# Steady-State Power System Security Analysis with PowerWorld Simulator

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1 Steady-State Power System Security Analysis with PowerWorld Simulator S: Power System Modeling Methods and Equations 00 South First Street Champaign, Illinois (7)

2 Topics in the Section Nominal Voltage Levels Per Unit Values Admittance and Impedance Y-Bus Matri Buses Transmission Branches Loads Switched Shunts Generators Power Flow Equations PV, PQ, Slack buses Newton's Method Multiple Solutions -Bus Power Flow PV and QV Curves Maimum Loadability S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation

3 Transmission System: Nominal Voltage Levels Why do transmission systems operate at many different voltage levels? Power Voltage * Current Thus for a given power, if you use a higher voltage, then the current will be lower Why do we care? Transmission Losses Losses Resistance * (Current) Eample: What if we want to transmit 460 MW? At 30 kv, that means,000 Amps At 5 kv, that means 4,000 Amps Because current is Twice as high for 5 kv, that means the losses would be 4 times higher Thus Higher Voltage is better, but more epensive, thus there is a trade-off Means voltages vary depending on the situation S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 3

4 Transmission System: Nominal Voltage Levels Varying Nominal Voltage Harder for a human to compare the voltage levels Harder to handle in the equations used in power systems You d have to include turns-ratio multipliers all over the place This leads the industry to use a normalization method 38 kv 345 kv 38 kv 69 kv 345 kv 345 kv 38 kv 69 kv S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 4

5 Transmission Voltage Normalization using Per-Unit Values Per unit values are used in power systems to avoid worrying about various voltage level transitions created by transformers They also allow us to compare voltages using a percentagelike number All buses in the power system are assigned a Nominal Voltage. Normally this is corresponds the physical voltage rating of devices connected to this bus and voltages are epected to be close to this This means.00 per unit voltage is usually normal But strictly speaking it doesn t have to be. It s just a number used to normalize the various parameters in the power system model. Eample: In Western United States, there is a lot of 500 kv transmission, but it generally operates at about 55 kv S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 5

6 Base Values Define a Power Base (SBase ) for the entire system Transmission system SBase 00 MVA The Voltage Base (VBase) for each part of the system is equal to the nominal voltage From these determine the Impedance Base (ZBase) and Current Base (IBase) ZBase (VBase) SBase IBase SBase 3 VBase S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 6

7 Current Base Calculation: Line to Line Voltage Nominal Voltages are specified as the Line to Line voltage by tradition This is the voltage magnitude difference between the A-B phase, B-C phase, and C-A phase V line-to-ground V linetoline 38 kv 80 kv Line-Ground Current applies to only one phase, but the Power is the sum across all three phases, thus S 3I V S 3IV line-to-ground linetoline 3 S MVARating I I Rating 3 3NomVoltage V line toline A B Ground C S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 7

8 Voltage Base Zones 345 kv 345 kv VBase 345 kv 38 kv 345 kv 38 kv VBase 38 kv 38 kv 69 kv 69 kv VBase 69 kv NOTE: Zones are separated by transformers S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 8

9 Determining a Per-Unit Value To determine a per-unit value, simply divide the actual number by the base For eample Z 0 + j50 ohms SBase 00 MVA ZBase S: Power System Modeling (38,000) 00,000, PowerWorld Corporation 38 kv Base Ohms Z 0 + j50 Ohms Zpu ZBase Ohms j0.65 9

10 The Transmission System - Model of the Wires Y-Bus (Admittance Matri ) Will review the various parts of the transmission system How we model transmission system How these models are entered into software S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 0

11 Impedance (Z) and Admittance (Y) and related terms R, X, B, and G The comple number for Impedance is represented by the letter Z Z R + jx R Resistance X Reactance Admittance is the numeric inverse of Impedance and represented by the letter Y Y G + jb G Conductance B Susceptance S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation

12 Conversion Between Impedance (Z) and Admittance (Y) Impedance and Admittance are comple numbers and are inverses of each other y z r + j r + r + g - j r + b g r r + b r + S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation

13 Y-Bus Matri (the Admittance Matri) Used to model ALL of the transmission lines, transformers, capacitors, etc. These are all the passive elements This part of the model does not change for different solution states Represents only constant impedances The Y-Bus is an N X N matri N is the number of buses in the system A software package will calculate the Y-Bus from the data provided by the user regarding the passive elements of the system Transmission Lines Line Shunts Switched Shunts (Capacitors/Reactors) Bus Shunts S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 3

14 Power System Bus (or node) Nominal Voltage (in kv) B Shunt, G Shunt (in Nominal Mvar) Voltage Magnitude in per unit (calculated) Used as initial guess in power flow solution Voltage Angle in degrees (calculated) Used as initial guess in power flow solution S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 4

