9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi. Course Description

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1 9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi Course Description The purpose of the Physical Science course is to satisfy the Ohio Core science graduation requirement. The big idea of the Physical Science course is that Physical Science comprises the systematic study of the physical world, as related to chemistry, physics, and space science. The topics studied in the course include the study of matter, energy and waves, forces and motion, and the universe. This course fits into an overall program of science studies with a rigorous academic core and concentration as the introductory level required science course. This course introduces students to key concepts and theories that will provide a foundation for further study in other sciences and advanced science disciplines. Pre- requisite Courses There are no prerequisites for this course. All students assigned to the ninth grade after middle school are required to take this course. Instructional Philosophy This course is important to students future success in further learning and in the workplace because it introduces students to key concepts and theories that provide a foundation for further study in science and increase students scientific literacy and problem- solving skills. The kind of learning activities in which students will engage can be described as cooperative group investigations designed to help students understand and explain the behavior of nature in a variety of inquiry and design scenarios, incorporating scientific reasoning, analysis, communication skills, and real- world applications. Students will learn and apply the principles of physics while employing 21 st Century Skills, including creativity/innovation, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving, and decision- making. Students will conduct hands- on activities and have laboratory experiences. Students will participate in class discussions with open- ended problem solving, and will conduct project- based learning. Students will conduct computer- assisted research and/or assignments. Students may use computer word processing to complete some assignments and projects. Students may also use collaborative tools (wiki, blogs, etc.) to help them achieve course goals, and may create multi- media presentations to demonstrate mastery of course goals.

2 Study of Matter Course Goals Elaboration for Instruction Building upon observation, exploration and analytical skills developed at the elementary levels and foundational knowledge about matter (its basic particle composition and behavior under various conditions), an extensive understanding of matter, its composition and the changes it undergoes are further constructed. Substances within a closed system interact with one another in a variety of ways; however, the total mass and energy of the system remains the same. Instructional concepts include: Matter can be classified in different ways depending upon characteristics that are observable and characteristics that can be observed with magnification. Particulate nature of matter is represented by models because it is too small to see with the naked eye or with traditional visible- light microscopes. Atomic structure determines the properties of an element and how the atom (of the element) will interact with other atoms. Neutrons have little effect on how an atom interacts with other atoms, but they do affect the mass and stability of the nucleus. When elements are listed in order of increasing number of protons, the same sequence of properties appears over and over again. At times the masses do not correspond with periodic order, but the atomic number always does. Bonding describes how atoms are arranged in molecules and rearrange in chemical reactions. Atoms may be bonded together by losing, gaining or sharing electrons. Matter is conserved in all chemical/non- chemical analysis of mixtures. In a chemical reaction, the number, type of atoms and total mass are the same before and after the reaction. Radioactive substances are unstable nuclei that undergo spontaneous nuclear decay emitting particles and/or high- energy wave- like radiation. Nuclear fission involves the decay of large nuclei into smaller nuclei. Nuclear fusion is the joining of nuclei into a larger nucleus accompanied by the release of large quantities of energy. Nuclear fusion in the stars creates all the elements in the universe beyond helium.

