# MATH 423 Linear Algebra II Lecture 38: Generalized eigenvectors. Jordan canonical form (continued).

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1 MATH 423 Linear Algebra II Lecture 38: Generalized eigenvectors Jordan canonical form (continued)

2 Jordan canonical form A Jordan block is a square matrix of the form λ λ λ 0 0 J = λ λ A square matrix B is in the Jordan canonical form if it has diagonal block structure J 1 O O O J B = 2 O, O O where each diagonal block J i is a Jordan block J k

3 Consider an n n Jordan block λ λ λ 0 0 J = λ λ Multiplication by J λi acts on the standard basis by a chain rule: 0 e 1 e 2 e n 1 e n

4 Consider a matrix B = This matrix is in Jordan canonical form Vectors from the standard basis are organized in several chains Multiplication by B 2I: 0 e 1 e 2 Multiplication by B 3I: 0 e 3 0 e 4 e 5 e 6

5 Generalized eigenvectors Let L : V V be a linear operator on a vector space V Definition A nonzero vector v is called a generalized eigenvector of L associated with an eigenvalue λ if (L λi) k (v) = 0 for some integer k 1 (here I denotes the identity map on V) The set of all generalized eigenvectors for a particular λ along with the zero vector is called the generalized eigenspace and denoted K λ The generalized eigenvectors and eigenspaces of an n n matrix A are those of the operator L A (x) = Ax on F n

6 Properties of generalized eigenvectors Let L : V V be a linear operator on a vector space V Theorem (i) K λ is a subspace of V containing the eigenspace E λ and invariant under the operator L (ii) If v 1,v 2,,v m are generalized eigenvectors associated with distinct eigenvalues, then they are linearly independent (iii) If dim V < and the characteristic polynomial of L splits into linear factors, then V = K λ1 K λ2 K λm, where λ 1,λ 2,,λ m are eigenvalues of L Remarks A Jordan canonical basis for the operator L (ie, a basis β such that the matrix [L] β is in Jordan canonical form) must consist of generalized eigenvectors Not every basis of generalized eigenvectors is a Jordan canonical basis However such a basis can always be transformed into a Jordan canonical basis

7 Problem Find the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding Jordan canonical basis for the matrix A = Characteristic polynomial: 1 λ λ λ p(λ) = λ λ λ We expand the determinant by the 5th column, then by the 2nd column:

8 p(λ) = λ(1 λ) 1 λ λ λ λ Expand the determinant by the 3rd row, then by the 2nd column: 1 λ 0 1 p(λ) = λ(1 λ) λ λ = λ(1 λ) 3 1 λ λ = λ(1 λ) 3( ( 1 λ)(1 λ) + 1 ) = λ 3 (λ 1) 3 The eigenvalues are 0 and 1, both of multiplicity 3

9 To find N(A), we convert A to reduced row echelon form: A = Hence (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5, x 6 ) N(A) if x 1 = x 3 = x 4 = x 5 = x 6 = 0 The eigenspace associated to the eigenvalue 0 is one-dimensional, spanned by v 1 = (0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0)

10 The Jordan canonical form of A will contain only one Jordan block with the eigenvalue 0 Also, v 1 can be extended to a chain of generalized eigenvectors in a Jordan canonical basis The other two vectors v 2 and v 3 in the chain should satisfy Av 2 = v 1 and Av 3 = v 2 The equation Ax = v 1 is equivalent to a system of scalar linear equations General solution: x = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) + t(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0), t R We can take v 2 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1) Further, the general solution of the equation Ax = v 2 is x = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2) + t(0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0), t R We can take v 3 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2)

11 To find the eigenspace N(A I), we convert the matrix A I to reduced row echelon form: A I = Hence (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5, x 6 ) N(A I) if x 1 = x 2 + x 3 = x 4 = x 6 = 0 We obtain that dim N(A I) = 2 The eigenspace N(A I) is spanned by w 1 = (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0) and w 2 = (0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0)

12 Since dim N(A I) = 2, the Jordan canonical form of A will contain two Jordan blocks with the eigenvalue 1 Since the multiplicity of 1 as a root of the characteristic polynomial of A is 3, there will be one block of dimensions 1 1 and one block of dimensions 2 2 For the Jordan canonical basis, we need an eigenvector that can be extended to a chain of length 2 However one cannot guarantee that w 1 or w 2 is such a vector We are going to build the 2-chain from the beginning rather than backwards To this end, we find the null-space of the matrix (A I) =

13 Row reduction: (A I) 2 = Hence (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5, x 6 ) N((A I) 2 ) if x 1 = x 2 + x 3 = x 6 = 0 General solution of the equation (A I) 2 x = 0: x = t(0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0) + s(0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0) + r(0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) We know that vectors w 1 = (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0) and w 2 = (0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) form a basis for N(A I) The vector w 3 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0) extends it to a basis for N((A I) 2 )

14 Since w 3 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0) is in N((A I) 2 ) but not in N(A I), the vectors u 1 = (A I)w 3 and u 2 = w 3 form a chain in a Jordan canonical basis for A We obtain that u 1 = (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0) = w 1 The last vector u 3 for the Jordan canonical basis should extend the set {u 1,u 2 } to a basis for N((A I) 2 ) We can take u 3 = w 2 = (0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) Multiplication by A: 0 v 1 v 2 v 3 Multiplication by A I: 0 u 1 u 2 0 u 3

15 Jordan canonical basis: v 1 = (0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0), v 2 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1), v 3 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2), u 1 = (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0), u 2 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0), u 3 = (0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) We have A = UBU 1, where B =, U = Here B is the Jordan canonical form of the matrix A while U is the transition matrix from the Jordan canonical basis to the standard basis

16 Problem Let A = Find An Since A = UBU 1, we have A n = UB n U 1 Hence the problem is reduced to the computation of B n The matrix B has diagonal block structure: J 1 = J 2 = B = J 1 O O O J 2 O = B n = O O J 3 ( ) ( ) , J1 2 = ( ), J 2 2 = ( ), J 3 2 = Finally, J 3 = (1) = J n 3 = (1) Jn 1 O O O J n 2 O O O J n 3, J 3 1 = O ( ) 1 3, J n = ( ) 1 n 0 1

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