15 Converting Nominal MW/Mvar into a per unit admittance G Shunt and B Shunt are given as MW or Mvar at Nominal Voltage ( GShuntMW and BShuntMVar ) They represent constant admittance G + jb Writing this in actual units Converting to Per Unit Values B pu + BShunt SBase MVar Similar derivation for G BShunt B MVar V nom BShunt SBase V nom V nom B MVar pu BShunt SBase MVar S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 5

16 Bus Shunts (B and G) Values epressed in MW/Mvar at nominal voltage Represent a constant impedance/admittance at bus B Shunt : represents an impedance Mvar injection G Shunt : represents an impedance MW absorption S: Power System Modeling Sign of B and G are opposite for historical reasons G represented a load term B represented a capacitor term Y-Bus is affected only on diagonal On Bus Dialog Bus K Bus K 04 PowerWorld Corporation GShunt SBase MW BShunt + j SBase MVar 6

17 Transmission Branch (Line or Transformer) Impedance Parameters Series Resistance (R) in per unit Series Reactance (X) in per unit Shunt Charging (B) in per unit Shunt Conductance (G) in per unit On Branch Dialog Bus K R + jx Bus M jb G jb G S: Power System Modeling Note: This model is modified when including tap-ratios or phase-shifts for variable transformers 04 PowerWorld Corporation 7

18 Transmission Branch affect on the Y-Bus To make the Y-Bus, we epress all the impedances of the model as an admittance g series r r + b series + Then add several terms to the Y-Bus as a result of the transmission line (or transformer) BusK BusM g BusK series + G jbseries + + ( g jb ) series series B j BusM g series r ( g jb ) + series series G jbseries + + B j S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 8

19 Switched Shunts (Capacitor and Reactor Banks) Input the nominal MVAR, the MVAR supplied by the capacitor at nominal voltage It represents a constant impedance Use same conversion as with the Bus Shunts Y-Bus is thus affected only on diagonal terms Bus K On Switched Shunt Dialog Bus K + j QMVar SBase Bus K jb S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 9

20 What does Y-Bus look like? Graphic represents a 8 Bus System Sparse or Mostly Zeros Incident Symmetric Each dot represents a non-zero entry in the Y-Bus S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 0

21 Loads (ZIP model) Loads are modeled as constant impedance (Z), current (I), power (P), or a combination of the three For each of these values you specify a real power and a reactive power (P spec + jq spec ) Constant Power - the most commonly used On Load Dialog S Lk P + spec jq spec S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation

22 Constant Current Load P+jQ specified are what the load would be at nominal voltage of.0 per unit Go back to the equations for comple power and derive epression for S S VI * I * S V P + jqspec Pspec + jq S V θ v.0 θv. 0 θv spec Load becomes a linear function of voltage magnitude On Load Dialog spec S V + Lk ( P jq spec spec ) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation

23 Constant Impedance Load P+jQ specified are what the load would be at nominal voltage of.0 per unit Go back to the equations for comple power load * spec * (.0) + jq spec * V Load becomes a quadratic function of voltage magnitude S S S VI P V V Z V Lk V + V Z Z * (P spec ( Pspec jqspec V S + ) jq P spec spec ) (.0) + jq On Load Dialog spec S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 3

24 Generators Model them as a source of Real and Reactive Power - MW, MVAR output Control features of generators AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulation) Controls the reactive power output (Q) to maintain a specified voltage level at a regulated bus (doesn t have to be the bus to which it is connected) AGC (Automatic Generation Control) Modifies the real power output (P) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 4

25 Generator MW Power Control Input MW Output Minimum and Maimum MW Output Available for AGC Enforce Limits Participation Factor Used when on participation factor control On Generator Dialog S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 5

26 Generator Voltage Control Features Mvar Output Minimum and Maimum MVAR output Or can Use Capability Curve More detailed, but more data Voltage Setpoint in per unit Available for AVR Remote Regulation % Used when more than one generator is controlling the same bus voltage S: Power System Modeling On Generator Dialog (AVR) 04 PowerWorld Corporation Q out Must Stay inside shaded region during operation P out 6

27 The Power Flow Equations This is the heart of all power system analysis Kirchoff s Laws for a power system: Sum of the Currents at every Node Equals Zero S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 7

28 Why the Power Flow? Many loads (like heaters) are just big resistors which should be just an impedance, so why solve the power flow? Because our input data is MW and MVAR values. This is because The eperience of utilities for more than 00 years shows that consumers behave similar to constant power over the long-run If the voltage drops on a heater, the power consumption also decreases, but eventually some people get cold and turn up the heat Actually the built in thermostat and control system probably do this automatically S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 8