3 Forces, Motion and Energy Elaboration for Instruction Building upon the knowledge that energy is transformed and transferred all the while being conserved, an understanding of the relative strength of the forces within an atom, the nature of motion and forces and how motion is affected by forces, and wave behavior, including the Doppler effect and its applications to understanding the movement of galaxies in the universe is developed. Mathematics, including graphing, should be used when describing these phenomena, moving from qualitative understanding to one that is more quantitative. Instructional concepts include: Motion of an object is a measurable quantity that depends on the observer s frame of reference and is described in terms of position, speed, velocity, acceleration and time. An object does not accelerate (remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion) unless an unbalanced net force acts on it. The rate at which motion changes (speed or direction) is proportional to applied force and inversely proportional to the mass. A force is an interaction between two objects; both objects in the interaction experience an equal amount of force, but in opposite directions. Waves can be refracted, reflected, absorbed and superposed on one another. As waves enter a different medium, they can be reflected back into the original medium, absorbed by the new medium as energy. The waves may also be transmitted into the new medium which may result in bending the waves. The wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer. If either is moving toward the other, the wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the wavelength is longer. The Universe Elaboration for Instruction Building a unified understanding of the universe from elementary and middle school science, insights from history, and mathematical ways of thinking, provides a basis for knowing the nature of the universe. Concepts from the previous section, Forces, Motion and Energy, are also used as foundational knowledge. The role of gravity in forming and maintaining the organization of the universe becomes clearer at this level, as well as the scale of billions and speed of light used to express relative distances. Instructional content includes: The stars differ from each other in size, temperature and age. Stars transform matter into energy in nuclear reactions. These and other processes in stars have led to the formation of all elements. The process of star

4 formation and destruction continues. Early in the history of the universe, gravitational attraction caused matter to clump together to form countless trillions of stars and billions of galaxies. The red shift provides evidence that the universe is and has been expanding. Data from measurements of this expansion have been used in calculations that estimate the age of the universe to be over ten billion years old. Major Assignments / Projects To determine that students are achieving course goals at a proficient level, students are required to produce work at a proficient or advanced level. Students will demonstrate their proficiency by applying the principles of Physical Science to solve problems after analyzing the data. Students will then synthesize data into different formats. Each unit will include formative assessments in the form of quizzes and the summative assessment will be a unit test. PLACEHOLDER \* MERGEFORMAT Students will complete a weekly literacy assignment. Students will read a science article from a current periodical. They will write a summary of the key points presented in the article. Students will complete a semester literacy assignment. Students will be given a scientific topic to research each semester. They will write a 5- page research paper and produce and present a poster presentation on their research topic. Course Assessment / Grading Plan Description of Assignment Types and Weighting Assignment Type Description Weight Tests and quizzes These are individual 45% assessments of student mastery of course goals administered during class time. Projects Student-produced products 25% that reinforce course goals. These individual and/or group assignments are done primarily outside of class time. There is one project per grading period. Unit Workbook, Classwork, Unit worksheet packets are 25% and Homework problem sets intended to help the student master course goals. These are completed primarily during class time

5 working cooperatively with other students and with teacher guidance available. Other assignments done during class time and homework assignments are also included in this category. Participation Based on teacher's observation of the student s participation during class, the student s behavior, and the student s apparent attitude toward learning. Description of Grading and Quality Work Grade Scale Description of work A % Consistently demonstrates an advanced level of quality. Thorough, extensive, and complete. Shows mastery in evaluating, synthesizing, and applying principles of Physical Science. B 85-92% Consistently demonstrates a proficient level of quality. Characterized by analysis and application of the principles of Physical Science. C 77-84% Demonstrates a basic level of quality. Shows a recognition and comprehension of the principals of Physical Science. All components of the work are complete. D 70-76% The work is below basic with limited understanding or comprehension of Physical Science principles. Some components of the work may be incomplete or poor quality. 5%

6 F Below 70% The work is below basic with little understanding or comprehension of Physical Science principles. Work is of poor quality or incomplete. Re- Do Policy A student who earns a failing grade on an assignment is indicating that he or she has failed to master the course goals. These students may be permitted to re- do the assignment or complete an alternate assignment to further attempt to gain mastery of course goals. Late or Missing Work Policy Work that is late or missing may be turned in and receive partial credit. Students with a verified excused absence are allowed time to make up work without penalty in accordance with the school policy published in the student handbook. Extra- Help Extra help is available after school during study tables on Tuesdays and Thursdays in Lab B. Extra help may also be available with the teacher by appointment before or after school or at another time. Students are encouraged to seek out extra help whenever they are concerned about their understanding of course material or they are not able to demonstrate successful achievement of course goals.

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