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1 MATH 37 Linear Transformations from Rn to Rm Dr. Neal, WKU Let T : R n R m be a function which maps vectors from R n to R m. Then T is called a linear transformation if the following two properties are satisfied: (i) T(c u ) = (ii) It is equivalent to say that in R n. c T( u ), for all scalars c and all vectors T( u + v ) = T( u ) + T( v ), for all u, v in R n. T(c u + v ) = u in R n ; c T( u + v ) for all scalars c and all vectors In order to define such a transformation T, we must describe its action on a point ( x 1,..., x n ) in R n. That is, we must define T (x 1,..., x n ) in R m having m coordinates. u, ( ) which must be a vector v In order for T to be linear, each coordinate in R m must be a linear combination of x 1,..., x n. That is, T must have the functional form T ((x 1,..., x n )) = ( a 11 x 1 + a 12 x a 1n x n, a 21 x 1 + a 22 x a 2n x n,..., a m1 x 1 + a m2 x a mn x n ) Example 1. Let T : R 3 R 4 be defined by )) = (2 x 1 2 x x 3, x 1 + x 2 x 3, x x 2, 4 x 1 6 x x 3 ). Is T linear? What is T ((1, 2, 3) )? Each of the four coordinates in the range is a linear combination of the three variables x 1 from the domain; thus, T is a linear transformation. Also, ( ) = ( , , 1 + 8, ) = (7,, 9, 7). T (1, 2, 3) Example 2. Let T : R 3 R 2 be defined by )) = ( sin x 1 + cos x 2 + 4x 3, x 1 + x 2 + x ). Neither coordinate in the range is a linear combination of the domain variables x 1, x 2 ; thus, T is not a linear transformation (although T is still a function). Note: Throughout we shall let n be the zero vector in R n and let m be the zero vector in R m. Then T( n ) = T( n + n ) = T( n ) + T( n ) in R m. By subtracting T( n ) from both sides, we see that m = T( n ). So it is always the case that T( n ) = m with a linear transformation.
2 The Matrix Representation Every linear transformation T : R n R m can be represented by a unique m n matrix A. The m rows are the coefficients from the linear combinations of the function form coordinates in R m. That is, suppose T : R n R m is defined by T ((x 1,..., x n )) = ( a 11 x 1 + a 12 x a 1n x n, a 21 x 1 + a 22 x a 2n x n,..., a m1 x 1 + a m2 x a mn x n ), a 11 a a 1n a 21 a a 2n then A = a m1 a m2... a m n If we let x = ( can write X = x 1,..., x n ) R n, then we x 1 x 2.. as an n 1 matrix.. x n The function value T ((x 1,..., x n )) then can be computed by the matrix product A X which gives an m 1 matrix that is the function value point in R m. We therefore interchangeably write T( x ) = A X. Example 3. Let T : R 3 R 4 be defined by )) = (2 x 1 2 x x 3, x 1 + x 2 x 3, x x 2, 4 x 1 6 x x 3 ) The matrix representation is the 4 3 matrix A =. How do we evaluate T ((1, 2, 3) )? Let X = (7,, 9, 7) as coordinates in R 4., then T ( (1, 2, 3) ) = A X = = = What is the action of T on the standard basis in R 3?
3 We see that 1 4 = , and = 1, and Dr. Neal, WKU = Thus, the columns of A are simply the action of T on the standard basis elements (1,, ), (, 1, ), and (, 1). Therefore, each of the columns of A are actually elements in the range of T. A Matrix Defines a Linear Transformation Reversing the process, we see that any m n matrix A defines a linear transformation T A : R n R m by x 1 x 2. T A (x) = A X, where x = ( x 1,..., x n ) and X =... x n For example, given the 2 3 matrix A =, then T A : R 3 R 2 is defined by x )) = x x 3 3x 1 2x 2 + 8x 3 = 4x 1 + 6x 2 3x 3 = (3x 1 2x 2 + 8x 3, 4x 1 + 6x 2 3x 3 ). Defining T by Action on the Standard Basis A linear transformation T : R n R m can also be defined by its action on the standard basis. Let e 1 = (1,,..., ), e 2 = (, 1,..., ),..., e n = (,,..., 1). If we know what T does to each basis element, then we can evaluate T at any point. Because T is linear, we have T (x 1,..., x n ) ( ) = T x 1 e 1 + x 2 e x n e n ( ) = x 1 T( e 1 ) + x 2 T( e 2 ) x n T( e n ). Also, once we know the action on the standard basis, then we also know the columns of the matrix representation A ; thus, we can easily evaluate T at any point.