29 Deriving the Power Flow Equations Using the Y-Bus, write Kirchoff s Current Law at every bus as a matri equation YV I I 0 generators + loads We are studying POWER systems, so we like to talk about power not current, so S VI * * [V](V Y * [V](V Y * ) -S * generators ) -[V]I + S loads * generators etc. These are N- comple number equations (where N the number of buses in the system) 0 + [V]I * loads 0 S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 9

30 The Power Flow Equations These N- comple number equations can then be written as *(N-) real number equations as below P k 0 V N k m [ V [ g cos( δ δ ) + b sin( δ δ ) ] m km k m km k m P Gk + P Lk Transmission lines, transformers, capacitors Generators Loads Q k 0 V N k m [ Vm[ gkm sin( δ k δ m ) bkm cos( δ k δ m ) ] QGk + QLk S: Power System Modeling Elements of the Y-Bus Note: The variables g km and b km are the real and imaginary parts of the Y-Bus. ( Y G + jb or y km g km + jb km ) 04 PowerWorld Corporation 30

31 The Power Flow Equation Variables Four parameters describe the bus Voltage magnitude (V) Voltage angle (δ or θ) Real Power Injection (P P gen - P load ) Reactive Power Injection (Q Q gen - Q load ) The objective of the Power Flow algorithm is to determine all four of these values S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 3

32 Three Types of Buses In the Power Flow we are given two of these values at each bus and then solve for the other two Generally, there are three types of buses in a Power Flow Type of Bus Slack Bus (Vδ-Bus) (only one of these) PV-Bus (generator on AVR control) PQ-Bus (load or generator not on AVR control) Voltage Mag. (V) Voltage Angle (δ) Power Injection (P P gen P load ) Reactive Power Injection (Q Q gen Q load ) GIVEN GIVEN SOLVE FOR SOLVE FOR GIVEN SOLVE GIVEN SOLVE FOR FOR SOLVE SOLVE GIVEN GIVEN FOR FOR S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 3

33 How does the Power Flow work? The power flow equations are non-linear, which means they can not be directly solved Linear: , so 7 Non-linear: 5 sin(), so??? To solve non-linear equations, an iterative technique must be used To solve the Power Flow, Newton s Method is normally the best technique Simulator uses this by default. S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 33

34 Solving Non-Linear Equations Power Flow Equations are NON-LINEAR equations. There are cos(*) and sin(*) terms which make the equations non-linear This means that finding a direct solution to them is impossible Thus we must use iterative numerical schemes to determine their solution For power flow equations, variations on Newton s Method has been found to be the best technique S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 34

35 35 04 PowerWorld Corporation S: Power System Modeling Discussed in Calculus courses Consider a simple scalar equation f() You can write f() as a Taylor Series Newton s Method... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( h o t f f f f + + +

36 36 04 PowerWorld Corporation S: Power System Modeling Now, approimate this Taylor Series by ignoring all but the first two terms We are trying to find where f() 0 (the power flow equations sum to zero), therefore we can approimate and estimate Newton s Method for Scalar Functions ) ( ) ( ) ( f f f + [ ] [ ] ) ( ) ( f f f [ ] ( 0 ) 0 0 f f

37 Newton s Method This is called an iterative method because you take a guess at 0 and use the Newton-step to a new guess called. Then you use to find, etc. Consider f() -. We find Thus f S: Power System Modeling k k ( ) k k k and + + ( k + k k k k k 04 PowerWorld Corporation ) 37

38 Newton s Method Now take and initial guess, say 0, and iterate the previous equation k k f( k ) k Done Error decreases quite quickly Quadratic convergence f( k ) is known as the mismatch The problem is solved when the mismatch is zero S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 38

39 Non-Linear Equations can have Multiple Solutions Consider the previous eample. There are two solutions. and In an iterative scheme, the initial guess determines which solutions you converge to. Consider starting at 0 -. k k f( k ) k Done S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation S-39 39

40 Non-Linear Equations can have No Real Solution Consider the equation - λ 0, where λ is an independent parameter The number of real solutions depends on the value of λ. For λ > 0, there are two real solutions For λ 0, there is one real solution at 0 For λ <0, there are NO real solutions Parameter variation can change the number of solutions of nonlinear systems S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 40

41 Newton-Rhapson Convergence Characteristics Global convergence characteristics of the N-R algorithm are not easy to characterize The N-R algorithm converges quite quickly provided the initial guess is close enough to the solution However the algorithm doesn t always converge to the closest solution Some initial guesses are just plain bad. For eample, if f is near zero ( illconditioned ), the process may diverge S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 4

42 Etending Scalar to Vectors and Matrices Newton s method may also be used when you are trying to find a solution where many functions are equal to zero Let f() be a n-dimensional function and let be an n-dimensional vector f ( ) f f n ( ) ( ) n S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 4

