BIOTECHNOLOGY Vol.IV Bioprocess Engineering  Bioprocess Analysis through Calorimetry and Biothermodynamics  Thomas Maskow, Richard B.


 Marshall Stevenson
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING BIOPROCESS ANALYSIS THROUGH CALORIMETRY AND BIOTHERMODYNAMICS Thomas Maskow Dpartmnt of Environmntal Microbiology (UMB), UFZ Hlmholtz Cntr for Environmntal Rsarch, Prmosrstr. 15, D Lipzig, Grmany Richard B. Kmp Institut of Biological Scincs, Edward Llwyd Building, Univrsity of Wals, Abrystwyth SY23 3DA, U.K. Kywords: Bioprocss analysis, Calorimtry, Biothrmodynamics, Mtabolic flux analysis, Procss control, Chipcalorimtry, Mgacalorimtry, isothrmal titration calorimtry (ITC) Contnts 1. Introduction 2. Roots of Modrn Biocalorimtry 3. Information Contnt of Calorimtric Signals 3.1. Stoichiomtry and Kintics of Microbial Growth and Product Formation 3.2. Analysis of th Mtabolic Carbon Fluxs 4. Localization of Calorimtric Snsors 4.1. Calorimtr Embracing Natural or Tchnical Systms 4.2. Snsors Insid Natural or Tchnical Systms 4.3. Snsors in Masuring Loops 5. Rcnt Dvlopmnts of Calorimtry 5.1. Mgacalorimtry 5.2. Miniaturizd Calorimtry 5.3. Highthroughput Calorimtry 5.4. UltraSnsitiv Calorimtry 5.5. Photocalorimtry 6. Futur Prospcts of Biocalorimtry Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sktchs Summary: Gibbs nrgy dissipation oftn in th form of hat nrgy is an xplicit consqunc of th scond law of thrmodynamics and a gnral fatur of bioprocsss. This is bcaus organisms convrting CO 2 or organic mattr into biomass or any bioproducts cannot us all th Gibbs nrgy providd by th assimilatd substrats or othr nrgy sourcs, i.. ssntial fractions of th Gibbs nrgy oftn ar wastd as hat. This hat production rflcts mtabolic shifts in ral tim and can b masurd noninvasivly by dirct calorimtry. By applying th first law of thrmodynamics, this tchniqu prmits th usr to tst if procss hat is in accordanc with assumd mtabolic pathways and, if not, thrby to dtct unknown ractions. Hat production is incomparably th idal
2 indicator for monitoring and analyzing bioprocsss. Hithrto, tchnical obstacls hav prvntd th broad distribution among th scintific community of this powrful mthodology. Howvr, rcnt dvlopmnts rmovd from calorimtry th old waknsss and qualify th tchniqu for: highthroughput masurmnts, analyzing bioprocsss in bioractors of diffrnt sizs (µl to m 3 ), monitoring of trac pollutant biodgradation and bioprocss control vn undr dirty tchnical conditions. 1. Introduction Th phnomnon of lif itslf is intimatly and inhrntly tid to Gibbs nrgy dissipation oftn in th form of hat nrgy (J). Th amount of it dpnds on th growth and product formation stoichiomtry and its production rat (J s 1, W) additionally on th kintics. Th masurmnts of this rat, i.. calorimtry, combind with furthr bioprocss analysis, provid insights to th ongoing bioprocss (Bioprocss Analysis). Calorimtry is suitd for Bioprocss Control vn for such complx systms that hav growing spcis, food chains, diffrnt phas transitions, and/or larg intrfrnc with physical procsss,.g. aration, stirring, and/or mixing, which ar difficult to intrprt by thrmodynamics. Th advantags of thrmal snsors for th control of simpl bioprocsss control ar fast rspons tims, robustnss and incrasing snsitivity with any up scaling du to incrasing th ratio of hat producing volum to hat xchanging surfac. Th hat production rat rquiring sophisticatd masurmnt tchniqus at th bnch scal can dvlop into a ral problm at larg scal bcaus th hat xchang with th nvironmnt is ngligibl (i.. adiabatic mod) at this scal. This mans that all th hat producd by th cultur will contribut to an incras of tmpratur and a dactivation of th microbial catalyst, unlss th bioractor contains appropriat cooling facilitis. Th quantitativ knowldg of th microbial hat production rat is thrfor crucial to succssful Bioractor Dsign [s also Bioractor Typs]. Th dgradation of high valu chmical nrgy from nutrints as substrats (low ntropy) into hat or disordrd structurs (high ntropy) is a prrquisit for lif. Prcption of th rlationship btwn Gibbs nrgy dissipation and hat production hlps in th gnral undrstanding of th Driving Forcs of Bioprocsss. Th mor Gibbs nrgy of th nutrints is dissipatd, th lss nrgy will b rtaind for th formation of biomass or products and thus th lowr will b th rspctiv yilds. By following th principls of irrvrsibl thrmodynamics, it can b sn that th rats of bioprocsss ar influncd by th amount of th driving forc, i.. th Gibbs nrgy dissipation. In volutionary trms, Natur has had to find a compromis btwn high yild and high rats. Th important practical consquncs of a bttr undrstanding of th thrmodynamics of microbial growth and product formation ar prdictions about maximum possibl yilds, maximum practical yilds, maintnanc cofficints, thrshold concntrations and vn maximum growth rats.
