The ACES Mission Testing Fundamental Physics with Clocks in Space. L. Cacciapuoti European Space Agency

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1 Th ACES Mission Tsting Fundamntal Physics with Clocks in Spac L. Cacciapuoti Europan Spac Agncy

2 Atomic Clock Ensmbl in Spac La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 2

3 Th Columbus modul La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 3

4 Th ACES Payload PHARAO (CNES): Atomic clock basd on lasr coold Cs atoms SHM (ESA): Activ hydrogn masr FCDP (ESA): Clocks comparison and distribution MWL (ESA): T&F transfr link GNSS rcivr (ESA) ELT (ESA): Optical link Support subsystms (ESA) - XPLC: Extrnal PL computr - PDU: Powr distribution unit, - Mchanical, thrmal subsystms - CEPA: Columbus Extrnal PL Adaptr (ESA-NASA) Volum: 1172x867x1246 mm 3 Mass: 227 kg Powr: 450 W La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 4

5 ACES Clocks and Links Prformanc PHARAO accuracy ~ PHARAO FCDP SHM MWL ground trminal ELT dtctor La Thuil March 2015 XPLC Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 5

6 Flight Modl of th PHARAO Lasrs Sourc La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 6

7 PHARAO FM Intgration La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 7

8 PHARAO FM Ramsy Frings Contrast: 0.9 Linwidth: 5.6 Hz La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 8

9 PHARAO FM Stability Masurd on th ground: Stability: /τ 1/2 PHARAO-FOM: Prdictd prformanc in spac: Stability: /τ 1/2 Accuracy: La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 9

10 PHARAO Accuracy La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 10

11 SHM: An Activ H-masr for Spac SHM rol in ACES - ACES flywhl oscillator - PHARAO charactrization Tchnical challngs - Low mass, volum, and powr consumption - Full prformancs: s s Dsign solution - Full siz Al cavity - Automatic Cavity Tuning Systm (ACT) Volum: 390x390x590 mm 3 Mass: 42 kg La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 11

12 SHM Enginring Modl H bulb Microwav cavity Fourth magntic shild Extrnal shild cylindr SHM EM tstd undr thrmal vacuum in its final configuration Snsitivity to tmpratur and magntic fild prturbations masurd EMC tsts on-going; vibration tsts schduld in April Procurmnt of FM componnts and dvlopmnt of som ky subsystms startd La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 12

13 SHM Stability La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 13

14 SHM Snsitivity to Thrmal and Magntic Thrmal snsitivity Magntic snsitivity Allan Varianc fit FFT Analysis Priod T pp K T K T 5400 s 1.3 K /K /K 2000 s 1.2 K /K /K 600 s 1.5 K /K 300 s 1.0 K /K T=600 s, T pp =1.5 K K B = /G Diffrnc ovr 100 s intrvals ADEV< aftr 1 day PHARAO accuracy valuation OK + calibration of slow tmpratur variations La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 14

15 MWL Two-way link: - Rmoval of th troposphr tim dlay ( ns) - Rmoval of 1st ordr Dopplr ffct - Rmoval of instrumntal dlays and common mod ffcts Additional down-link in th S-band: - Dtrmination of th ionosphr TEC - Corrction of th ionosphr tim dlay ( ns in S-band, ps in Ku-band) Phas PN cod modulation: Rmoval of 2π phas ambiguity High chip rat (100 MChip/s) on th cod: - Highr rsolution - Multipath supprssion Carrir and cod phas masurmnts (1 pr scond) Data link: 2 kbits/s on th S-band downlink to obtain clock comparison rsults in ral tim Up to 4 simultanous spac-to-ground clock comparisons La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 15

16 MWL End-to-nd Tst Configuration MWL ground trminal MWL on-board lctronics La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 16

17 MWL End-to-nd Tst Rsults 2-way carrir phas in static conditions 2-way carrir phas undr signal dynamics La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 17

18 MWL Dlays Calibration La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 18

19 Europan Lasr Timing (ELT) ACES tim Evnt Timr TM/TC ACES Powr Optical Rcivr CCR CTU Pragu La Thuil March 2015 ASTRIUM Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation Dtctor packag 500 grams 0.6 Watt 19

20 ELT SPAD Dtctor Timing Stability La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 20

21 ELT SPAD Dtctor Timing Stability La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 21

22 ELT SPAD Dtctor Tmpratur Stability La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 22

23 Cor Ntwork of MWL GTs JPL NIST NPL SYRTE PTB NICT + 1 transportabl MWL GT basd in Europ + 1 transportabl MWL GT for calibration purposs UWA + METAS (CH) + INRIM (IT)+ Wttzll (DE) La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 23

24 ACES and Fundamntal Physics Tsts ACES Mission Objctivs ACES prformancs Fundamntal physics tsts Scintific background and rcnt rsults Masurmnt of th gravitational rd shift Sarch for tim drifts of fundamntal constants Sarch for violations of spcial rlativity Absolut masurmnt of th gravitational rd-shift at an uncrtainty lvl < aftr 300 s and < aftr 10 days of intgration tim. Tim variations of th fin structur constant α at a prcision lvl of α -1 dα / dt < yar -1 down to yar -1 in cas of a mission duration of 3 yars Sarch for anisotropis of th spd of light at th lvl δ c / c < Spac-to-ground clock comparison at th lvl, will yild a factor 35 improvmnt on prvious masurmnts (GPA xprimnt). Optical clocks progrss will allow clock-toclock comparisons blow th lvl. Crossd comparisons of clocks basd on diffrnt atomic lmnts will impos strong constraints on th tim drifts of α, m /Λ QCD, and m u /Λ QCD. ACES rsults will improv prsnt limits on th RMS paramtr α basd on fast ions spctroscopy and GPS satllits by on and two ordrs of magnituds rspctivly. La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 24