43 43 04 PowerWorld Corporation S: Power System Modeling Now, the Newton-step is still defined as But is now a matri, called the Jacobian Newton s Method for Multiple Equations ) ( k k k k f f k + n n n n f f f f f f f f f

44 Solving the Power Flow Equations Power Flow Equations are NON-LINEAR equations The cos(*) and sin(*) terms make them non-linear This means we have to use an iterative technique to solve them Define f to be the real and reactive power balance equations at every bus Define to be the vector of voltages and angles at every bus (ecept the slack bus) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 44

45 45 04 PowerWorld Corporation S: Power System Modeling Recall Thus, Setting up the Power Flow Solution ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] Lk Gk N m m k km m k km m k Lk Gk N m m k km m k km m k Q Q b g V V Q P P b g V V P k k cos sin sin cos δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ and ) ( n n n n V V V Q P Q P Q P δ δ δ f n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n V Q Q V Q Q V P P V P P V Q Q V P P V Q Q V Q Q V Q Q V P P V P P V P P δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ f Note: There are n buses, with bus n being the slack bus

46 Power Flow Solutions The power flow equations ehibit the same behavior as other non-linear equations In theory there are up to n - solutions to the power flow equations Of these, ALL or NONE may be real number solutions In power system analysis, we are normally interested only in the solution that is the high voltage solution for every bus S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation S-46 46

47 Eample Two-Bus Power System Consider this lossless (R0) eample system Bus (Slack) R+jX j0.00 Bus P + j Q L L Variable Definitions Power balance equations : θ Voltage Angle at Bus V Voltage Magnitude at Bus 0. B 0 r PMismatch P QMismatch Q L L BV sin( θ ) + BV cos( θ ) BV S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 47

48 How do power flow solutions vary as load is changed? Solution: Calculate a series of power flow solutions for various load levels First determine the following f J( θ, V ) BV BV cos( θ ) sin( θ ) Bsin( θ ) B cos( θ ) BV k θ V ; f ( ) Q L L + P BV sin( θ ) BV cos( θ ) BV S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 48

49 Eample Power Flow Solution Now for each load level, iterate from an initial guess until the solution (hopefully) converges [ f ( 0 )] Consider a per unit load of P L pu and Q L 0 pu A 00 MW load since SBase 00 MVA 0 f Then consider a flat start for the initial guess: V 0 ; θ 0 0. Also consider a start of V ; θ S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation S-49 49

50 Power Flow Two Bus.ls Simple -Bus Power Flow in Ecel Open Microsoft Ecel \S0_SystemModeling\Power Flow Two Bus.ls Gray Shaded cells are user inputs (initial guess, load and network parameters) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 50

51 Iteration Results for Power Flow Solution Power Flow Two Bus.ls Change Initial Voltage to V 0 ; θ 0 0 Cell B5.0 Cell C5 0.0 Change Initial Voltage to V ; θ 0 - Cell B5 0.5 Cell C5 -.0 S: Power System Modeling k V k θ k (radians) High Voltage Solution k V k θ k (radians) Low Voltage Solution 04 PowerWorld Corporation 5

52 Region of Convergence Initial guess of Bus angle is plotted on -ais, voltage magnitude on y-ais, for load 00 MW, 00 Mvar; 0. pu Initial guesses in the red region converge to the high voltage solution, while those in the yellow region converge to the low voltage solution S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 5

53 PV-Curves A PV-Curve is generated by plotting these two solutions as the real power load is varied with the reactive load and impedance constant Eperiment with parameters in cells O-O4 Higher transmission impedance usually decreases the system capacity (maimum load) Per unit voltage magnitude High voltage solutions Low voltage solutions Real power load (MW) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation Note: load values below 500 have two solutions, those above 500 have no solution For a critical value (i.e. the nose point ) there is only one solution 53

54 QV-Curves A QV-Curve is generated by plotting these two solutions as the reactive power load is varied with the real load and impedance constant Per unit voltage magnitude High voltage solutions 0. Low voltage solutions Reactive power load (Mvar) S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation Again: load values below 50 have two solutions, while those above 50 have no solution For a critical value (i.e. the nose point ) there is only one solution 54

55 Maimum Loadability The nose points on the PV and QV curves are critical values They correspond to points of maimum loadability from a static point of view Note: this only considers the static equations. Other problems can occur long before the power system reaches this points: lines overheating or system dynamic problems The critical values depend on the relative allocation between real and reactive power S: Power System Modeling 04 PowerWorld Corporation 55

56 Mathematical Characteristics of the Critical Value At the critical value, the power flow Jacobian will be singular A singular matri is one that has a zero determinant (a generalization of scalar case when df/d 0) A singular matri CANNOT be inverted Thus the Newton power flow does not work well near this point because it requires us to invert the Jacobian matri S: Power System Modeling k f + k 04 PowerWorld Corporation f ( k k k ) 56

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