3 Th nd to quantify th rlativly small biological hat production in th microwatt scal spurrd th dvlopmnt and prfction of th modrn isothrmal microcalorimtr (ITMC). Du to its xtraordinary snsitivity, it has contributd a grat dal to biochmical and biophysical rsarch. Nvrthlss, microcalorimtric rsarch has hardly touchd progrss in bionginring progrss in rcnt yars. Th rasons ar: difficultis in agitation and aration; complxitis in th intgration of additional microsnsors lik ph, Rdox, UV/VIS or po 2 ; and small sampl volums du to th rlativly small calorimtric vssl. Ths xprimntal limitations in microcalorimtry lad to xprimntal conditions which oftn divrg in ssnc from th ral procss conditions. Howvr, th main waknss of th convntional ITMC, as wll as of th bnch scal calorimtr, is th rstriction in data collction bcaus it is possibl only to follow rlativly fw bioprocsss in paralll whras, for instanc, modrn biotchnological strain optimizations ar nowadays prformd in up to 1536 wll plats. Furthrmor convntional calorimtrs ar prdominantly dsignd and producd for only a fw applications rsulting in rlativly high prics for good calorimtrs. Thrfor, calorimtry will nvr tap its full potntial until at last a fw of ths waknsss ar ovrcom. Howvr, th rcnt trnds in calorimtric dvlopmnts such as mgacalorimtry, miniaturizd calorimtry (chip, intgratd circuit, nanocalorimtry), highthroughput calorimtry (nthalpy arrays), ultrasnsitiv calorimtry and photocalorimtry promis to rmdy th dficincis and provid calorimtry with a brilliant futur as a scintific tool as wll as a tchnical snsor. Th roots, th stat of th art and th potntial of calorimtry will b discussd in th following sctions. 2. Roots of Modrn Biocalorimtry For cnturis or vn millnnia, fir has bn sn as a symbol of lif and its xtinction a synonym for dath. This may xplain why living systms hav bn th obcts for calorimtric xprimnts and thrmodynamic intrprtations sinc th arly days of this tchniqu. Evn th mrging trnds of rcnt calorimtry to analyz and control bioprocsss stand in th tradition of a long history of thrmal analyss. Evr sinc th first calorimtric xprimnts with guina pigs mor than 200 yars ago by Lavoisir (1780) and Crawford (1777), it has bn rcognizd that th hat producd from living mattr is a ral tim masur of mtabolic activity. A mor quantitativ viw basd on studis of hors physiology aros whn Robrt Mayr (1842) stablishd th law of consrvation of nrgy (Th First Law of Thrmodynamics). Grmain Hnri Hss discovry of th additivity of indpndnt dtrmind nthalpy is a spcial statmnt of th First Law allowing th quantitativ intrprtation of biocalorimtric
4 xprimnts. Max Rubnr dmonstratd (1890), using a dog s mtabolism, that Hss law is not only applicabl to chmistry, but also to biology. Th conclusion that thr wr no principl thrmodynamic diffrncs btwn inanimat and living systms pavd th way for th furthr dvlopmnt of biocalorimtry,.g. as a tool for onlin stoichiomtry or for mtabolic flux analysis. Thus quantitativ calorimtry is an important rcnt trnd. It combins calorimtry with othr masurmnts ithr on/atlin (Fourir transform infrard spctroscopy, dilctric spctroscopy, optical dnsity, flow inction analysis, gas analysis) or offlin (HPLC, nzymatic analysis of mtabolits and products, flowcytomtric analysis of cll stats, tc) in ordr to stablish that th growth stoichiomtry is complt and, if not, to calculat th missing part using nthalpy and lmntal balancs. Th first succssful calorimtric xprimnts usd macroscopic liv forms, but it is not th hat production rat pr unit living mass pr s that maks calorimtry with th biotchnologically mor important microscopic lif mor difficult. In practic, xponntially growing yast (250 W kg 1 ) and vn rsting yast culturs (5 W kg 1 ) show much highr spcific hat production rats than Guina pigs (3 W kg 1 ) or humans (1.3 W kg 1 ). In culturs, th difficulty rsults from th high hat storag capacity of th mdia which usually contain low volum fractions of microorganisms. Th hat capacity of air (1.2 kj m 3 K 1 ) is about thr ordrs of magnitud lowr than that of watr (4200 kj m 3 K 1 ) or soils ( kj m 3 K 1 ) (T=298 K, P= Pa). As arly as 1856, Pirr Dubrunfaut found an imprssivly simpl solution to th problm and h is now rputd as th fathr of what ths days is th quit topical Mgacalorimtry, i.. calorimtry in raction tanks of svral hundrd litrs or vn m 3 usd for procss control. Dubrunfaut prformd an alcoholic frmntation of 2559 kg sugar in a hug oak vssl of L volum. In this way h maximizd th ratio of hatproducing volum to hatxchanging surfac and obsrvd a tmpratur incras from 23.7 o C to 33.7 o C during 4 days of frmntation at ambint tmpraturs btwn 12 o C and 16 o C. Taking into account hat loss by radiation, convction and vaporation and hat storag by th wood, h calculatd a frmntation hat of kj mol 1 glucos quivalnt, a numbr surprisingly clos to th now stablishd valu of kj mol 1. Nw, mor snsitiv tmpratur probs, lss tmpratur dpndnt lctronic dvics and progrss in ral tim data acquisition furthr th caus of Mgacalorimtry as th scond rcnt trnd in calorimtry. Whras up scaling rducs th influnc of nvironmntal fluctuations, rduction in calorimtr siz diminishs th amount of hat nrgy ndd for th calorimtric dvic whil spding up th masurmnt. Dvlopmnts towards short rspons and quilibration tims,.g. Miniaturizd Calorimtry (rsulting in intgratd circuit (IC) calorimtry) ar a third rcnt trnd in calorimtry dvlopmnt. Th principl of ICcalorimtry is illustratd in figur 1. Th first thinfilm calorimtr was dvlopd during th arly svntis but rcnt, nw tchniqus of printd circuit dsign hav boostd th dvlopmnt of thm, as tstifid by th publication of mor than 70 paprs in th last dcad. As IC calorimtrs nowadays masur a fw nw thy ar also nicknamd Nanocalorimtrs. Th xpctd progrss in IC calorimtr dvlopmnt will lad to: (i) xtrmly small thrmal dtctors; (ii) minut sampl mass rquirmnts; (iii) incrasd snsitivity; and (iv) much shortr rspons and
5 quilibration tims. In particular, immdiatly rsponding small dtctors ar crucial for th intgration of calorimtric snsors into stablishd bioractors. At prsnt, vn nanocalorimtry is too slow to compt with th robotic monitoring of mtabolic activitis of clls growing in 384 or 1536wll microtitr plats, usd as a diagnostic tool in th pharmacutical industry or in biotchnology. Calorimtry suffrs from low throughput in comparison to such rivals. Thrfor, a fourth rcnt trnd in biocalorimtry is th dvlopmnt of th HighThroughput Calorimtr, i.. th socalld nthalpy arrays. Figur 1: Masurmnt principl of a chip calorimtr. On anothr front, thr is ral concrn about th potntially dltrious ffct on human halth of micropollutants or of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) du to thir ubiquity in th nvironmnt and thir prsistnc. HOC s dissolving only slightly in aquous phass tnd to intract with nonaquous phass and, as a consqunc, ar poorly bioavailabl for microbial dgradation. To masur this, th novl Ultra Snsitiv Calorimtry has to b dvlopd in ordr to gain ral tim information on th kintics and th physiology of bioconvrsion of HOC tracs in homognous aquous as wll as in htrognous phass. Th ovrwhlming maority of calorimtric masurmnts hav bn of mtabolic hats originating from chmical bonding nrgis and hav disrgardd othr nrgy forms. Howvr th lif on arth in its prsnt form is unthinkabl without th nrgtic utilization of light. Mag and coworkrs rcognisd this absnc as arly as 1939 and dvlopd smallscal Photocalorimtry. On anothr topic, lctrical nrgy drawn from microbial ful clls (MIC) or put to anarobically growing clls to chang th rdox balanc hav bn known and xpctd to influnc nrgy balancs sinc th arly 1900s. Howvr, no calorimtric masurmnts considring this nrgy form ar known to th authors dspit its importanc and long history. Thrfor, calorimtric tchniqus ar urgntly rquird that tak nrgy forms othr than chmical nrgy into account.
