# Light and its effects

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1 Light and its effects

2 Light and the speed of light

5 Pinhole camera (1)

6 Pinhole camera (2)

7 Reflection of light

8 Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size as the object (ii) virtual (iii)laterally inverted (iv) the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front

9 Reflected object

10 Reflection of an ambulance

11 Bicycle reflector (1)

12 Bicycle reflector (2)

13 Pepper s ghost

14 Periscope

15 Kaleidoscope

16 Curved mirrors A concave mirror will converge a beam of light and it gives a real image. A convex mirror will diverge a beam of light and it gives a virtual image. Uses of concave mirrors Shaving mirrors, make-up mirrors, dentists mirrors, microscopes, fun mirrors, lamp reflectors, reflecting telescope Uses of convex mirrors Wide angle car wing mirrors, buses mirrors, security mirrors in shops, fun mirrors.

17 Refraction When light passes from air into a transparent and denser material such as glass, water or plastic at an angle it bends this bending is called refraction. The light bends towards the normal line so that the angle of refraction (r) is less than the angle of incidence (i). The amount of bending for a given angle of incidence depends on the material. It is greater for diamond than for glass and greater for glass than it is for water. The list shows the angles of refraction in various materials for an angle of incidence in air of 40 o : Water 29 o a change of direction of 11 o Glass 25 o a change of direction of 15 o Diamond 16 o a change of direction of 24 o

18 Refraction at a surface

19 Refraction and speed

20 Snell s Law When light travels from air to glass (or air to water) it bends towards the normal line so that the angle of refraction (r) is less than the angle of incidence (i). The amount of bending for a given angle of incidence depends on the material. It is greater for diamond than for glass and greater for glass than it is for water. The amount of bending (refraction) depends on a property of the material known as its REFRACTIVE INDEX. This property connects the angle of incidence (i) with the angle of refraction (r). The law is known as Snell s Law. Snell s Law: Refractive index = sin i/sin r

21 Real and apparent depth

22 Refraction and fishermen (1)

23 Refraction and fishermen (2)

24 Refraction and soldiers

25 Total internal reflection When light hits the boundary between glass and air it is usually refracted out. As the angle of incidence is increased the angle of refraction also increases until the light emerges along the boundary between the block and the air. The angle of incidence in the transparent material when this happens is called the CRITICAL ANGLE. For angles of incidence greater than the critical angle ALL the light is reflected back - this is known as TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION. Total internal reflection only happens when the light is travelling from the more dense material to the less dense i.e. glass to air, glass to water or water to air.

26 Fibre optics

27 Prisms The first two diagrams show right angled prisms. Since the critical angle for a glass-air boundary is 42 o any light which hits the boundary at 45 o will be totally internally reflected. The last two diagrams show how right-angled prisms are used in (a) a periscope (b) in prismatic binoculars

28 Mirages A mirage occurs on very hot days when a layer of hot, low density air lies on the ground. Light from the sky will be totally internally reflected at this layer and so you see what looks like a pool of water - it s actually a reflection of the sky. Mirages also occur in very cold countries. See if you can explain why. In the right hand diagram the mirage appears in the sky and the polar bear seems to be flying upside down!

29 Types of lens

30 Lenses focal length

31 Lenses image by drawing

32 Magnification produced by a lens Lenses give an image of the object. The size of the image compared with the object depends on the magnification of the lens. The magnification of a lens is defined as: Magnification = image height (II')/object height (OO') = image distance (v)/object distance (u) In spite of what you might think magnifications don t always have to be bigger than one. For example in a camera and in your eyes the image is smaller than the object.

33 Magnifying glass If the object is closer to the lens than the focal length of the lens then the lens behaves as a magnifying glass. The image produced by the lens is virtual, magnified and the right way up.

34 Power of a lens The power of a lens (what opticians use to describe the strength of a lens when you go to have your eyes tested) is defined as: Power of a lens = 1/[focal length in metres] Converging lenses have positive powers, diverging lenses have negative powers. A lens with a power of + 5 D (dioptres) is a convex lens with a focal length of 20 cm. One with a power of -10 D is a concave lens with a focal length of 10 cm. High power Low power

35 Colour wheel The simplest of adding colours together way is by spinning a disc on which are painted the colours of the spectrum. The result will be something like white! A sample disc is shown in the diagram in reality there are more colours and they are not all the same width, this is because of the different sensitivity of your eyes to different colours.

36 Colour addition If you have three lights, one red, one blue and one green you could make any other colour by using different combinations and brightnesses of these three. For this reason red, green and blue are called PRIMARY COLOURS. The diagram shows the result of adding different combinations, notice that if you add all three together you see white. Any two colours that can be added together to make white are called COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS.

37 Prisms and colour (1) If a beam of light of one colour is shone through a prism, the direction of the beam is changed by the prism. This is because the two faces of the prism through which the light passes are not parallel. Red light is bent less than blue light. (The glass slows down the blue light more than it does the red and so the direction of the blue is changed more.) If white light is used the prism splits up the light into a series of colours. This shows that white light is actually made up of many other colours - a fact first shown by Newton in The spread of colour is called a SPECTRUM.

38 Prisms and colour (2) Violet light is refracted most by a prism and red light is refracted least. Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet

39 The eye (a) lens - this makes fine adjustments to the focus of the view that we see (b) cornea the transparent part at the front of our eye. This helps to focus the view on our retina. (c) retina the part of the eye that is sensitive to light. (d) optic nerve - this takes the signals from out retina to our brain so that we can see (e) muscles there are two different sets of muscles in your eyes. (i) One set goes round the lens. These are used in fine focusing of the eye. (ii)the ones at the top and bottom and on the sides of the eye swivel your eye in its socket. (f) iris this is the coloured part of your eye

40 Optical illusions (1)

41 Optical illusions (2)

42 Optical illusions (3)

43 Optical illusions (4)

44 Optical illusions (5)

45 The compound microscope

46 Camera

47 Telescopes The main purposes of a telescope used for astronomy are: (a) to gather as much light as possible this is done by using a large aperture lens or mirror. The amount of light gathered depends on the AREA of the lens so a lens with an aperture of 300 mm diameter gathers four times a much light as one with an aperture of 150 mm diameter. (b) to resolve fine detail this is also done by using a large aperture lens or mirror. The larger the aperture the finer the detail that can be seen. (Usually called the resolving power of the telescope.) (c) to magnify the image of a distant object this is done by using a lens or mirror with a long focal length.

48 Refracting telescopes

49 Reflecting telescopes

50 Sextant The angle between mirror 2 and the telescope is 60 o. One half of this mirror is silvered and the other half is clear glass. Mirror M 1 is completely silvered and can be rotated on the arm M 1 V. When the arm is in position O the two mirrors are parallel to each other. Light coming from one object (B) makes an angle of q o with light coming from another object (C). Direction B could be the horizon and direction C the Sun or a star.

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