1 Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2005) 33, Mass limit on Nemesis Varun Bhalerao 1 and M.N. Vahia 2 1 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai , India 2 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai , India Received 6 July 2004; Accepted 10 February 2005 Abstract. We assume that if the sun has a companion, it has a period of 27 Myr corresponding to the periodicity seen in cometary impacts on earth. Based on this assumption, it is seen that the inner Lagrangian point of the interaction between the Sun and its companion is in the Oort cloud. From this we calculate the mass distance relation for the companion. We then compute the expected apparent magnitude (visible and J band) for the companion using the models of Burrows (1993). We then compare this with the catalogue completeness of optical and infrared catalogues to show that the sun cannot have a companion of mass greater than 44 M jup (0.042 M ). Keywords : Minor planets, asteroids - Oort Cloud - Solar system: general - (stars:) binaries: general - stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs 1. Introduction About half the stars in the galaxy are in binaries (Harwitt, 1998). The presence of a possible companion to the Sun has often been speculated about and has been named as Nemesis in the literature (see for example Bailey, 1984). These speculations have been based on the observations of approximate periodicity in mass extinction on earth, possibly due to increasing frequency of cometary impact. However, the current observations have not found any possible solar companion and only indirect limits have been placed on the mass of Nemesis based on interpretation of geological records. Raup and Sepkoski (1984) show that there is a periodicity in mass extinctions on the earth, and they attribute this
2 28 Varun Bhalerao and M.N. Vahia to cometary impacts. They assume that a binary to the sun perturbs the Oort cloud which increases the number of near earth comets and therefore increases the probability of a cometary impact on the Earth. The only search for Nemesis so far was conducted at Berkeley, but was stopped soon (Muller, 2004). Carlson et. al. (1994) have hypothesized that Nemesis may be a red dwarf. The most extensive work on this problem has been done by Matese, Whitman and Whitmire (1998) proposed a mass of about 3 M jup for this object. They have calculated the trajectories of 82 newly discovered comets and found that 25% of them come from a well-defined location in the sky. They therefore assume that a perturber sitting in the Oort s cloud at 25,000 AU and fed by Galactic tide can adequately explain the various properties of the observed comets. However, in order for the object to be effective, the Oort s cloud has to be perturbed by the galactic tide. In the present paper we try to generalize the constraints of the nature of the binary companion of the Sun. We assume that the Oort s cloud is stable and comets are regularly perturbed into the inner solar system due to external perturbations. We assume that this happens because the Inner Lagrangian Point (L1) of the Sun Nemesis system must be at the Oort cloud. Using this, we attempt to estimate the upper limit on the mass distance relation of Nemesis. We then compare this data with the observational catalogues and show that the mass limits on the solar companion can be quite severe. 2. Assumptions It has been suggested there is a 27 million year periodicity in the arrival of long period comets to the Earth (Raup and Sepkoski, 1984) based on extinction rate of species and other geological evidence of cometary impact. If this is true then the Oort s cloud objects would be perturbed as they moved in the region close to the inner Lagrangian point between the Sun and Nemesis. We therefore assume that the inner Lagrangian point L1 of the Sun - Nemesis system passes through the Oort cloud at different distances (see e.g. Muller, 2002). Based on this, we derive the mass distance relation for the companion. We then attempt to calculate the apparent luminosity of the companion. We assume that the object is as old as the sun and ignore heavier stars since their life times are much shorter (Bowers and Deeming, 1984). It is also seen from Figure 1 that the apparent visual magnitude of heavier objects under given constraints would be lower than +1 which would make them visible even to the unaided eye. For the smaller masses, we use the models from Burrows et al. (1993) and Burrows et al. (1997). We assume the evolution of the small mass bodies along the path suggested therein, and neglect the case where the object could be a low mass star at the lower end of the main sequence. Burrows (1997) (see figure 7 in Burrows, 1997) has shown that for objects of mass less than 0.2 M till M, the fall in the luminosity is extremely severe after 10 9 years and the magnitude for the maximum to minimum mass in this range is of the order of 8 orders of magnitude. However the absolute magnitude for M object after
3 Mass limit on Nemesis 29 years is -10 which defines the lower limit of the sensitivity of the present work. From these we calculate absolute visible and J band magnitude of the companion assuming that it radiates as a blackbody. We ignore the case of neutron star or black hole companion since these objects illuminated by accretion will have very high intrinsic luminosity. 3. Calculations We calculate the distance to the companion by iteratively solving the equation for the Lagrangian point between Sun and Nemesis as follows. At the inner Lagrangian point we write the force balance equation GM s d 2 = GM n (r d) 2 + (d r 1)G M n + M s r 3 (1) Here M s, M n are the masses of Sun and Nemesis, r is the separation between Sun and Nemesis, d is the distance of L1 from the Sun r 1 is the distance of center of mass of rm the Sun Nemesis system from the Sun (given by s M s+m n ). This can be simplified as (m + 1)x 5 + (2m + 3)x 4 (m + 3)x 3 + mx 2 2mx + m = 0 (2) In the equation 2, m = Ms M n and x = d r.on the basis of this equation we derive the mass distance relation for a solar companion (figure 2). We adopt the radius and temperature of these objects from models from Burrows et al. (1993) and Burrows et al. (1997). We note here that the evolutionary models used in Burrows et al. (1997) are based only on initial mass and hence do not involve any classification into stars, brown dwarfs and planets. We have derived the apparent magnitudes from this data using our mass distance relations. The apparent J band and visible magnitudes are given in table 1 for objects of different masses. We have taken several sample masses from about M to about 0.24 M. The first column in table 1 is the mass of Nemesis in terms of Solar mass, the second column is the distance of assuming a period of 27 Myr (see figure 1), and columns 3 and 4 give the apparent visual ( nm) and infrared (J band 1.24 ± 0.1 micron) magnitudes (ESO, 2005).
