# A Direct Numerical Method for Observability Analysis

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1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL 15, NO 2, MAY A Direct Numerical Method for Observability Analysis Bei Gou and Ali Abur, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract This paper presents an algebraic method that uses the triangular factors of singular, symmetric gain matrix to determine the observable islands of a measured power system This is accomplished in a noniterative manner via the use of selected rows of the inverse factors Implementation of the proposed method presents little additional effort, since sparse triangular factorization and forward/back substitution procedures common to existing state estimators, are the only required functions The method is further extended for the choice of pseudo-measurements in order to merge the observable islands into a single observable system Numerical examples are given to illustrate the details of the proposed methods Index Terms Observability analysis, measurement placement, observable islands, sparse triangular factorization, forward/back substitutions I INTRODUCTION THE static state estimation is a mathematical procedure to compute the best estimate of the node voltage magnitude and angle for each node from a given set of redundant measurements Network observability must be checked prior to state estimation, to determine the If there are two or more islands, then a meter placement procedure will be followed, in order to make the entire system observable again Observability analysis has so far been accomplished by the help of either topological or numerical approaches The topological approach makes use of the graph theory and determines network observability strictly based on the type and location of the measurements It does not use any floating point arithmetic and needs to be implemented independent of the state estimation solution itself [3] The numerical approach is based on the decoupled measurement Jacobian and the associated gain matrix It uses an iterative scheme to determine all the observable islands if the system is found to be unobservable [1] A similar iterative procedure is employed for placement of pseudo-measurements [2] In this paper, the numerical observability analysis will be reconsidered It will be shown that the information about the observable islands can be extracted from selected rows of the inverse triangular factors of the singular gain matrix Furthermore, these inverse factors will also be shown to carry the necessary information about the location and type of the pseudo-measurements that will merge the These results will be used to develop a noniterative algorithm to find the observable islands The relationship between the proposed method and that of [1] will be shown to explain how the iterations can be avoided in finding the The developed algorithm can be implemented with minimal effort in an existing state estimator, since it requires the same algebraic manipulation of sparse matrices as those used in state estimation solution algorithms II SINGULAR GAIN MATRIX AND ITS DECOMPOSITION Consider the linear decoupled measurement equation given below: where, is the mismatch between the measured and calculated real power measurements is the decoupled Jacobian of the real power measurements versus all bus phase angles is the incremental change in the bus phase angles at all buses including the slack bus is the measurement error vector The decoupled gain matrix for real power measurements can be formed as: where, measurement error covariance matrix is assumed to be the identity matrix without loss of generality Note that, since the slack bus is also included in the formulation, the rank of (and ) will be at most ( )( being the number of buses), even for a fully observable system This leads to the triangular factorization of a singular and symmetric gain matrix can be built using actual or artificial network admittances The proposed method will work independent of this choice Consider the step where the first zero pivot is encountered during the factorization of the singular gain matrix, as illustrated below: (1) (2) Manuscript received December 29, 1998; revised June 1, 1999 This work was supported in part by the NSF Project ECS The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX ( ( Publisher Item Identifier S (00) /00\$ IEEE (3)

2 626 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL 15, NO 2, MAY 2000 where and s are elementary factors given by: (4) Since rank rank, then rank rank If there does not exist an such that and, then the rank of matrix can not be increased since all the zero rows in will still remain zero Contradiction (5) Computation of a row of is required in applying the results of Theorem 31 to the observability analysis This can be readily accomplished by a single back substitution step as follows: (10) is the -th entry of Setting, the triangular factorization of in Eq(3) can proceed with the ( )-nd column This procedure can be repeated each time a zero pivot is detected until completion of the entire factorization The following expression can then be written: where is a singular and diagonal matrix with zeros in rows corresponding to the zero pivots encountered during the factorization of, and is a nonsingular lower triangular matrix III PRELIMINARY RESULTS Consider the addition of a new measurement to the existing set of measurements This will modify the existing gain matrix, as follows: where, represents the row of corresponding to the new measurement Using the triangular factors of as derived in Eq(7), Eq(8) can be re-written as: where, Theorem 31: Let, where is the lower triangular factor of a singular, symmetric matriz, and Then, rank rank if and only if, for any such that Proof: Since is singular, the diagonal matrix will have at least one zero diagonal entry Assume this entry is, then: Since is of full rank, rank( ) is determined by rank( ) If, then the -th row of will be linearly independent of all the other nonzero rows in Since, the rank of will always be 1, no matter if it corresponds to a flow or an injection measurement, rank( )=rank (6) (7) (8) (9) where, is a singleton array with all elements zero except for a 10 as its th entry is the -th row of, given by: The following sections present the algorithms for identification of observable islands and the measurement placement, using the above results IV IDENTIFICATION OF OBSERVABLE ISLANDS Corollary 41: Consider a measured network with several 1 For a pseudo measurement, incident to nodes belonging to the same observable island, of will be zero for those s for which 2 For a pseudo measurement, incident to nodes belonging to different observable islands, of will be nonzero for at least one for which Proof: 1 Assume has at least one nonzero element at the position corresponding to a zero diagonal element of According to Theorem 31,, which means that the pseudo measurement is independent of any other measurements in However, we know that this pseudo-measurement is dependent on the measurements in that island Contradiction 2 Since it is incident to a node outside its own island, the pseudo-measurement is independent of any other measurements in Then the rank of the new gain matrix will increase by one According to Theorem 31, will have at least one nonzero element in the position corresponding to zero diagonals of For the decoupled DC model, the following corollary will also be true Before the introduction of corollary 42, let us define test matrix as the matrix containing only those rows of corresponding to the zero pivots in the diagonal matrix Corollary 42: Consider a measured network untie several 1 All the elements in, which correspond to the same observable island, will have equal values 2 The elements of the row vector (the th row of for which ), belonging to two different is-

