them on the ingredient list on food packages. They are cheap, taste good & easy to use. From a chemical standpoint, monounsaturated fats are simply fats that have one double-bonded (unsaturated) carbon in the molecule. Olive oil is an example. From a chemical standpoint, polyunsaturated fats are simply fats that have more than one double-bonded (unsaturated) carbon in the molecule. Nuts, vegetable oil and salmon are examples.

40 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Lipids Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Glycerol & (3)fatty acids Triglyceride -long term energy -makes up cell membrane -waxy covering on plants Fats Waxes Steroids Phospholipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

41 Nucleic Acids

42 Nucleic Acids Made up of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Monomer: Nucleotides 5-Carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group Polymer: Nucleic Acids

43 2 Types of Nucleic Acids Ribonucleic acid (RNA) 1. Single stranded 2. Involved in protein synthesis Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 1. Double Stranded 2. Encoded information about how genetic material is passed on from one gene to another. Function: to store and transmit genetic information.

44 RNA vs DNA RNA DNA

45 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Nucleic Acids Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphous Nucleotide SUGAR PHOSPHATE BASE Nucleic Acid Store and transmit genetic information DNA RNA

46 Protein Review What do enzymes do? Do they ever get used up? What causes their shape to change? How many amino acids are there?

47 Friday 10/4/13 Fill regular petri dish half way with water. Carry back to seat and let it settle for a few seconds. Place the gobstoppers in each corner of the dish. Observe and answer questions after 1-2 mins. Gobstoppers and Potato go in TRASH CAN NOT THE SINK. Thank you. Wash and DRY both petri dishes. Return everything to the bucket the way you found it Answer all questions on the green packet and lab. If you finish your Enzyme lab, turn it in to the basket.

48 Conclusion Match the monomers on the left with their polymers on the right monosaccharide amino acid nucleotide fatty acids a. triglycerides b. proteins c. polysaccharide d. nucleic acids

49

50 Review! What makes saturated fats different from unsaturated fats? Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Will lipids dissolve in water? Where are phospholipids found?

51 Protein Prompt: Write at least a paragraph explaining how our class model resembles the synthesis(building) and structure of actual proteins. Underline the following words in your writing as you use them: Polypeptide Amino acid Monomer Polymer Side chain (R group) Amino group Carboxyl group

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

Macromolecules in my food!!

Macromolecules in my food!! Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules Biology McMush Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP aprons beaker, 250 ml 2 clamps, test tube goggles graduated cylinder, 50 ml paper towels test tube brush test

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down! Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body? What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Carbohydrates Definition- the starches and sugars found in foods. Carbohydrates are the body s preferred source of energy providing four

More information

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures

More information

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted from cells using

More information

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d)

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d) Proteins Proteins Most diverse and most important molecule in living i organisms Functions: 1. Structural (keratin in hair, collagen in ligaments) 2. Storage (casein in mother s milk) 3. Transport (HAEMOGLOBIN!)

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates

Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates? Today's food advertisements call them carbs, but they are not all the same. They are a group of compounds that have some similarities

More information

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Substances originating in plant or animal material and soluble in non-polar organic solvents

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Lab #13 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 102 Introduction...... 103 Food Chemistry & Nutrition.... 104 Activity 1: Testing for the Presence

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents

More information

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 Chiral centers: Asymmetric carbons, i.e carbon atom with four different substituents Enantiomers : Mirror images Stereoisomers MONOSACCHARIDE

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly)

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) 6 basic nutrients - 4 food groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetable,

More information

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms!

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms! Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI DNA omponents and Structure Introduction Nucleic acids are molecules that are essential to, and characteristic of, life on Earth. There are two basic types of nucleic

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination Overview This experiment is intended to familiarize students with the macromolecule starch,

More information

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids hapter 15 15.1 15.2 Fatty Acids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted

More information

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1. Lipids:

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1. Lipids: (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1 Lipids Classifying Lipids Triacylglycerols (triglycerides): a storage form of energy not required for immediate use. Phospholipids, p sphingolipids, p and cholesterol

More information

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Outline Fats and Oils Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Biodiesel Homework We hear quite a lot about the place of fats and oils in human nutrition. Foods high in fat are at the

More information

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Biological Molecules I won t lie. This is probably the most boring topic you have ever done in any science. It s pretty much as simple as this: learn the material deal with it. Enjoy don t say I didn t

More information

Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology Harvey Lodish Arnold Berk Paul Matsudaira Chris A. Kaiser Monty Krieger Matthew P. Scott Lawrence Zipursky James Darnell Molecular Cell Biology Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Chemical Foundations Copyright 2004

More information

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook HOW DOES THE LAB RELATE TO THE NEXT CHAPTER? SURFACE AREA: the entire outer covering of a cell that enables materials pass.

More information

Enzymes. Chapter 3. 3.1 Enzymes and catalysts. Vital mistake. What is an enzyme?

Enzymes. Chapter 3. 3.1 Enzymes and catalysts. Vital mistake. What is an enzyme? Chapter 3 Enzymes Vital mistake We may not be able to see them, but enzymes are absolutely crucial to the lives of ourselves and all other living organisms. The Quarter Horse (Figure 3.1) is a breed of

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it?

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Where does Energy come from? Ultimately, from the sun. It is transferred between organisms in the earth s lithosphere,

More information

Digestive System Functions

Digestive System Functions Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and

More information

Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA

Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA Standards... 4 Next Generation Science Standards... 4 Learning

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

More information

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

More information

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic

More information

The Digestive System. You are what you eat!

The Digestive System. You are what you eat! The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules

More information

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

More information

An introduction to the biochemistry of diet.

An introduction to the biochemistry of diet. An introduction to the biochemistry of diet. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 3 Introduction: The following provides a basic introduction to the biochemistry of three major nutritional components of your

More information

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e.

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e. BCOR 11 Exam 1, 2004 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction.

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Catalysis by Enzymes Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Enzymatic Reaction Specificity Enzyme Cofactors Many enzymes are conjugated proteins that require nonprotein portions

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry 13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13-7. Benzene 13-8. Hydrocarbon Groups 13-9.

More information

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E.

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

More information

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 You need to bring a pencil and your ACT card. Chapter 24: Lipids 1. Describe the properties and types of lipids a. All are hydrophobic b. Fatty acid-based typically contain

More information

I The THREE types of LIPIDS

I The THREE types of LIPIDS LECTURE OUTLINE Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids and Sterols I The THREE types of LIPIDS A. Triglycerides (fats & oils)- the MAJOR type of lipid in food and humans. 1. 2 parts of triglyceridesa)

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

Lipids. Classifying Lipids

Lipids. Classifying Lipids (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1 Lipids Triacylglycerols (triglycerides): a storage form of energy not required for immediate use. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol (together with proteins)

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Biology Leaving Cert Experiments Materials/Equipment Starch solution (1%) Iodine Solution Glucose Solution (1%) 100 C) Benedict s

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information