6 In th following, th status quo and th potntial of th six rcnt trnds in biocalorimtry will b discussd in mor dtail. 3. Information Contnt of Calorimtric Signals 3.1. Stoichiomtry and Kintics of Microbial Growth and Product Formation Th most important information for an nginr dsigning a biotchnological procss is its stoichiomtry and kintics. Both charactristics ar tightly connctd with th hat production rat. Howvr, to analyz this corrlation, th dynamic nrgy balanc for th opn tchnical or natural systm of intrst has to known. Eq. (1) dscribs a dynamic nrgy balanc for such a systm: V ρ c p d T d t = P + W + ni c p i, i ( T T ) Δ R H ξ, (1) d T Th trm V ρ cp dscribs th hat accumulation in th whol systm as th d t incras of tmpratur T vrsus tim t. cp is th man hat capacity of th systm, V its volum and ρ its dnsity. Hat P, work W and matrial fluxs n ar xchangd with th nvironmnt. Th xchangd matrial of th spcis i transports nrgy proportional to th hat capacity at constant prssur c P i, and to th tmpratur diffrnc (T T) of th rspctiv ntry or xit port. Th raction trm Δ R H ξ corrlats th nrgy rat gnratd or consumd by th raction with th rspctiv raction nthalpy Δ R H and th absolut rat of th raction ξ. Th raction trm includs mtabolic and chmical ractions as wll as phas transitions. It is of practical importanc that all th componnts in Eq. (1) can b masurd and balancd in ordr to find out how complt or corrct ar th assumptions about th tchnical or natural systm. Th first modrn application of this principl in biotchnology, 150 yars aftr Dubrunfaut s pionring work around 1856, bcam known as balancing calorimtry. Rcntly, svral rsarch groups hav improvd bnch scal and industrial scal calorimtry. Thir tchnical dvlopmnts wr aimd at rducing th complxity of Eq. (1) by liminating abiotic sourcs of rror. This was d T achivd by: (i) rducing th hat accumulation trm V ρ c p through opration d t c T T by undr isothrmal conditions; (ii) rducing th convction trm ( ) i n i p i, thrmostating th ntring and laving strams; and/or (iii) kping W (prdominatly stirrr work) constant. Th facilitis of any off th pg bioractor can b mployd for hat flux masurmnts by using th abov discussd achivmnts combind with modrn tmpratur probs to giv lss ovrall xpnditur in trms of both labor and financ. Such an improvisd calorimtr works with a snsitivity of approx. 50 mw L 1.
7 Figur 2 comparing th calculatd with th masurd hat production rat shows th applicability of such a nonconvntional calorimtr. Undr idal conditions, th producd hat rflcts nothing but th progrss of all ongoing mtabolic or chmical ractions (Eq. 2): P Δ H ξ R with ξ = ri ν (2) i whr ri and ν i ar th rat and th stoichiomtric cofficint, rspctivly, of th componnt i participating in raction. Figur 2: Tst of th bioractor usd as an off th pg calorimtr. Comparison of th calculatd with th masurd hat production rat for th arobic growth of H. longata on glycrol. Th hat of nonmtabolic ractions,.g. nutralization hats, can b obtaind by th titrimtric consumption of alkali or acid using tabulatd valus for corrction. Th mtabolic hat production can thn b corrlatd with th stoichiomtry of microbial growth and product formation procsss. Th microbial growth raction in its simplst cas can b dscribd stoichiomtrically by Eq. (3): Y S/X C S1 H S2 O S3 + Y N/X NH Y O/X O 2 > C X1 H X2 O X3 N X4 + Y H2O/X H 2 O + Y CO2/X HCO Y H/X H + (3) whr C S1 H S2 O S3 is th applid carbon sourc, NH 4 + and O 2 stand for th nitrogn sourc and th trminal lctron accptor, rspctivly, and C X1 H X2 O X3 N X4 is th lmntal composition of th biomass. Th lmntal composition of bactria has bn avragd to C 4 H 8 O 2 N 1 or mor rcntly to CH 1.84 O 0.53 N Both valus can b applid for stoichiomtric considrations vry accuratly if no xact lmntal composition is availabl. Th six unknown yild cofficints (Y S/X, Y N/X,, Y O/X, Y H2O/X, Y CO2/X, Y H/X ) in
8 Eq. (3) ar not indpndnt from ach othr bcaus thy hav to satisfy fiv balancs (four lmntal balancs and on charg balanc). This mans that adding th nthalpy balanc and masuring th raction nthalpy of th growth procss Δ R H x allows th calculation of ach of th unknown yild cofficints. Two rfrnc stats for th nthalpis ar commonly usd for this purpos, namly th constitunt lmnts of all th involvd spcis (nthalpis of formation) and th compltly combustd stat (nthalpis of combustion, Δ C H). Using th lattr simplifis th nthalpy balanc (Eq. 4): Δ R H x = (Δ C H X + Y H/X Δ C H H Y S/X Δ C H S Y N/X Δ C H N ) (4) Th combustion nthalpis of ach spcis ar tabulatd in th litratur (,.g. s Domalski in th bibliography). Thr ar also som combustion nthalpis of biomass of diffrnt organisms growing undr diffrnt conditions availabl from th sam sourc. If thr ar no data availabl, th combustion nthalpy can b stimatd vry accuratly from th lmntal composition applying th Thornton s rul or mor rcnt corrlations. Th hat production rat P of a microbial growth procss dpnds on th raction hat of th growth procss Δ R H x and on th biomass formation rat r X (Eq. 5), P = r X Δ R H x (5) In th cas of chmostatic growth Eq. (5) rads: P = D 0 ( S S) Y S / X Δ R H X Th dilution rat D and th substrat concntration of th ractor input S 0 ar prdfind by th oprator. Th rsidual substrat concntration S is usually low in comparison to S 0 in chmostatic bactrial or yast culturs and can thus b nglctd in nthalpic or stoichiomtric balancs. Thrfor, th masurd P rflcts Δ R H x and, using th balancs of th nthalpy and th lmnts, provids th ral tim stoichiomtry TO ACCESS ALL THE 27 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER, Visit: (6) Bibliography Domalski, E.S. (1972) Slctd valus of hats of combustion and hats of formation of organic compounds containing th lmnts C, H, N, O, P, and S. Journal of Physical and Chmical Rfrnc Data 1, [This work provids comprhnsiv collction of combustion nthalpis] Janssn M., Patiño R., von Stockar U. (2005) Photobiocalorimtry: a tool to study light nrgy utilization
9 in phototrophic culturs. Thrmochimica Acta 435, [This work dscribs photocalorimtry at L scal] Kmp R.B. (1998) Nonscanning calorimtry, in Handbook of thrmal analysis and calorimtry, Vol. 1 Principls and practic (Ed: M. Brown) Elsvir, Amstrdam. [Th work provids comprhnsiv ovrviw about th rcnt advancs in biocalorimtry] Kmp R.B. (2000) Gi m a spark o natur s fir an insight into cll physiology from calorimtry, Journal of Thrmal Analysis and Calorimtry 60, [This rviw shows how physiological insights into cll mtabolism can b gaind by calorimtry] Maskow T, Lrchnr J, Pitzsch M, Harms H, Wolf G (2006) A miniaturizd chipcalorimtr for th monitoring of whol cll biotransformation. Journal of Biotchnology 122, [Th papr dscribs th first chipcalorimtr potntially applicabl at tchnical scal] Mukhanov V.S., Kmp R.B. (2006). Simultanous photocalorimtric and oxygn polarographic masurmnts on Dunalilla maritima clls rval a thrmal discrpancy that could b du to nonphotochmical qunching. Thrmochimica Acta 446, [This work dscribs photocalorimtry at mlscal] Torrs F.E., Kuhn P., d