4 30 Varun Bhalerao and M.N. Vahia Table 1. Mass distance relation for Nemesis for period 27 million years. M comp/m Pair separation Apparent Apparent (AU) V magnitude J magnitude , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , We also calculate the change in apparent magnitudes (and hence the shift in cutoff mass) as a result of change in the period. Calculations show that by increasing the period by 1 Myr increases the apparent magnitude (visible as well as J band) by about 0.05, while decreasing the period by 1 Myr decreases the apparent magnitude (visible as well as J band) by about Discussion We attempt to estimate the limit on the mass of Nemesis based on the above calculations. Figure 2 shows the distance from the Sun to L1 and to Nemesis as a function of mass of Nemesis. The curves are drawn for values of the orbital period of Nemesis as 26 Myr, 27 Myr and 28 Myr.
5 Mass limit on Nemesis 31 Figure 1. Apparent magnitude versus Mass graph for Nemesis for a assumed period of 27 MYr. The horizontal lines indicate the IR and optical catalogue limits In figure 1 we plot the apparent magnitudes as a function of the mass of nemesis, for a period of 27 Myr. We note that calculations have shown that magnitude varies only by a small amount for even a 1 Myr change in period. The horizontal lines indicate the catalogue completeness as defined below. The Tycho 2 star catalouge (Hog et al., 2000) is complete till m v =11.0 (see also Vizier Catalogue service). The Guide Star Catalouge GSC 2.2 taken from STScI(2001) is complete to J= From figure 2 and the calculations we conclude that the sun cannot have an unobserved companion with mass > 44 M jup. We estimate the error in this limit as follows. Since the periodicity in the geological records is 27 million years, the sum of the perihelion and aphelion distance must be 180,000 AU from Kepler s laws approximated for a low mass companion. Hence, if the object is in a highly elliptical orbit, the farthest the object can be, is 180,000 AU from the Sun. If the object is presently at its aphelion distance, then the apparent brightness will be a factor of 4 less than the value calculated here, effectively increasing the apparent magnitude by 1.5. This shifts the cutoff to about M (47 M jup ).
6 32 Varun Bhalerao and M.N. Vahia Figure 2. Distance from the Sun to L1 and to Nemesis as a function of mass of Nemesis,for values of the orbital period of nemesis as 26 Myr, 27 Myr and 28 Myr. Lopatnikov et al. (1991) estimate the Oort cloud mass to be about 300 earth masses (about 0.95 M jup ), while in more recent work of Weissman (1996) estimates the Oort cloud mass to be about 38 earth masses (0.12 M jup ). We note that this mass will be distributed through the entire Oort cloud. So, its influence on the orbit of a companion of > 40 M jup (which is our range) can be neglected safely. 5. Conclusion We conclude that if the Sun Nemesis system has a period of 27 Myr, the sun cannot have a companion > 44 M jup (0.042 M ). The assumption of catalogue completeness does not necessarily imply the completeness of parallax measurements also. Hence it may be that the solar companion may have
7 Mass limit on Nemesis 33 been missed due to absence of parallax measurements even though its image may exist in the catalogues. R.A. Muller (Private Communication). Acknowledgements One of us (VB) wishes to thank Chanitanya Ghone and Surhud More for their assistance and support. The Guide Star CatalogueII is a joint project of the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino. Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS The participation of the Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino is supported by the Italian Council for Research in Astronomy. Additional support is provided by European Southern Observatory, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, the International GEMINI project and the European Space Agency Astrophysics Division. References Bailey, M. E., 1984, Nature, 311, 602. Burrows, A, W. B., Hubbard, J. I., Lunine, James Liebert, 2001, Rev. Modern Physics, 73, 719. Burrows, A., 2005, Burrows, A., Hubbard, W. B., Saumon, D., Lunine, J. I., 1993,Ap.J., 406, 158. Burrows, A., Marley, M., Hubbard, W. B., Lunine, J. I., Guillot, T., Saumon, D., Freedman, R., Sudarsky, D., Sharp, C., 1997, Ap.J., 491, 856. Carlson, S., Culler, T., Muller, R. A., Tetreault, M., Perlmutter, S., 1994, LPICo.825. ESO, 2005, Harwitt, M, 1998, Astrophysical Concepts, Springer Astronomy and Astrophysics Library. Hog, E., Fabricius, C., Makarov, V.V., Urban, S., Corbin, T., Wycoff, G., Bastian, U., Schwekendiek, P., Wicenec, A., 2000, Astr. Astrophys., 355, L27. Matese, J. J. Whitman, P. G.; Whitmire, D. P., 1998, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 69, 77. Muller, R A,2002, Geol. Soc. of America Special Paper, 356, p Muller, R A, 2005, Raup, D. M.,Sepkoski, J. J. 1984,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 82, 801. Vizier Catalogue Service, 2005, STScI, 2001,The Guide Star Catalogue, Version Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (2001).
Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws
Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.
Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal
The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What
Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes European Southern Observatory reaching new heights in astronomy Exploring the Universe from the Atacama Desert, in Chile since 1964 ESO is the most productive astronomical
Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June
PROJECT 4 THE HERTZSPRUNG RUSSELL DIGRM Objective: The aim is to measure accurately the B and V magnitudes of several stars in the cluster, and plot them on a Colour Magnitude Diagram. The students will
Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and
Astronomy of extrasolar planetary systems Methods and results of searches for planets around other stars Course layout - methods Introduction and history of searches for planets Doppler spectroscopy and
15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.
Monografías de la Real Academia de Ciencias de Zaragoza. 25: 115 120, (2004). Extra-solar massive planets with small semi-major axes? S. Fernández, D. Giuliodori and M. A. Nicotra Observatorio Astronómico.
Astronomy 114 Summary of Important Concepts #1 1 1 Kepler s Third Law Kepler discovered that the size of a planet s orbit (the semi-major axis of the ellipse) is simply related to sidereal period of the
Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality
The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary
Virtual Observatory tools for the detection of T dwarfs Enrique Solano, LAEFF / SVO Eduardo Martín, J.A. Caballero, IAC T dwarfs Low-mass (60-13 MJup), low-temperature (< 1300-1500 K), low-luminosity brown
1 DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION Daniel S. Orton email: email@example.com Abstract: There are many longstanding
Giant Molecular Clouds http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/irlab/projects/project.htm Galactic Open Clusters Galactic Structure GMCs The Solar System and its Place in the Galaxy In Encyclopedia of the Solar System
THE HR DIAGRAM THE MOST FAMOUS DIAGRAM in ASTRONOMY Mike Luciuk 1.INTRODUCTION Late in the nineteenth century, astronomers had tools that revealed a great deal about stars. By that time, advances in telescope
Old Science 30 Physics Practice Test A on Fields and EMR Test Solutions on the Portal Site Use the following image to answer the next question 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge
UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system
Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered
14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud Pluto Pluto s moons The Kuiper Belt Resonant Kuiper Belt objects Classical Kuiper Belt objects Pluto Data: Numbers Diameter: 2,290.km 0.18. Earth Mass: 1.0. 10 22 kg
The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,
Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets
The Gaia Archive Astronomisches Rechen-Institut am Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg http://www.stefan-jordan.de 1 2 Gaia 2013-2018 and beyond Progress with Gaia 3 HIPPARCOS Gaia accuracy
Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching
USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION Ian Cooper School of Physics The University of Sydney firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction The numerical calculations performed by scientists and engineers
Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted
SYLLABUS FORM WESTCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE Valhalla, NY l0595 l. Course #:PHYSC 151 2. NAME OF ORIGINATOR /REVISOR: PAUL ROBINSON NAME OF COURSE: ASTRONOMY 3. CURRENT DATE: OCTOBER 26, 2011. Please indicate
Observing the Universe Stars & Galaxies Telescopes Any questions for next Monday? Light Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler shift Spectra Doppler effect Spectra Stars Star and planet formation Sun Low-mass
Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius
Open Research Online The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs Jupiter friend or foe? II: the Centaurs Journal Article How to cite: Horner, J. and Jones, B. W.
PTYS/ASTR 206 Section 2 Spring 2007 Homework #2 (Page 1/5) NAME: KEY Due Date: start of class 2/6/2007 5 pts extra credit if turned in before 9:00AM (early!) (To get the extra credit, the assignment must
Planets beyond the solar system Review of our solar system Why search How to search Eclipses Motion of parent star Doppler Effect Extrasolar planet discoveries A star is 5 parsecs away, what is its parallax?
Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve
CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system
Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe
HOMEWORK #1 Solar System Exploration Due Tuesday, January 27th IN CLASS Answers to the questions must be given in complete sentences (except where indicated), using correct grammar and spelling. Please
The Location of the Missing Dark Matter A.G. Kelly. Abstract. A source of most of the missing Dark Matter is proposed. If the formation of stars was at a time, and in a position, such that the light from
OVERVIEW HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM MODIFIED VERSION OF A SOLAR SYSTEM SCALE MODEL ACTIVITY FROM UNDERSTANDING SCIENCE LESSONS Students will construct a scale model of the solar system using a fitness
Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its
White Dwarf Properties and the Degenerate Electron Gas Nicholas Rowell April 10, 2008 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Discovery....................................... 2 1.2 Survey Techniques..................................
Out of This World Classroom Activity The Classroom Activity introduces students to the context of a performance task, so they are not disadvantaged in demonstrating the skills the task intends to assess.
Evolution of Close Binary Systems Before going on to the evolution of massive stars and supernovae II, we ll think about the evolution of close binary systems. There are many multiple star systems in the
California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,
Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has
Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized
name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of
Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar
Size and Scale of the Universe (Teacher Guide) Overview: The Universe is very, very big. But just how big it is and how we fit into the grand scheme can be quite difficult for a person to grasp. The distances
RETURN TO THE MOON Lesson Plan INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEACHERS Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Links: Earth and Space (SNC 1D: D2.1, D2.2, D2.3, D2.4) Group Size: Groups of 2-4 students Preparation time: 1 hour
Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of
Astrometric Microlensing Constraints on a Massive Body in the Outer Solar System with Gaia B. Scott Gaudi 1 and Joshua S. Bloom 1,2,3 1 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MC 20, 60 Garden Street,
Name: HR Diagram Student Guide Background Information Work through the background sections on Spectral Classification, Luminosity, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Then complete the following questions
The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing
Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.
Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? A: Planets Q: What can we learn by studying small bodies of the solar system? A: We can
Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Days of the week were named for Sun, Moon, and visible planets. What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? Daily timekeeping Tracking the seasons and calendar
ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun
Explorations of the Outer Solar System B. Scott Gaudi Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics The Known Solar System How big is the solar system? a tidal R 0 M Sun M Galaxy 1/3 200,000AU How big is
Be Stars By Carla Morton Index 1. Stars 2. Spectral types 3. B Stars 4. Be stars 5. Bibliography How stars are formed Stars are composed of gas Hydrogen is the main component of stars. Stars are formed
An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation
Black Holes & The Theory of Relativity A.Einstein 1879-1955 Born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein developed the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel
ctivity: Multiwavelength background: lmost everything that we know about distant objects in the Universe comes from studying the light that is emitted or reflected by them. The entire range of energies
So What All Is Out There, Anyway? Imagine that, like Alice in Wonderland, you have taken a magic potion that makes you grow bigger and bigger. You get so big that soon you are a giant. You can barely make
Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Introduction We see the stars as tiny points of light in the sky. They may all look the same but they are not. They range in size, color, temperature, power, and life spans. In
Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking
In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The
Football Review- Earth, Moon, Sun 1. During a total solar eclipse, when almost all of the Sun's light traveling to the Earth is blocked by the Moon, what is the order of the Earth, Sun, and Moon? A. Moon,
The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all
The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation
Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the
Section 24-1 1. Carol is in a railroad car on a train moving west along a straight stretch of track at a constant speed of 120 km/h, and Charles is in a railroad car on a train at rest on a siding along
Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative
Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You
Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They
Lecture 5b: Data Mining Peter Wheatley Data archives Most astronomical data now available via archives Raw data and high-level products usually available Data reduction software often specific to individual
Indiana University Science with the WIYN One Degree Imager Katherine Rhode (Indiana University, WIYN SAC member) Indiana University Department of Astronomy Nine faculty members, plus active emeritus faculty
Gamma Ray Bursts Probes of Star Formation in the Early Universe Edward P.J.van den Heuvel Universiteit van Amsterdam &KITP-UCSB KITP, March 17, 2007 Age of the Universe: 13.7 billion years Age of our Milky
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
Spatially resolved spectroscopy of the exoplanet HR 8799 c M. Janson 1,4, C. Bergfors 2, M. Goto 2, W. Brandner 2, D. Lafrenière 3 email@example.com ABSTRACT HR 8799 is a multi-planet system detected
Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning: Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? How do we detect
Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around
Planet Detection Techniques and Results (outline of lectures) These notes are meant to be read in conjunction with the lecture presentation. A pdf of the powerpoint presentation containing all the illustrations