4 Example 4. Evaluate T (( 2, 3, 8, 1) ) for T : R 4 R 3 defined by ( ) = ( 1, 2, 3) T ((, 1,, ) ) = (2, 1, 4) ( ) = (1, 2, 4) T ((,,, 1) ) = ( 2,, 6). T (1,,, ) T (,, 1, ) Solution. Because T is linear, we have T (( 2, 3, 8, 1) ) = 2 T ((1,,, ) ) + 3 T ((, 1,, ) ) + 8 T ((,, 1, ) ) 1 T ((,,, 1) ) Or we can write A = = 2 ( 1, 2, 3) + 3 (2, 1, 4) + 8 (1, 2, 4) 1 ( 2,, 6) = (36, 9, 1). the st. basis. Then T (( 2, 3, 8, 1) ) = , where the columns of A are the action on = 8 9 = (36, 9, 1) OnetoOne Transformations Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation. Then T is onetoone (or injective) if it is always the case that different values in the domain are assigned to different values in the range. That is, whenever u v then T( u ) T( v ). By the contrapositive, it is logically equivalent to say that whenever T( u ) = T( v ), then u = v. To prove that a function is onetoone, we often assume that T( u ) = T( v ) and then argue that u must equal v. With a linear transformation T from R n to R m, we can use the following results to check if T is onetoone: Theorem 2.1. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Then T is onetoone if and only if T( z ) = m has only the trivial solution of z = n. Proof. We know that T( n ) = m for any linear transformation. Suppose first that T is onetoone. If T( z ) = m also, then z = n because T is onetoone. Now suppose that z = n is the only solution of T( z ) = m. To prove that T is onetoone, assume that T( x ) = T( y ). Then m = T( x ) T( y ) = T( x y ) which means that x y = n. Hence, x = y and T is onetoone. QED Note: Using matrix equations, Theorem 2.1 is equivalent to saying that T is onetoone if and only if the homogeneous system A X = has only the trivial solution of X =.
5 Theorem 2.2. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. If m < n, then T cannot be onetoone. Proof. Note: Because R n is a larger set than R m when m < n, it should not be possible to map R n to R m in a onetoone fashion. To prove the result, observe that the matrix representation A will be an m n matrix with fewer rows than columns. Thus the last (nonzero) row of the reduced row echelon form of the homogeneous system A will have independent (or free) variables. Hence A X = will have infinite solutions (not just the trivial solution). By Theorem 1, T cannot be onetoone c n.. Theorem 2.3. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Assume m > n. Then T is onetoone if and only if the reduced row echelon form of A reduces to the n n identity with additional rows that are all. Proof. To determine if T is onetoone, we must see if the homogeneous system A X = has only the trivial solution. We consider the reduced row echelon form of the m n matrix A. Because there are more rows than columns, we have two cases: the n n identity with additional rows that are all 1... c c n free variables remain in the last nonzero row In the first case, A X = has only the trivial solution; thus, T is onetoone. In the second case, A X = has infinite solutions; thus, T is not onetoone. Theorem 2.4. Let T : R n R n be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Then T is onetoone if and only if det (A). Proof. Because A is now n n, we can say det (A) if and only if the homogeneous system A X = has only the trivial solution if and only if T is onetoone.
6 Example 5. Let T : R 3 R 4 be defined by )) = (2 x 1 2 x x 3, x 1 + x 2 x 3, x x 2, 4 x 1 6 x x 3 ). Is T onetoone? Solution. We let A be the matrix representation and look at the reduced row echelon form of homogeneous system A : rref The only solution to A X = is X = ; thus, T is onetoone. ( A reduces to the identity with an additional row of 's.) Example 6. Let T : R 4 R 5 be defined by Is T is onetoone? ( ) = ( 1, 2, 3,, 1) T ((, 1,, ) ) = (2, 1, 4, 1, ) ( ) = (1, 2, 4,, 2) T ((,,, 1) ) = (2, 6, 3, 2, 5). T (1,,, ) T (,, 1, ) Solution. We look at the reduced row echelon form of homogeneous system A : rref We see that A X = has infinitely many solutions; thus, T is not onetoone. (Matrix A does not reduce to the identity with additional rows of.) Example 7. Let T : R 2 R 2 be the reflection about the x axis. Is T onetoone? 1 Solution. We define T by T ((x, y) ) = (x, y). The matrix representation is A = 1 (which are the coefficients from the linear combinations of the function form coordinates). Because det (A) = 1, we see that T is onetoone.