Bruykr D., Bll A.G., Wolkin M.V., Ptrs E., Williamson J.R., Andrson G.B., Schmitz G.P., Rcht M.I., Schwizr S., Scott L.G., Ho H.J., Elrod S.A., Schultz P.G., Lrnr R.A., Bruc R.H. (2004) Enthalpy arrays. Procdings of th National Acadmy of Scincs USA, 101, [Th work rports th fabrication of miniaturizd nthalpy arrays and thir us to dtct molcular intractions, including protin ligand binding, nzymatic turnovr, and mitochondrial rspiration.] Voisard D., Pugaud P., Kumar A.R., Jnny K., Jayaraman K., Marison I.W., von Stockar U. (2002) Dvlopmnt of a largscal biocalorimtr to monitor and control bioprocsss. Biotchnology and Bionginring 80, [This study show first tim how th Mgacalorimtry principl works in practic] von Stockar U., Gustafsson L., Larsson C., Marison I.W., Tissot P., Gnaigr E. (1993) Thrmodynamic considrations in constructing nrgy balancs for cllular growth, Biochimica t Biophysica Acta 183, [Th work shows how an nrgy balanc around a bioractor has to b constructd and how th data can b xploitd for analyzing and controlling th procss] von Stockar U., Marison I.W. (1991) Largscal calorimtry and biotchnology, Thrmochimica Acta 193, [This work dscribs th basics of Mgacalorimtry] Biographical Sktchs Thomas Maskow, born in 1962, studid Thortical and Physical Chmistry at th Tchnical Univrsity Carl Schorlmmr LunaMrsburg ( ). H achivd his Doctoral dgr at th Martin Luthr Univrsity HallWittnbrg for th dvlopmnt of nw analytical tools and thrmodynamic modls to charactriz th phas bhavior of crud oil or oil fractions undr guidanc of Prof. H. Khln and Prof. M. Rätzsch. Aftrwards h dirctd th rsarch division of a mdium sizd company (R. Myr Laboranalysn und Umwlttchnik GmbH Zitz) daling with analytical srvics, costumrspcific dvlopmnts and functioning as consulting nginr in th nvironmntal fild ( ) h was offrd th chanc to stablish and dvlop biocalorimtry and biothrmodynamics at th UFZ Hlmholtz Cntr for Environmntal Rsarch. His work was strongly supportd by th xcutivs of th Dpartmnt of Environmntal Microbiology (Prof. W. Babl/Prof. H. Harms). In addition to activ rsarch in th filds of bioprocss control, xtrmophils and strss biology h tachs biotchnology and biophysics at th narby univrsitis (Lipzig and Drsdn) and 2004 h was invitd to work as gust scintist at th Institut of Biological Scincs, Univrsity of Wals, Abrystwyth, UK (laboratory of th coauthor) and at th Institut of Chmical Enginring, Swiss Fdral Institut of Tchnology Lausann (EPFL), Switzrland (Laboratory of Prof. U. von Stockar) h qualifid for univrsity lcturr (Habilitation). H taks activ part in diffrnt boards such as Bioprocss Tchnology, Biothrmodynamics and Forum Biotchnology at th DECHEMA (Socity for Chmical Enginring and Biotchnology) and in th Intrnational Socity of Biocalorimtry (ISBC). Sinc 2006 h is a mmbr of th advisory board of th ournal Enginring in Lif Scincs.
10 Richard Kmp, born in 1941, graduatd with a B.Sc. (Hon) in Zoology from London Univrsity (Kings Collg) in 1963 bfor undrtaking postgraduat studis in Cll Biology undr Prof. Bryn Jons at th Univrsity of Wals, Abrystwyth, obtaining a PhD in Aftr priods of postdoctoral rsarch at th Univrsity of Uppsala, Biochmistry Dpartmnt with Profssor J. Hrtén (1966) on th lctrophortic sparation of protins and th Univrsity of Cambridg, Dpartmnt of Radiothraputics with Dr G.V.F. Saman (1967) on cll lctrophorsis, h rturnd to Abrsytwyth as th Scintific Rsarch Council Assistant Dirctor of Rsarch in Cll Biology in 1967, principally working on cllcll adhsion. H has rmaind thr vr sinc firstly as a Lcturr (1971), thn as a Snior Lcturr (1983) and finally as th Radr in Cll Physiology and Had of th Cll Biology Laboratory (1986). H has had priods of sabbatical lav at th Dpartmnt of Biophysics, Univrsity of Kyoto, Japan with Profssor T.S. Okada on cll adhsion (1972), th John Curtin School of Mdicin, Canbrra, Australia with Dr W. FildSmith on th nrgtics of th adhsion procss (1983), th Dpartmnt of Zoology, Univrsity of Innsbruck, Austria with Profssor Erich Gnaigr on th calorimtric masurmnt of mtabolism in mammalian clls (1991) and th Dpartmnt of Biochmistry, Russian National Acadmy of Scincs, Kazan, Russsia with Profssor Lv Gordon on th photocalorimtric masurmnt of photosynthsis in microalga (2000). Ovr th yars, his scintific rsarch has shiftd from cll adhsion to cllular nrgtics. It is for his work on th lattr that h was lctd Fllow of th UK Institut of Biology, 1989, was awardd th Lavoisir Mdal of th Intrnational Socity for Biological Calorimtry, 1992, and gav th NATAS Award lctur at th 11th Intrnational Congrss of th Intrnational Socity for Thrmal Analysis and Calorimtry, Philadlphia, USA, Thrmochimica Acta Volum 394 as a fstschrift was ddicatd to him on th occasion of his 60th birthday, 340pp., and publishd xactly on yar latr (19 Octobr 2002). Currntly, h is working on th calorimtric masurmnt of mtabolism in th bioprocsss of clls ranging from prokaryotic microorganisms to animal clls, but principally using photocalorimtry to study th photosynthtic procss in microalga at both th analytical and biotchnological scals.
Principles of Humidity Dalton s law
Principls of Humidity Dalton s law Air is a mixtur of diffrnt gass. Th main gas componnts ar: Gas componnt volum [%] wight [%] Nitrogn N 2 78,03 75,47 Oxygn O 2 20,99 23,20 Argon Ar 0,93 1,28 Carbon dioxid
More informationEFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS
25 Vol. 3 () JanuaryMarch, pp.375/tripathi EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS *Shilpa Tripathi Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring, Indor Institut
More informationLecture 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law
Lctur 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law Today s topics What is diffusion? What drivs diffusion to occur? Undrstand why diffusion can surprisingly occur against th concntration gradint? Larn how to dduc th
More informationArchitecture of the proposed standard
Architctur of th proposd standard Introduction Th goal of th nw standardisation projct is th dvlopmnt of a standard dscribing building srvics (.g.hvac) product catalogus basd on th xprincs mad with th
More information811ISD Economic Considerations of Heat Transfer on Sheet Metal Duct
Air Handling Systms Enginring & chnical Bulltin 811ISD Economic Considrations of Hat ransfr on Sht Mtal Duct Othr bulltins hav dmonstratd th nd to add insulation to cooling/hating ducts in ordr to achiv
More informationDehumidifiers: A Major Consumer of Residential Electricity
Dhumidifirs: A Major Consumr of Rsidntial Elctricity Laurn Mattison and Dav Korn, Th Cadmus Group, Inc. ABSTRACT An stimatd 19% of U.S. homs hav dhumidifirs, and thy can account for a substantial portion
More informationQUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN
QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN Th rgrssion modls studid in prvious classs assum that th rspons variabl is quantitativ. Oftn, howvr, w wish to study social procsss that lad to two diffrnt outcoms.
More informationFACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004. NKU CUPA Data Compared To Published National Data
FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004 NKU CUPA Data Compard To Publishd National Data May 2005 Fall 2004 NKU Faculty Salaris Compard To Fall 2004 Publishd CUPA Data In th fall 2004 Northrn Kntucky Univrsity was among
More informationDeer: Predation or Starvation
: Prdation or Starvation National Scinc Contnt Standards: Lif Scinc: s and cosystms Rgulation and Bhavior Scinc in Prsonal and Social Prspctiv s, rsourcs and nvironmnts Unifying Concpts and Procsss Systms,
More informationTraffic Flow Analysis (2)
Traffic Flow Analysis () Statistical Proprtis. Flow rat distributions. Hadway distributions. Spd distributions by Dr. GangLn Chang, Profssor Dirctor of Traffic safty and Oprations Lab. Univrsity of Maryland,
More informationWORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769
081685 WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769 Summary of Dutis : Dtrmins City accptanc of workrs' compnsation cass for injurd mploys; authorizs appropriat tratmnt
More informationImproving Managerial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in the Context of Using Standard Cost
Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/tc Vol. 16, Issu 1/2013 5054 Improving Managrial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in th Contxt of Using Standard Cost Lucian OCNEANU, Constantin
More informationThe example is taken from Sect. 1.2 of Vol. 1 of the CPN book.
Rsourc Allocation Abstract This is a small toy xampl which is wllsuitd as a first introduction to Cnts. Th CN modl is dscribd in grat dtail, xplaining th basic concpts of Cnts. Hnc, it can b rad by popl
More informationLG has introduced the NeON 2, with newly developed Cello Technology which improves performance and reliability. Up to 320W 300W
Cllo Tchnology LG has introducd th NON 2, with nwly dvlopd Cllo Tchnology which improvs prformanc and rliability. Up to 320W 300W Cllo Tchnology Cll Connction Elctrically Low Loss Low Strss Optical Absorption
More informationPlanning and Managing Copper Cable Maintenance through Cost Benefit Modeling
Planning and Managing Coppr Cabl Maintnanc through Cost Bnfit Modling Jason W. Rup U S WEST Advancd Tchnologis Bouldr Ky Words: Maintnanc, Managmnt Stratgy, Rhabilitation, Costbnfit Analysis, Rliability
More informationFree ACA SOLUTION (IRS 1094&1095 Reporting)
Fr ACA SOLUTION (IRS 1094&1095 Rporting) Th Insuranc Exchang (301) 2791062 ACA Srvics Transmit IRS Form 1094 C for mployrs Print & mail IRS Form 1095C to mploys HR Assist 360 will gnrat th 1095 s for
More informationBasis risk. When speaking about forward or futures contracts, basis risk is the market
Basis risk Whn spaking about forward or futurs contracts, basis risk is th markt risk mismatch btwn a position in th spot asst and th corrsponding futurs contract. Mor broadly spaking, basis risk (also
More informationCategory 7: Employee Commuting
7 Catgory 7: Employ Commuting Catgory dscription This catgory includs missions from th transportation of mploys 4 btwn thir homs and thir worksits. Emissions from mploy commuting may aris from: Automobil
More informationWhole Systems Approach to CO 2 Capture, Transport and Storage
Whol Systms Approach to CO 2 Captur, Transport and Storag N. Mac Dowll, A. Alhajaj, N. Elahi, Y. Zhao, N. Samsatli and N. Shah UKCCS Mting, July 14th 2011, Nottingham, UK Ovrviw 1 Introduction 2 3 4 Powr
More informationInstallation Saving Spaceefficient Panel Enhanced Physical Durability Enhanced Performance Warranty The IRR Comparison
Contnts Tchnology Nwly Dvlopd Cllo Tchnology Cllo Tchnology : Improvd Absorption of Light Doublsidd Cll Structur Cllo Tchnology : Lss Powr Gnration Loss Extrmly Low LID Clls 3 3 4 4 4 Advantag Installation
More informationby John Donald, Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, Australia
Studnt Nots Cost Volum Profit Analysis by John Donald, Lcturr, School of Accounting, Economics and Financ, Dakin Univrsity, Australia As mntiond in th last st of Studnt Nots, th ability to catgoris costs
More informationConstraintBased Analysis of Gene Deletion in a Metabolic Network
ConstraintBasd Analysis of Gn Dltion in a Mtabolic Ntwork Abdlhalim Larhlimi and Alxandr Bockmayr DFGRsarch Cntr Mathon, FB Mathmatik und Informatik, Fri Univrsität Brlin, Arnimall, 3, 14195 Brlin, Grmany
More informationFredy Vélez. Centro Tecnológico CARTIF, Valladolid, España. frevel@cartif.es
Slcting working fluids in an organic Rankin cycl for powr gnration from low tmpratur hat sourcs Frdy Vélz Cntro Tcnológico CARTIF, Valladolid, España. frvl@cartif.s Rcivd: January 21th, d 2014. Rcivd in
More informationSci.Int.(Lahore),26(1),131138,2014 ISSN 10135316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131
Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1),131138,214 ISSN 1135316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131 REQUIREMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN AGILE OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT (RCMAOD) 1 Suhail Kazi, 2 Muhammad Salman Bashir, 3 Muhammad Munwar Iqbal,
More informationInternational Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR) (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)
Intrnational Association of Scintific Innovation and Rsarch (IASIR) (An Association Unifing th Scincs, Enginring, and Applid Rsarch) ISSN (Print): 79000 ISSN (Onlin): 79009 Intrnational Journal of Enginring,
More informationIBM Healthcare Home Care Monitoring
IBM Halthcar Hom Car Monitoring Sptmbr 30th, 2015 by Sal P. Causi, P. Eng. IBM Halthcar Businss Dvlopmnt Excutiv scausi@ca.ibm.com IBM Canada Cloud Computing Tigr Tam Homcar by dfinition 1. With a gnsis
More informationLong run: Law of one price Purchasing Power Parity. Short run: Market for foreign exchange Factors affecting the market for foreign exchange
Lctur 6: Th Forign xchang Markt xchang Rats in th long run CON 34 Mony and Banking Profssor Yamin Ahmad xchang Rats in th Short Run Intrst Parity Big Concpts Long run: Law of on pric Purchasing Powr Parity
More informationIncomplete 2Port Vector Network Analyzer Calibration Methods
Incomplt Port Vctor Ntwork nalyzr Calibration Mthods. Hnz, N. Tmpon, G. Monastrios, H. ilva 4 RF Mtrology Laboratory Instituto Nacional d Tcnología Industrial (INTI) Bunos irs, rgntina ahnz@inti.gov.ar
More informationAn Broad outline of Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering AITR, Indore
Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: www.ijta.com (ISSN 22502459, Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) n road outlin of Rdundant rray of Inxpnsiv isks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 partmnt
More informationEthanolic Extraction of Soybean Oil: Oil Solubility Equilibria and Kinetic Studies
Ethanolic Extraction of Soyban Oil: Oil Solubility Equilibria and Kintic Studis Christiann E. C. Rodrigus*, Natália M. Longo, Cibl C. Silva, Kila K.. Aracava, Bruna R. Garavazo Sparation Enginring Laboratory
More informationAdverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Model With 2 States of the World
Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in a Modl With 2 Stats of th World A modl of a risky situation with two discrt stats of th world has th advantag that it can b natly rprsntd using indiffrnc curv diagrams,
More informationTEMPERATURE COMPENSATION OF A THERMAL FLOW SENSOR BY USING TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION NETWORK. *Corresponding author: sima@tatiuc.edu.