3 GOU AND ABUR: A DIRECT NUMERICAL METHOD FOR OBSERVABILITY ANALYSIS 627 lands will have different values, as long as, these islands are directly connected by a branch If no such branch exists, ie no single pseudo measurement can be incident to these two islands, then the elements of belonging to different obseruable islands, may have the same numerical values Proof: 1 For an observable island, there must exist a set of observable branches which forms a tree and connects all the nodes in this island That is, each branch in the tree will be assigned either a power flow measurement or an injection measurement, the latter of which can be considered as a sum of power flow measurements along all branches incident at that bus So the proof is illustrated only for a tree of power flow measurements, with the understanding that injections can similarly be treated Thus, for a power flow measurement along branch, between nodes and, corollary 41 implies that, (11) where Using the linearized real powermodel, and letting be the reactance of branch, the row vector will have the following structure: Let be: (12) (13) Therefore, Eq(11) and (12) imply that Same argument can be extended to all branches of the tree, yielding equal values in, for all nodes that make up the observable island 2 Assume the elements of corresponding to different islands which can be connected by a single pseudo-measurement, have the same values for all, such that So, any pseudo measurement whose incident nodes belong to different islands can not increase the rank of since Contradiction V REVIEW OF NUMERICAL OBSERVABILITY METHOD Numerical observability analysis method suggested in [1] will first be reviewed using a three zero pivot example for simple illustration of the relationship between it and the proposed method of this paper Consider a measured system whose gain matrix is decomposed into its triangular factors with having zero pivots at the bottom three diagonals, which are replaced by 1 s per the method of [1]: and, let us define the rows of where, and will form the test matrix defined in Section IV Following the procedure of [1], the state can be solved as: Solving Eq(14) for : as: (14) (15) where is the second before last element in Eq(15) implies that certain entries in can be equal even for nodes belonging to different This possibility exists due to the linear combination of the columns of In this paper, these columns are proposed to be tested directly and individually, thus avoiding the possibility of wrong identification of observable islands in the first cycle The possibility is referred to as a pathological case This approach eliminates the need for iterations, identifying the observable islands directly in the first pass Furthermore, the cases referred in part 2 of corollary 42, in which the elements in may have the same values for different observable islands, can be resolved easily by checking the connectivity between the islands One simple procedure to accomplish this task is to compute the matrix as defined below: (16) where, is the branch-node incidence matrix, and is the test matrix defined in Section IV VI PROPOSED ALGORITHM The following algorithm is proposed for determining observable islands based on the above results: Step 1 Form the gain matrix and perform the triangular factorization Step 2 Check if has only one zero pivot If yes, stop If not, compute the test matrix from Step 3 Compute the matrix in Eq(16) If at least one entry in a row is not zero, then the corresponding branch will be unobservable Step 4 Remove all the unobservable branches, to obtain the Step 5 Stop