7 Onto Transformations Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation. Then T is onto (or surjective) if every vector b R m has a preimage in R n. That is, for every b R m there is a vector v R n such that T( v ) = b. (The vector v is a preimage of b.) That is, the equation T( x ) = b always has a solution for every b R m. We can use the following results to determine if a linear transformation is onto: Theorem 2.5. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Then T is onto if and only if the matrix equation A X = B always has a solution for every m 1 matrix B. Proof. Because the equation T( x ) = b is equivalent to the matrix equation A X = B, the theorem is simply a matrix form restatement of the definition of onto. Theorem 2.6. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. If m > n, then T cannot be onto. Proof. Note: Because R m is a larger set than R n when m > n, it should not be possible for every element in R m to have a preimage by means of the function T. To prove the result, observe that the matrix representation A will be an m n matrix with more rows than columns. Thus the reduced row echelon form of any system A B will have the additional rows in A become all. These rows will lead to inconsistencies for certain m 1 matrices B. Thus A X = B will not always have a solution and T cannot be onto c 1 c 2.. c m Theorem 2.7. Let T : R n R m be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Assume m < n. Then T is onto if and only if the reduced row echelon form of A does not contain a row of all 's. Proof. To determine if T is onto, we must see if every possible system A X = B has a solution. We consider the reduced row echelon form of the m n matrix A. Because there are fewer rows than columns, we have two cases:
8 no rows become all a row becomes all If no rows become all, then there will never be an inconsistency. So A X = B will always have a solution and T is onto. If a row becomes all, then there will be inconsistencies for some B when trying to solve A X = B. Thus at times A X = B will have no solution and T will not be onto. Theorem 2.8. Let T : R n R n be a linear transformation with matrix representation A. Then T is onto if and only if det (A). Proof. Because A is now n n, we can say det (A) if and only if any system A X = B always has a solution if and only if T is onto. Theorem 2.9. Let T : R n R n be a linear transformation. Then T is either both onetoone and onto (i.e., a bijection), or T is neither onetoone nor onto. Proof. Let A be the matrix representation of T. By Theorems 4 and 8, T is onetoone if and only if det (A) if and only if T is onto. Thus T is onetoone if and only if T is onto. That is, T is either both onetoone and onto, or T is neither onetoone nor onto. Example 8. Let T A : R 4 R 3 be defined by the matrix representation A = where T A (x) = A X. Is T A onetoone and/or onto? Is the point (4, 2, 6) in the range of T A? If so, find a preimage. Solution. Because R 3 is a smaller set than R 4, T A cannot be onetoone (Theorem 2). To determine if T A is onto, we consider the reduced row echelon form of A :
9 Because no rows became all, there will never be an inconsistency. So every system A X = B will have a solution; therefore, T A is onto. Now we can say that for any vector b R 3, there is a preimage v R 4 such that T( v ) = b. (In fact we can see from rref( A ) that there will be infinite preimages, which also verifies that T A is not onetoone.) In particular, we can solve the equation T A ( x ) = (4, 2, 6): x 1 = t rref x 2 = t x 3 = t x 4 = t If t =, then ( 4.8, 3.6, 4.4, ) is one particular preimage of (4, 2, 6). That is, T ( 4.8, 3.6, 4.4, ) ( ) = (4, 2, 6). Example 9. Let T : R 3 R 4 be the embedding map which places a point from R 3 into R 4 by adding a in the 4th coordinate. Is T onetoone and/or onto? ( ) = (x, y, z, ). The matrix representation is Solution. Here we can define T by T (x, y, z) 1 1 the 4 3 matrix A =. We see that A is already in rref form and has a row of 1 all 's. By Theorem 7, T is not onto. (In particular, every element in R 4 with a nonzero 4th coordinate will cause an inconsistency; thus, these elements will not be in the range.) However, the homogeneous system A X = has only the trivial solution of X = ; thus, T is onetoone. Inverses of Transformations from R n to R n When a linear transformation T : R n R n is both onetoone and onto, then we can find the inverse transformation T 1 : R n R n such that if T (x 1,..., x n ) ( ) = ( (y 1, y 2,..., y n ), then T 1 (y 1, y 2,..., y n ) x 1,..., x n ). ( ) = If A is the matrix representation of the onetoone and onto T, then we know that det (A). Therefore A 1 exists. Because T (x 1,..., x n ) ( ) = (y 1, y 2,..., y n ) is equivalent to A X = Y, we can apply the matrix inverse and say that X = A 1 Y. Thus, A 1 must ( ). be the matrix representation of T 1 because ( x 1,..., x n ) = T 1 (y 1, y 2,..., y n )
10 Example 1. Let T : R 3 R 3 be defined by Dr. Neal, WKU T ((1,, ) ) = (1,, 1) T ((, 1, ) ) = (2, 1, 2) T ((,, 1) ) = (1, 1, 4) Verify that T is a bijection. Find the function form of T Solution. The matrix representation of T is A = 1 1 and det (A) = 1 ; thus T is both onetoone and onto (i.e., a bijection). The matrix representation of T 1 is A 1 = Thus, T 1 ((x, y, z) ) = (2x 6y + z, x + 5y z, x 4y + z). Note: T 1 ((1,, 1) ) = (1,, ), T 1 ((2, 1, 2) ) = (, 1, ), and T 1 ((1, 1, 4) ) = (,, 1). Example 11. Let T : R 2 R 2 be the reflection about the x axis. Find T 1. Solution. Here T ((x, y) ) = (x, y) and A = 1. Then A 1 = 1 1 also. So 1 ( ) = (x, y) = T ((x, y) ). In other words, T is its own inverse. If you reflect T 1 (x, y) about the x axis, then you undo the process by reflecting back about the x axis. Null Space and Nullity Let T: R n R m be a linear transformation, with m n matrix representation A. The null space (or kernel of T ) is the set of all vectors x R n such that T( x ) = m. We know that T( n ) = m. If T is onetoone, then no other vector gets mapped to the origin; so the null space is simply { n }. But if T is not onetoone, then AX = will have infinitely many solutions as will T( x ) = m. The set of all solutions to AX = is called the null space. The nullity is the dimension of this null space and is given by the number of independent parameters (r, s, t, etc.) used in writing the form of all solutions to AX =. And if T is onetoone, then the nullity is simply.
11 Range and Rank Dr. Neal, WKU The range of T is the set of all vectors y R m for which T( x ) = y for some x R n. All of the columns in the matrix representation A are actually elements in the range of T. The first column in A is the value T((1,,,..., )), the second column in A is the value T((, 1,,..., )), etc. But some of these columns may be linear combinations of the previous columns. The columns in A that are independent of each other create the dimensions in the range of T. The actual range of T will be the collection of all linear combinations of these independent vectors, and the rank of T is the dimension of this range. Example 12. Let T : R 5 R 5 be defined by its action on the standard basis as T( e 1 ) = (1, 1, 2,, 1) T( e 4 ) = (1, 1, 2,, ) T( e 2 ) = (, 1, 1, 1, 1) T( e 5 ) = (1,, 1, 1, 1) T( e 3 ) = (, 1, 1, 1, 1) (a) Give the matrix representation and functional form of T. (b) Is T onetoone and/or onto? (c) Are b = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and c = (4, 2, 6, 2, 5) in range of T? If so, find preimages. (d) Find the null space and nullity. Give a basis for the null space. (e) Find the range and rank. Solution. (a) The columns of the matrix representation are the action on the standard basis elements. Thus, A = , x 4, x 5 )) = ( x 1 + x 4 + x 5, x 1 x 2 + x 3 + x 4, 2 x 1 x 2 + x x 4 + x 5, x 2 + x 3 x 5, x 1 + x 2 x 3 + x 5 ) (b) det (A) = ; thus, A is neither onetoone nor onto (c) A B = rref For b = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), we see that AX = B has no solution, so (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) is not in the range of T. However, there are infinite solutions for c = (4, 2, 6, 2, 5). One such solution is (3, 2,, 1, ). That is, c = (4, 2, 6, 2, 5) is in range of T and T ((3, 2,, 1, )) = (4, 2, 6, 2, 5)