National Confrnc on Postgraduat sarch (NCONPG) 2009 st Octobr 2009, UMP Confrnc Hall, Malaysia Cntr for Graduat Studis, Univrsiti Malaysia Pahang Editors: M.M. Noor; M.M. ahman and K. Kadirgama EMPEAUE
More information5 2 index. e e. Prime numbers. Prime factors and factor trees. Powers. worked example 10. base. power
Prim numbrs W giv spcial nams to numbrs dpnding on how many factors thy hav. A prim numbr has xactly two factors: itslf and 1. A composit numbr has mor than two factors. 1 is a spcial numbr nithr prim
More informationEcon 371: Answer Key for Problem Set 1 (Chapter 1213)
con 37: Answr Ky for Problm St (Chaptr 23) Instructor: Kanda Naknoi Sptmbr 4, 2005. (2 points) Is it possibl for a country to hav a currnt account dficit at th sam tim and has a surplus in its balanc
More informationLecture 20: Emitter Follower and Differential Amplifiers
Whits, EE 3 Lctur 0 Pag of 8 Lctur 0: Emittr Followr and Diffrntial Amplifirs Th nxt two amplifir circuits w will discuss ar ry important to lctrical nginring in gnral, and to th NorCal 40A spcifically.
More informationAbstract. Introduction. Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cell Phone Handoff Behavior. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009
Volum 3, Issu 1, 29 Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cll Phon Handoff Bhavior Shalini Saxna, Florida Atlantic Univrsity, Boca Raton, FL, shalinisaxna1@gmail.com Sad A. Rajput, Farquhar Collg of Arts
More informationNonHomogeneous Systems, Euler s Method, and Exponential Matrix
NonHomognous Systms, Eulr s Mthod, and Exponntial Matrix W carry on nonhomognous firstordr linar systm of diffrntial quations. W will show how Eulr s mthod gnralizs to systms, giving us a numrical approach
More informationNatural Gas & Electricity Prices
Click to dit Mastr titl styl Click to dit Mastr txt styls Scond lvl Third lvl Natural Gas & Elctricity Prics Fourth lvl» Fifth lvl Glnn S. Pool Manufacturing Support Mgr. Enrgy April 4, 2013 Click Vrso
More informationTheoretical approach to algorithm for metrological comparison of two photothermal methods for measuring of the properties of materials
Rvista Invstigación Cintífica, ol. 4, No. 3, Nuva época, sptimbr dicimbr 8, IN 187 8196 Thortical approach to algorithm for mtrological comparison of two photothrmal mthods for masuring of th proprtis
More informationDevelopment of Financial Management Reporting in MPLS
1 Dvlopmnt of Financial Managmnt Rporting in MPLS 1. Aim Our currnt financial rports ar structurd to dlivr an ovrall financial pictur of th dpartmnt in it s ntirty, and thr is no attmpt to provid ithr
More informationRemember you can apply online. It s quick and easy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancedlearningloans. Title. Forename(s) Surname. Sex. Male Date of birth D
24+ Advancd Larning Loan Application form Rmmbr you can apply onlin. It s quick and asy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancdlarningloans About this form Complt this form if: you r studying an ligibl cours at an approvd
More informationREPORT' Meeting Date: April 19,201 2 Audit Committee
REPORT' Mting Dat: April 19,201 2 Audit Committ For Information DATE: March 21,2012 REPORT TITLE: FROM: Paul Wallis, CMA, CIA, CISA, Dirctor, Intrnal Audit OBJECTIVE To inform Audit Committ of th rsults
More informationRural and Remote Broadband Access: Issues and Solutions in Australia
Rural and Rmot Broadband Accss: Issus and Solutions in Australia Dr Tony Warrn Group Managr Rgulatory Stratgy Tlstra Corp Pag 1 Tlstra in confidnc Ovrviw Australia s gographical siz and population dnsity
More informationGlobal Sourcing: lessons from lean companies to improve supply chain performances
3 rd Intrnational Confrnc on Industrial Enginring and Industrial Managmnt XIII Congrso d Ingniría d Organización BarclonaTrrassa, Sptmbr 2nd4th 2009 Global Sourcing: lssons from lan companis to improv
More informationMEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT SOUND IN THE SAME ROOM. Hans G. Jonasson
MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT SOUND IN THE SAME ROOM Hans G. Jonasson SP Tchnical Rsarch Institut of Swdn Box 857, SE501 15 Borås, Swdn hans.jonasson@sp.s ABSTRACT Drum sound, that is th walking
More informationI. INTRODUCTION. Figure 1, The Input Display II. DESIGN PROCEDURE
Ballast Dsign Softwar Ptr Grn, Snior ighting Systms Enginr, Intrnational Rctifir, ighting Group, 101S Spulvda Boulvard, El Sgundo, CA, 9045438 as prsntd at PCIM Europ 0 Abstract: W hav dvlopd a Windows
More informationhttp://www.wwnorton.com/chemistry/tutorials/ch14.htm Repulsive Force
ctivation nrgis http://www.wwnorton.com/chmistry/tutorials/ch14.htm (back to collision thory...) Potntial and Kintic nrgy during a collision + + ngativly chargd lctron cloud Rpulsiv Forc ngativly chargd
More informationGold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis
Intrnational Journal of Dvlopmnt and Sustainability Onlin ISSN: 2688662 www.isdsnt.com/ijds Volum Numbr, Jun 202, Pag 7 ISDS Articl ID: IJDS20300 Gold vrsus stock invstmnt: An conomtric analysis Martin
More informationunion scholars program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28 YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME!
