# CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

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1 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study matter at different levels: macroscopic: the level that can be observed with the naked eye e.g. geologists study rocks and stone at the macroscopic level microscopic: the level that can be observed with a microscope e.g. scientists study tiny animals, plants, or crystals at microscopic level particulate: at the level of atoms and molecules, also called atomic or molecular level cannot be observed directly even with the most powerful microscopes where the term nanotechnology comes from since many atoms and molecules are about a few nanometers in size Substances like water can be represented using different symbols (e.g H 2 O) and models. page 1 of 8

2 Matter exists in one of three physical states: solid, liquid, gas solid: Has definite shape and a fixed (or constant) and rigid volume Particles only vibrate in place. liquid: Has a fixed (or constant) volume, but its shape can change. Takes the shape of its container because particles are moving Particles are packed closely together but can move around each other. gas: Volume is variable, and particles are far apart from one another. Takes the shape of the container because particles are moving If container volume expands, particles move apart to fill container. If container volume decreases, particles move closer together. Gases are compressible i.e., can be forced to occupy a smaller volume. Particles are in constant random motion. page 2 of 8

3 3.3 ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS 3.4 MIXTURES AND PURE SUBSTANCES We can classify matter into pure substances and mixtures: pure substance: a single chemical, consisting of only one kind of matter There are two types of pure substances: elements and compounds. In the figure below, copper rods are an example of an element, and sugar is an example of a compound. mixture: consists of two or more elements and/or compounds Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous: Homogeneous mixtures have a uniform appearance and composition because the particles in them mix uniformly (e.g. solutions like sweetened tea below) Heterogeneous mixtures do not have a uniform composition. e.g. chocolate chip cookie, water and C 8 H 18 mixture below shown as separate layers page 3 of 8

4 elements: consist of only one type of atom atoms cannot be broken down into smaller components by chemical reaction e.g. copper wire (Cu), sulfur powder (S 8 ) Examples also include sodium (Na), barium (Ba), hydrogen gas (H 2 ), oxygen gas (O 2 ), and chlorine gas (H 2 ). compounds: consist of more than one type of atom and have a specific chemical formula Examples include hydrogen chloride (HCl), water (H 2 O), sodium chloride (NaCl) which is table salt, barium chloride (BaCl 2 ) Two or more pure substances combine to form mixtures. mixtures: consist of many compounds and/or elements, with no specific formula Matter having variable composition with definite or varying properties can be separated into component elements and/or compounds e.g., any alloy like brass, steel, 10K to 18K gold; sea water, carbonated soda; air consists of nitrogen, oxygen, and other trace gases. The image at the right shows that air is a mixture of about 78% nitrogen (N 2 in blue), 21% oxygen (O 2 in red), and trace gases while salt water consists of salt (charged particles of Na + and Cl - ) dissolved in water. Example: Is salt water a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture? Explain why. page 4 of 8

5 3.2 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND CHANGES The characteristics that distinguish one substance from another are called properties. Physical Properties: inherent characteristics of a substance independent of other substances physical state (solid, liquid, gas) electrical & heat conductivity color odor density hardness melting and boiling points solubility (does/does not dissolve in water) Chemical Properties: how a substance reacts with other substances e.g. hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen 3.6 How Matter Changes: Physical and Chemical Changes physical change: a process that does not alter the chemical makeup of the starting materials Note in the figure below that the H 2 O molecules remain H 2 O regardless of the physical state (solid, liquid, or gas). Changes in physical state are physical changes. Other examples of physical changes include hammering gold into foil, dry ice subliming Dissolving table salt or sugar in water is also a physical change. A substance dissolved in water is the fourth physical state, aqueous. page 5 of 8

6 Know the terms for transitions from one physical state to another: freezing: liquid solid condensing: gas liquid melting: solid liquid vaporizing: liquid gas Two less common transitions: sublimation: solid gas (e.g. dry ice sublimes) deposition: gas solid (e.g. water vapor deposits on an icebox) chemical change: a process that does change the chemical makeup of the starting materials We can show H 2 and O 2 reacting to form water (H 2 O) below. Since the H 2 O has a different chemical makeup than H 2 and O 2, this is a chemical change. Other examples of chemical changes: e.g. oxidation of matter (burning or rusting), release of gas bubbles (fizzing), mixing two solutions to form an insoluble solid (precipitation), and other evidence indicating the starting materials (reactants) were changed to a different substance. The following examples are all chemical changes that convert the reactants to completely different compounds and/or elements. release of gas bubbles (fizzing) formation of insoluble solid (precipitation) oxidation (burning or rusting) page 6 of 8

7 Example 1: Consider the following molecular-level representations of different substances: A D B E C F For each figure above, indicate if it represents an element, a compound, or a mixture AND if it represents a solid, liquid, or gas. A: element compound mixture solid liquid gas B: element compound mixture solid liquid gas C: element compound mixture solid liquid gas D: element compound mixture solid liquid gas E: element compound mixture solid liquid gas F: element compound mixture solid liquid gas Ex. 2: Circle all of the following that are chemical changes: burning condensing dissolving rusting vaporizing precipitating page 7 of 8

8 THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS Chemical Reaction: REACTANTS PRODUCTS (starting materials) (substances after reaction) For the reaction: C + O 2 CO 2 The reactants are carbon and oxygen gas, and the product is carbon dioxide. Antoine Lavoisier ( ), a French chemist, carried out experiments on combustion by burning different substances and measuring their masses before and after burning. He found that there was no change in the overall mass of the sample and air around it. Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, so mass is conserved. Since the atoms are simply rearranged (not created or destroyed) in a chemical reaction, the total mass of the products must always equal the total mass of the reactants. Antoine Lavoisier with his wife and collaborator, Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier Mass of the product(s) in a reaction must be equal to the mass of the reactant(s). For example: 11.2 g hydrogen g oxygen = g water Ex. 1: Methane burns by reacting with oxygen present in air to produce steam and carbon dioxide gas. Calculate the mass of oxygen that reacts if burning 50.0 g of methane produces g of steam and g of carbon dioxide. page 8 of 8

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