12 (d) rref (A ) = 1 1 Dr. Neal, WKU The null space is all vectors of the form (x 1, x 4, x 5 ) = (, s t, s, t, t ) where s and t are any real numbers. It is 2dimensional (using two variables), so nullity = 2. Letting (s, t) be (1, ) then (, 1), we obtain the two vectors v 1 = (, 1, 1,, ) and v 2 = (, 1,, 1, 1) Then any vector in the null space has the form sv 1 + t v 2, which is a linear combination of { v 1, v 2 }. So { v 1, v 2 } is then a basis for the null space. (e) From rref (A), we see that the original first, second, and fourth columns create the 3 3 identity in the rref. Thus, the range of T will have three dimensions T. Thus, rankt = 3 and the range of T is the collections of all linear combinations of the three vectors T( e 1 ) = (1, 1, 2,, 1), T( e 2 ) = (, 1, 1, 1, 1), and T( e 4 ) = (1, 1, 2,, ), which are the first, second, and fourth columns in the origianl matrix. In other words, if we look at just the original first, second, and fourth columns as vectors in R 5, then any vector in the range of T can be written as a linear combination of just these three vectors after rref is performed. For c = (4, 2, 6, 2, 5) as in Part (c), we have c = 3 T( e 1 ) + 2T( e 2 ) + 1T( e 4 ). Note: Another way to label all linear combinations of a collection of vectors is to simply call it the span of these vectors. In the preceding example, the null space is span { v 1, v 2 } and the range is span{ T( e 1 ), T( e 2 ), T( e 4 )}. Here is a description of the preceding transformtation: Let Domain: R 5 (5 dimensions) span{ e 1, e 2, e 4 } e 1 = (1,,,, ), Twodimensional Null Space span { v 1, v 2 } T : R 5 R 5 e 2 = (,1,,, ), T e 4 = (,,,1, ). Range: A Three Dimensional Subpace of R 5 span{ T is not onto: The range is 3d; only three dimensions of R 5 have preimages. T( e 1 ), T( e 2 ), {,,,, } T( e 4 )} T is not onetoone: Two dimensions of R 5 all get mapped to {,,,, }.
13 MATH 37 Linear Transformations: Rn to Rn Exercises 1. Let T : R 3 R 3 be defined in functional form by )) = ( x 1 2 x x 3, 2 x 1 + x 2 + x 3, x 1 + x 2 ). (a) Write the matrix representation A. (b) Prove that T is both onetoone and onto. (c) Evaluate T (( 4, 6, 1)). (d) Find a preimage of the point ( 5, 3, 2); i.e., solve the equation )) = ( 5, 3, 2). (e) Give both the matrix representation and the functional form of T Let T : R 4 R 4 be defined by T ((1,,, )) = (1, 2, 3, 1) T ((, 1,, )) = (3, 6, 9, 3) T ((,, 1, )) = ( 2, 4, 1, 4) T ((,,, 1)) = (4, 8, 5, 8). (a) Write the matrix representation A. (b) Prove that T is neither onetoone nor onto. (c) Evaluate T (( 4, 6, 1, 2)). (d) Determine if the points (5, 1, 8, 49) and (6, 4, 12, 2) are in the range of T, and if so find preimages of these points. (e) Give the form of the null space and give the nullity of T. Also give a basis for the null space. (f) Describe the range of T and give the rank of T. (g) Explain how the domain is divided into subspaces and how these subspaces are mapped into R 4 via T.
14 MATH 37 Linear Transformations: Rn to Rm Exercises 1. Let T : R 6 R 4 be defined by, x 4, x 5, x 6 )) = ( x x x x 5 3 x 6, 3 x 1 7 x x 3 + x x 6, 2 x 1 5 x x x x 5 + x 6, 4 x 1 9 x x 3 4 x 4 4 x x 6 ) (a) Give the matrix representation of T. (b) Determine and explain whether or not T is onto. (c) Describe the range of T and give the rank of T. (d) Determine and explain whether or not T is onetoone. (e) Give the form of the null space and give the nullity of T. Also give a basis for the null space. (f) Explain how the domain is divided into two subspaces and how these subspaces are mapped into R 4 via T. 2. Let T : R 5 R 3 defined by matrix representation A = (a) Give the function form of T. (b) Determine and explain whether or not T is onto. (c) Describe the range of T and give the rank of T. (d) Determine if (3, 2, 1) is in the range of T. If so, give a preimage. (e) Determine and explain whether or not T is onetoone. (f) Give the form of the null space and give the nullity of T. Also give a basis for the null space. 3. Let T : R 3 R 4 be defined by T ((1,, )) = (3, 1,, 1) T ((, 1, )) = (1, 2, 1, 1) T ((,, 1)) = ( 1,, 2, 1) (a) Give the matrix representation of T. (b) Evaluate T ((1, 2, 3) ). (c) Determine and explain whether or not T is onto. (d) Describe the range of T and give the rank of T. (e) Determine if (1,,, ) is in the range of T. If so, give a preimage. (f) Determine and explain whether or not T is onetoone. (g) Give the form of the null space and give the nullity of T. Also give a basis for the null space.
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