Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

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1 Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

2 Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous Generation Covered meat No maggots. Uncovered meat maggots. First strike against Spontaneous Generation Lazzaro Spallanzani: Boiled broth open growth. Boiled broth sealed no growth. Second strike BUT Argued he boiled life force Louis Pasteur: Alexander Oparin: Miller and Urey: Boiled broth, curvy neck no growth. Boiled broth, curvy neck removed growth. He believed that energy from lightning and the sun can spark chemical reactions to create macromolecules like proteins. Spontaneous Generation Disproved! Created the basic building blocks of life under conditions that mimicked the conditions of early earth. Sidney Fox: Created and studied coacervates.

3 Organic Molecules make up all organisms

4 What does Organic Mean? In Biology, organic means relating to organisms. NOT food grown without the use of pesticides, antibiotics, or other industrial chemicals. What do all organic compounds contain? All organic molecules contain covalently bonded Carbon.

5 What does Organic Mean? Carbon cycles through all living things through the processes of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, death, and decomposition. We ll talk more about the Carbon Cycle in a few weeks!

6 Why Carbon is so Awesome... How many bonds/shared electrons can a Carbon atom make? Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms, which gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length. These carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple. The chains can be straight, branched, or even ring-shaped. Therefore, carbon is unique in that it can form millions of different large and complex structures.

7 How are the Four Organic Macromolecules Formed? Polymerization: small units (monomers) are joined together to form large units (polymers.) Dehydration synthesis: joins molecules by removing a molecule of water. Monomer + monomer = Hydrolysis: breaks apart molecules by adding water (the opposite process)

8 What are the four organic molecules? Carbohydrates Proteins We get from food! Lipids Nucleic Acids Resides (stays) in our cells!

9 What is in a cheeseburger? Nutrition Facts (Big N Tasty at McDonalds): Total Fat: 29 grams Saturated Fat: 9 grams Carbohydrates: 41 grams Protein: 24 grams

10 Carbohydrates Which part of the cheeseburger has the most carbohydrates?

11 Carbohydrates Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 Ratio. Used for short term energy storage (quick energy!) and structural support Ending -ose = sugar Cellulose Glucose How many sugars? Examples 1 sugar Monosaccharide Monomer Plants: glucose, fructose Animals: galactose (milk) 2 sugars Disaccharide Polymer Plants: sucrose, maltose Animals: lactose (milk) 3+ sugars Polysaccharide Polymer Plants: starch, cellulose Animals: glycogen

12 Monomer + monomer = One sugar = Two sugars = Three or more sugars =

13 Why Carbohydrates? Many animals store extra sugar as glycogen. Glycogen stored in your muscles supplies energy for movement. Glycogen stored in your liver is released when the glucose (sugar) in your blood runs low. Recall: What is this an example of? Homeostasis! Plants store excess sugar as starch. Plants also make cellulose, a strong, rigid fiber used for support. Starch, cellulose and glycogen are all Polysaccharides!

14 What other part of the Big N Tasty is composed of carbohydrates? Cellulose!

15 Which part of the cheeseburger is the best source of protein?

16 Proteins Proteins are present in every cell, tissue and organ in our bodies. These proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Provide structure for: cells, bones, muscles, tissues, organs, hormones most everything in the body! Special Function: Proteins are responsible for cell metabolism (via enzymes)

17 Proteins The protein in the food we eat is digested (broken down) into amino acids that are later used to build and replace other proteins in our bodies. Monomers = amino acids Polymers = proteins The monomers in an amino acid are held together by peptide bonds. When the amino acids join, they form a polymer called a polypeptide. Proteins can be destroyed by extreme heat (fever) = denature

18 Protein Structure Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 essential amino acids. All amino acids have the same Amino group and carboxyl groups, but each amino acid has its own unique R- group. Only 20 amino acids can combine in different arrangements to form all of the many different kinds of proteins in our bodies! Shape is very important; if a protein is not the right shape, it will not work or only have partial function!

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21 Which part of the cheeseburger is a source of fat?

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23 What is fat? Fats are a type of lipid. Lipids are hydrophobic (water-fearing) organic molecule including fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.

24 Lipids Long chains with lots of Carbon and Hydrogen (long chains), but little or no oxygen Monomers: 1 glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains Polymer: lipid If we know that lipids (fat) are hydrophobic and take a long time to break down, what could it be useful for?? Long term energy storage Protection Insulation Waterproofing Cell Membranes Chemical Messengers (steroids)

25 Lipids come in two flavors Saturated: Single Bonds Animal Fats Harder to digest Solids at room temperature Holds as many Hydrogen atoms as possible Unsaturated: Double Bonds Vegetable Oils Easier to digest Liquids at room Temperature Does not hold as many hydrogen atoms as possible Your Turn! Make a quick hypothesis to why Unsaturated Fats are easier to break down (thus healthier for you) than Saturated Fats! It is easier for your body to break double bonds than single bonds due to the number of electrons. Aka, it s easier to steal 1 electron from Carbon when it is sharing two versus just that one! (Like borrowing money!)

26 Common Misconceptions: Lipids Good & Bad Cholesterol You ll be amazed at what you find online about the different types of cholesterol! You should check it out!

27 What is a nucleic acid? DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

28 How do nucleic acids relate to the cheeseburger? DNA Is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into proteins. DNA RNA Proteins!

29 Nucleic Acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and two Phosphorus atoms arranged in 3 groups (monomers) Used for storing and transmitting cellular information in a code called DNA or RNA.

30 Nucleic Acids Monomer: Nucleotide Nitrogen Base A, G, C, T or U 5-Carbon Simple Sugar Deoxyribose (DNA) Ribose (RNA) Phosphate group Nitrogen Base Polymer DNA or RNA Phosphate group Simple Sugar

31 Organic molecules are the building blocks of life They are broken down into monomers, then rebuilt into polymers, then broken down again, then rebuilt again! And so life goes on

32 Your turn! What kind of macromolecules did you/will you eat today?

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