25 Gravitational Rd-shift Masurmnts Frquncy shifts First ordr Dopplr ffct Scond ordr Dopplr ffct Gravitational rd-shift Sagnac ffct La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 25

26 Rlativistic Godsy with ACES U 1 U 2 Rlativistic godsy: mapping of th Earth gravitational potntial basd on th prcision masurmnt of th rd-shift xprincd by two clocks at two diffrnt locations - ACES will prform intrcontinntal comparisons of optical clocks at th lvl aftr 1 wk of intgration tim, masuring th local hight of th goid at th 10 cm lvl. - Th global covrag offrd by ACES will complmnt th rsults of th CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE missions. La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 26

27 ACES and Fundamntal Physics Tsts ACES Mission Objctivs ACES prformancs Fundamntal physics tsts Scintific background and rcnt rsults Masurmnt of th gravitational rd shift Sarch for tim drifts of fundamntal constants Sarch for violations of spcial rlativity Absolut masurmnt of th gravitational rd-shift at an uncrtainty lvl < aftr 300 s and < aftr 10 days of intgration tim. Tim variations of th fin structur constant α at a prcision lvl of α -1 dα / dt < yar -1 down to yar -1 in cas of a mission duration of 3 yars Sarch for anisotropis of th spd of light at th lvl δ c / c < Spac-to-ground clock comparison at th lvl, will yild a factor 35 improvmnt on prvious masurmnts (GPA xprimnt). Optical clocks progrss will allow clock-toclock comparisons blow th lvl. Crossd comparisons of clocks basd on diffrnt atomic lmnts will impos strong constraints on th tim drifts of α, m /Λ QCD, and m u /Λ QCD. ACES rsults will improv prsnt limits on th RMS paramtr α basd on fast ions spctroscopy and GPS satllits by on and two ordrs of magnituds rspctivly. La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 27

28 Fundamntal Constants Frquncy of hyprfin transitions: Frquncy of lctronic transitions: Ratios btwn atomic frquncis: Snsitivity to tim variations of fundamntal constants: La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 28

29 Fundamntal Constants but g (i) and m p ar not fundamntal constants as thy dpnd on - QCD mass scal - Quark mass thrfor comparisons of atomic frquncy will tst th tim stability of th thr fundamntal constants In gnral hyprfin transitions lctronic transition vibrational transitions in molculs V.V. Flambaum, arxiv:physics/ V.V. Flambaum t al., Phys. Rv. D 69, (2004) La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 29

30 Fundamntal Constants La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 30

31 ACES and Fundamntal Physics Tsts ACES Mission Objctivs ACES prformancs Fundamntal physics tsts Scintific background and rcnt rsults Masurmnt of th gravitational rd shift Sarch for tim drifts of fundamntal constants Sarch for violations of spcial rlativity Absolut masurmnt of th gravitational rd-shift at an uncrtainty lvl < aftr 300 s and < aftr 10 days of intgration tim. Tim variations of th fin structur constant α at a prcision lvl of α -1 dα / dt < yar -1 down to yar -1 in cas of a mission duration of 3 yars Sarch for anisotropis of th spd of light at th lvl δ c / c < Spac-to-ground clock comparison at th lvl, will yild a factor 35 improvmnt on prvious masurmnts (GPA xprimnt). Optical clocks progrss will allow clock-toclock comparisons blow th lvl. Crossd comparisons of clocks basd on diffrnt atomic lmnts will impos strong constraints on th tim drifts of α, m /Λ QCD, and m u /Λ QCD. ACES rsults will improv prsnt limits on th RMS paramtr α basd on fast ions spctroscopy and GPS satllits by on and two ordrs of magnituds rspctivly. La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 31

32 Spcial Rlativity Tsts Kinmatic tst thoris (RMS framwork): Prfrrd rfrnc fram (CMB) in which light is assumd to propagat isotropically Dynamic tst thoris (SME framwork): Lorntz transformations violating trms in th Hamiltonian of th systm + 2 δc T c δc c cosθ ( T T ) ( T T ) + = 2 T ( 1 cosθ ) 1 T 2 1 T 2 3 = s 4 + l a Masurmnt principl: - Exchang of microwav signals btwn ACES clocks and ground clocks along th ISS orbit - Diffrnc of masurd rcption and mission tims provids th on-way travl tim of th signal plus som unknown constant offst (dsynchronization, path asymmtris, propagation dlay ) - Diffrnc of th up and down travl tims snsitiv to a non zro valu of δc/c P. Wolf, PRA 51, 5016 (1995) La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 32

33 Byond ACES: Spac Optical Clocks Atomic clock fractional frquncy instability at th quantum projction nois limit: σσ yy ττ = 1 ππ νν 1 νν 0 - ν 1Hz, limitd by th intraction tim - N at 10 6, limitd by cooling and trapping tchniqus, collisions, tc. From th microwav to th optical domain - Frquncy instability is invrsly proportional to ν 0 : optical transitions show a potntial incras of almost 5 ordrs of magnitud Microwav fountain clocks: σσ yy ττ = ττ 1/2 Optical clock: σσ yy ττ = ττ 1/2 - Accuracy: Tchnical issus and solutions - Masurmnts of optical frquncis fs frquncy-comb gnrator - Rcoil and Dopplr ffct trappd ion clock or lattic clock - Rfrnc oscillator nois bttr clock lasrs and rfrnc cavitis SOC as ACES follow-on mission Sr lattic clock with fractional frquncy instability and inaccuracy NN aaaa TT cc ττ La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 33

34 La Thuil March 2015 Rncontrs d Moriond - Gravitation 34

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