union scholars YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... program AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME! AFSCME Unitd Ngro Collg Fund Harvard Univrsity Labor and Worklif Program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28
More informationA Note on Approximating. the Normal Distribution Function
Applid Mathmatical Scincs, Vol, 00, no 9, 4549 A Not on Approimating th Normal Distribution Function K M Aludaat and M T Alodat Dpartmnt of Statistics Yarmouk Univrsity, Jordan Aludaatkm@hotmailcom and
More informationC H A P T E R 1 Writing Reports with SAS
C H A P T E R 1 Writing Rports with SAS Prsnting information in a way that s undrstood by th audinc is fundamntally important to anyon s job. Onc you collct your data and undrstand its structur, you nd
More informationFleet vehicles opportunities for carbon management
Flt vhicls opportunitis for carbon managmnt Authors: Kith Robrtson 1 Dr. Kristian Stl 2 Dr. Christoph Hamlmann 3 Alksandra Krukar 4 Tdla Mzmir 5 1 Snior Sustainability Consultant & Lad Analyst, Arup 2
More informationForeign Exchange Markets and Exchange Rates
Microconomics Topic 1: Explain why xchang rats indicat th pric of intrnational currncis and how xchang rats ar dtrmind by supply and dmand for currncis in intrnational markts. Rfrnc: Grgory Mankiw s Principls
More information(Analytic Formula for the European Normal Black Scholes Formula)
(Analytic Formula for th Europan Normal Black Schols Formula) by Kazuhiro Iwasawa Dcmbr 2, 2001 In this short summary papr, a brif summary of Black Schols typ formula for Normal modl will b givn. Usually
More informationThe ACES Mission Testing Fundamental Physics with Clocks in Space. L. Cacciapuoti European Space Agency
Th ACES Mission Tsting Fundamntal Physics with Clocks in Spac L. Cacciapuoti Europan Spac Agncy Atomic Clock Ensmbl in Spac La Thuil 2128 March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond  Gravitation 2 Th Columbus modul
More informationRelationship between Cost of Equity Capital And Voluntary Corporate Disclosures
Rlationship btwn Cost of Equity Capital And Voluntary Corporat Disclosurs Elna Ptrova Eli Lilly & Co, Sofia, Bulgaria Email: ptrova.lnaa@gmail.com Gorgios Gorgakopoulos (Corrsponding author) Amstrdam
More information7 Timetable test 1 The Combing Chart
7 Timtabl tst 1 Th Combing Chart 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Tachr tams two workd xampls 7.3 Th Principl of Compatibility 7.4 Choosing tachr tams workd xampl 7.5 Ruls for drawing a Combing Chart 7.6 Th Combing
More informationFundamentals: NATURE OF HEAT, TEMPERATURE, AND ENERGY
Fundamntals: NATURE OF HEAT, TEMPERATURE, AND ENERGY DEFINITIONS: Quantum Mchanics study of individual intractions within atoms and molculs of particl associatd with occupid quantum stat of a singl particl
More informationA Project Management framework for Software Implementation Planning and Management
PPM02 A Projct Managmnt framwork for Softwar Implmntation Planning and Managmnt Kith Lancastr Lancastr Stratgis Kith.Lancastr@LancastrStratgis.com Th goal of introducing nw tchnologis into your company
More informationSPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITES IN HIGHTEMPERATURE RANGE
SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITES IN HIGHTEMPERATURE RANGE Jitka Poděbradská 1, Jaroslav Pavlík 1, Jan Toman 2, Robrt Črný 1 1 Czch Tchnical Univrsity, Faculty of Civil Enginring, Dpartmnt
More informationThe international Internet site of the geoviticulture MCC system Le site Internet international du système CCM géoviticole
Th intrnational Intrnt sit of th goviticultur MCC systm L sit Intrnt intrnational du systèm CCM géoviticol Flávio BELLO FIALHO 1 and Jorg TONIETTO 1 1 Rsarchr, Embrapa Uva Vinho, Caixa Postal 130, 95700000
More informationAdsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Activated Carbon Derived from Durian Peel
Adsorption of Malachit Grn Dy onto Activatd Carbon Drivd from Durian Pl SARAWUT SRIKHUN, SAMORN HIRUNPRADITKUN, KAMCHAI NUITHITIKUL* Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring King Mongkut s Univrsity of Tchnology
More informationUse a highlevel conceptual data model (ER Model). Identify objects of interest (entities) and relationships between these objects
Chaptr 3: Entity Rlationship Modl Databas Dsign Procss Us a highlvl concptual data modl (ER Modl). Idntify objcts of intrst (ntitis) and rlationships btwn ths objcts Idntify constraints (conditions) End
More informationSPECIFIC HEAT AND HEAT OF FUSION
PURPOSE This laboratory consists of to sparat xprimnts. Th purpos of th first xprimnt is to masur th spcific hat of to solids, coppr and rock, ith a tchniqu knon as th mthod of mixturs. Th purpos of th
More informationImportant Information Call Through... 8 Internet Telephony... 6 two PBX systems... 10 Internet Calls... 3 Internet Telephony... 2
Installation and Opration Intrnt Tlphony Adaptr Aurswald Box Indx C I R 884264 03 02/05 Call Duration, maximum...10 Call Through...7 Call Transportation...7 Calls Call Through...7 Intrnt Tlphony...3 two
More informationIntroduction to Finite Element Modeling
Introduction to Finit Elmnt Modling Enginring analysis of mchanical systms hav bn addrssd by driving diffrntial quations rlating th variabls of through basic physical principls such as quilibrium, consrvation
More informationNoise Power Ratio (NPR) A 65Year Old Telephone System Specification Finds New Life in Modern Wireless Applications.
TUTORIL ois Powr Ratio (PR) 65Yar Old Tlphon Systm Spcification Finds w Lif in Modrn Wirlss pplications ITRODUTIO by Walt Kstr Th concpt of ois Powr Ratio (PR) has bn around sinc th arly days of frquncy
More informationHigher order mode damping considerations for the SPL cavities at CERN
Highr ordr mod damping considrations for th SPL cavitis at CERN W. Wingartn Outlin Th SPL study at CERN HOM damping rquirmnts for SPL study Optimisation of cavity gomtry rlatd to HOM damping Conclusion
More informationComparison between Empirical Correlation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation for the Pressure Gradient of Multiphase Flow
rocdings o World Congrss on nginring 2008 Vol III Comparison btwn mpirical Corrlation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation or rssur Gradint o Multiphas Flow Yvonn S. H. Chang, T. Gansan and K. K.
More informationLecture notes: 160B revised 9/28/06 Lecture 1: Exchange Rates and the Foreign Exchange Market FT chapter 13
Lctur nots: 160B rvisd 9/28/06 Lctur 1: xchang Rats and th Forign xchang Markt FT chaptr 13 Topics: xchang Rats Forign xchang markt Asst approach to xchang rats Intrst Rat Parity Conditions 1) Dfinitions
More informationPACKINGHOUSE NEWSLETTER
Cooprativ Extnsion Srvic Institut of Food and Agricultural Scincs PACKINGHOUSE NEWSLETTER Mark Ritnour Packinghous Nwslttr No. 192 Indian Rivr REC Dcmbr 29, 2000 2199 South Rock Road Ft. Pirc, FL 349453138
More informationCategory 1: Purchased Goods and Services
1 Catgory 1: Purchasd Goods and Srvics Catgory dscription T his catgory includs all upstram (i.., cradltogat) missions from th production of products purchasd or acquird by th rporting company in th
More informationRealTime Evaluation of Email Campaign Performance
Singapor Managmnt Univrsity Institutional Knowldg at Singapor Managmnt Univrsity Rsarch Collction L Kong Chian School Of Businss L Kong Chian School of Businss 102008 RalTim Evaluation of Email Campaign
More informationCisco Data Virtualization
Cisco Data Virtualization Big Data Ecosystm Discussion with Bloor Group Bob Ev, David Bsmr July 2014 Cisco Data Virtualization Backgroundr Cisco Data Virtualization is agil data intgration softwar that
More informationData warehouse on Manpower Employment for Decision Support System
Data warhous on Manpowr Employmnt for Dcision Support Systm Amro F. ALASTA, and Muftah A. Enaba Abstract Sinc th us of computrs in businss world, data collction has bcom on of th most important issus du
More informationUserPerceived Quality of Service in Hybrid Broadcast and Telecommunication Networks
UsrPrcivd Quality of Srvic in Hybrid Broadcast and Tlcommunication Ntworks Michal Galtzka Fraunhofr Institut for Intgratd Circuits Branch Lab Dsign Automation, Drsdn, Grmany Michal.Galtzka@as.iis.fhg.d
More informationFACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS
FACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS By Rui PdroPrira Magalhas 1 Sptmbr 2013 A Dissrtation submittd in part fulfilmnt
More informationReview and Analysis of Cloud Computing Quality of Experience
Rviw and Analysis of Cloud Computing Quality of Exprinc Fash Safdari and Victor Chang School of Computing, Crativ Tchnologis and Enginring, Lds Mtropolitan Univrsity, Hadinly, Lds LS6 3QR, U.K. {F.Safdari,
More informationExpertMediated Search
ExprtMdiatd Sarch Mnal Chhabra Rnsslar Polytchnic Inst. Dpt. of Computr Scinc Troy, NY, USA chhabm@cs.rpi.du Sanmay Das Rnsslar Polytchnic Inst. Dpt. of Computr Scinc Troy, NY, USA sanmay@cs.rpi.du David
More informationVersion Issue Date Reason / Description of Change Author Draft February, N/A 2009
Appndix A: CNS Managmnt Procss: OTRS POC Documnt Control Titl : CNS Managmnt Procss Documnt : (Location of Documnt and Documnt numbr) Author : Ettin Vrmuln (EV) Ownr : ICT Stratgic Srvics Vrsion : Draft
More informationProceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Simulation, Modelling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2224, 2006 246
Procdings of th 6th WSEAS Intrnational Confrnc on Simulation, Modlling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, Sptmbr 2224, 2006 246 Larg dformation modling in soiltillag tool intraction using advancd 3D
More informationProjections  3D Viewing. Overview Lecture 4. Projection  3D viewing. Projections. Projections Parallel Perspective
Ovrviw Lctur 4 Projctions  3D Viwing Projctions Paralll Prspctiv 3D Viw Volum 3D Viwing Transformation Camra Modl  Assignmnt 2 OFF fils 3D mor compl than 2D On mor dimnsion Displa dvic still 2D Analog
More informationSharp bounds for Sándor mean in terms of arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means
Qian t al. Journal of Inqualitis and Applications (015) 015:1 DOI 10.1186/s166001507411 R E S E A R C H Opn Accss Sharp bounds for Sándor man in trms of arithmtic, gomtric and harmonic mans WiMao Qian
More informationPresentation on ShortTerm Certificates to the CAPSEE Conference. September 18, 2014
Prsntation on ShortTrm Crtificats to th CAPSEE Confrnc Sptmbr 18, 2014 Th first goal of City Collgs Rinvntion is focusd on nsuring studnts arn crdntials of conomic valu Rinvntion Goals Incras numbr of
More informationEntityRelationship Model
EntityRlationship Modl Kuanghua Chn Dpartmnt of Library and Information Scinc National Taiwan Univrsity A Company Databas Kps track of a company s mploys, dpartmnts and projcts Aftr th rquirmnts collction
More informationEffect of Graphite Nodularity on Mechanical Properties of Ductile Iron for Waterworks Fittings and Accessories
Intrnational Journal of Civil & Environmntal Enginring IJCEEIJENS Vol: 1 No: 3 1 Effct of Graphit Nodularity on Mchanical Proprtis of Ductil Iron for Watrworks Fittings and Accssoris A. I. AlGhonamy
More informationCaution laser! Avoid direct eye contact with the laser beam!
Manual ontnt 1. aturs 3 2. Spcifications 3 3. Packag contnts 3 4. Th mous at a glanc 4 5. onncting to th P 5 6. Installing th softwar 5 7. Th ditor 6 7.1 Starting th ditor 6 7.2 Main ontrol window 6 7.3
More informationDeveloping Software Bug Prediction Models Using Various Software Metrics as the Bug Indicators
Dvloping Softwar Bug Prdiction Modls Using Various Softwar Mtrics as th Bug Indicators Varuna Gupta Rsarch Scholar, Christ Univrsity, Bangalor Dr. N. Ganshan Dirctor, RICM, Bangalor Dr. Tarun K. Singhal
More informationIn the first years of the millennium, Americans flocked to Paris to enjoy French
14 chaptr Exchang Rats and th Forign Exchang Markt: An Asst Approach 320 In th first yars of th millnnium, Amricans flockd to Paris to njoy Frnch cuisin whil shopping for dsignr clothing and othr spcialtis.
More informationTIME MANAGEMENT. 1 The Process for Effective Time Management 2 Barriers to Time Management 3 SMART Goals 4 The POWER Model e. Section 1.
Prsonal Dvlopmnt Track Sction 1 TIME MANAGEMENT Ky Points 1 Th Procss for Effctiv Tim Managmnt 2 Barrirs to Tim Managmnt 3 SMART Goals 4 Th POWER Modl In th Army, w spak of rsourcs in trms of th thr M
More informationSTATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2
STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2 COMPANY VOLUNTARY ARRANGEMENTS INTRODUCTION 1 A Company Voluntary Arrangmnt (CVA) is a statutory contract twn a company and its crditors undr which an insolvncy practitionr
More informationKidde International, Mathisen Way, Colnbrook, Slough, SL3 OHB UK Tel: +44 1753 683245 Fax: +44 1753 683810
Th Dvlopmnt of a Small Scal Class A Fir Tst A Chattawayt, G G Cox, S R Prc & D J Spring Kidd Intrnational, Mathisn Way, Colnbrook, Slough, SL3 OHB UK Tl: +44 1753 683245 Fax: +44 1753 683810 1. Introduction
More informationFar Field Estimations and Simulation Model Creation from Cable Bundle Scans
Far Fild Estimations and Simulation Modl Cration from Cabl Bundl Scans D. Rinas, S. Nidzwidz, S. Fri Dortmund Univrsity of Tchnology Dortmund, Grmany dnis.rinas@tudortmund.d stphan.fri@tudortmund.d Abstract
More informationCategory 11: Use of Sold Products
11 Catgory 11: Us of Sold Products Catgory dscription T his catgory includs missions from th us of goods and srvics sold by th rporting company in th rporting yar. A rporting company s scop 3 missions
More informationNorthern Ireland Petrol and Diesel prices data analysis
Rsarch and Information Srvic Papr 163/12 04 Octobr 2012 NIAR 72012 Aidan Stnntt and Barbara Lov Northrn Irland Ptrol and Disl prics data analysis 1 Background On th 5 Sptmbr 2012, th Offic of Fair Trading
More informationSimulation of a Solar Cell considering SingleDiode Equivalent Circuit Model
Simulation of a Solar Cll considring SinglDiod Equivalnt Circuit Modl E.M.G. Rodrigus, R. Mlício,, V.M.F. Mnds and J.P.S. Catalão, Univrsity of Bira Intrior R. Font do Lamiro,  Covilhã (Portugal) Phon:
More informationCARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY. Outcome 10 Regulation 11 Safety and Suitability of Premises
CARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY Outcom 10 Rgulation 11 Safty and Suitability of Prmiss CQC Rf 10A 10A(1) Lad Dirctor / Lad Officr Rspons Impact Liklihood Lvl of Concrn
More informationAn Adaptive Clustering MAP Algorithm to Filter Speckle in Multilook SAR Images
An Adaptiv Clustring MAP Algorithm to Filtr Spckl in Multilook SAR Imags FÁTIMA N. S. MEDEIROS 1,3 NELSON D. A. MASCARENHAS LUCIANO DA F. COSTA 1 1 Cybrntic Vision Group IFSC Univrsity of São Paulo Caia
More informationSUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES AS DIFFERENT STATES OF THE SAME MICROCOSM OBJECT. Eduard N. Klenov* RostovonDon. Russia
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES AS DIFFERENT STATES OF THE SAME MICROCOSM OBJECT Eduard N. Klnov* RostovonDon. Russia Th distribution law for th valus of pairs of th consrvd additiv quantum numbrs
More informationCPS 220 Theory of Computation REGULAR LANGUAGES. Regular expressions
CPS 22 Thory of Computation REGULAR LANGUAGES Rgular xprssions Lik mathmatical xprssion (5+3) * 4. Rgular xprssion ar built using rgular oprations. (By th way, rgular xprssions show up in various languags:
More information