4 628 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL 15, NO 2, MAY 2000 Step 3 Matrix is computed from the test matrix and the branch-node incidence matrix : Fig 1 6 Bus System Example 1: A 6 bus system is used to illustrate the proposed algorithm The measurement configuration is shown in Fig 1 In this example, the decoupled state estimation model is used, and we only consider the real power model All the branch reactances are equal to 1 Measurements and are real power flows between nodes 1 & 2 and 1 & 3 respectively, while is real power injection at node 4 Step 1 The Jacobian matrix is given as: The last three rows in correspond to branches 3-4, 4-5, and 4-6 respectively, which are shown to be unobservable Step 4 Remove the unobservable branches we get the observable islands: [1 2 3], [4], [5], and [6] Step 5 Stop VII MEASUREMENT PLACEMENT After one pseudo-measurement is selected, the new gain matrix will be still singular if its rank deficiency is greater than one We need to update its triangular factors for further analysis The following explains the possibility of the triangular factors updating when is still singular The new gain matrix can be written down as: The gain matrix then is: (17) where suppose: From the results of Section II, we can (18) The triangular factors are: where is a diagonal matrix which is the results of the triangular factorization of, and is the elementary matrix used in the -th factorization Then the triangular factors of are: (19) Step 2 The last three diagonal elements are zero in The last three rows in forms the test matrix : Therefore, we can say that the triangular factors updating of the new gain matrix is valid to get the triangular factors, although the new diagonal matrix may be still singular The following algorithm for single measurement placement can be given as: Step 1 Form gain matrix and compute its triangular factors Step 2 Check if has only one zero pivot If yes, stop If not, compute the test matrix by back substitution (10) Step 3 Decide the observable islands by previous algorithm Step 4 Form the candidate list, which can be obtained by simply finding all the available boundary injections whose associated nodes belong to at least two different Step 5 Select a candidate injection from the list and per-form the triangular factorization updating

5 GOU AND ABUR: A DIRECT NUMERICAL METHOD FOR OBSERVABILITY ANALYSIS 629 Step 6 Return to step 2 Ref [1] proved that a minimal set of additional nonredundant (pseudo-)measurements is so selected that they make the network barely observable, then the estimated states of the already observable islands will not be affected by these pseudo-measurements It is clear that the above algorithm will select a minimal set of pseudo-measurements since only one rank is added to the gain matrix in each iteration Notes: In this paper, only the injection measurements are used to be the pseudo-measurement But all the algorithms proposed in this paper are also valid for branch power flow pseudo-measurements Example 2: The same 6 bus system as in example 1, but with a different measurement configuration, is used We have two real power injection measurements at node 3 and 4, and a real power flow measurement from node 3 to 4 Step 1 Form the Jacobian matrix and then the gain matrix : Step 5 Choose injection at node 1 The triangular factorization updating results in the new factors: Step 2 The whole system is still unobservable The new is computed: Step 3 The observable islands are: [ ], [5], and [6] Step 4 The candidates are: injections at node 5 and 6 Step 5 Choose injection at node 5 The updated diagonal matrix is: The gain matrix then is: The system now is observable Stop The factors of : VIII TEST RESULTS The new observability analysis and measurement placement algorithms have been tested on IEEE 14 and IEEE 118 bus systems A variety of measurement systems, including both observable and unobservable cases, have been studied In this section, we will only show the results for the measurement systems used in Ref [2] for illustration A Finding Observable Islands The IEEE 14 bus system is shown in Fig 2 Test1: The measurement configuration is given in Fig 2 The whole network is observable Test2: Injection measurement at node 5 is removed from the above measurement configuration The test matrix is found to be: Step 2 The network is unobservable since has more than one zero diagonal entries Form test matrix by back substitution of (10): Step 3 In matrix, we find the whole system is divided into the following observable islands: [3 4], [1], [2], [5], and [6] Step 4 Find all the available boundary injections which form the candidates They are injections at node 1, 2, 5, and 6

6 630 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL 15, NO 2, MAY 2000 updating At step 2, we find the network is still unobservable since two zero diagonal entries show up at 10 and 14 in Then we compute At step 3, we find the observable island from are: [ ], and [10] At step 4, we get the candidate list: 6, 10, and 11 At step 5, we choose pseudo-measurement at 10 and perform the triangular factor updating Now the network is observable IX CONCLUSION This paper presents a direct numerical procedure to determine observable islands of a measured network The information about the observable islands, is shown to exist within the inverse triangular factors of the singular gain matrix This constitutes the main contribution of the paper This result is then used to develop a formal algorithm to determine observable islands and for meter placement Numerical examples are included to illustrate the proposed algorithm Implementation of the algorithm is easy due to its use of existing sparse factorization and substitution operations Fig 2 IEEE 14 Bus System Test matrix shows that the whole system is unobservable and divided into the following observable islands: [ ],[6], [10], [11], [12], [13], and [14] B Measurement Placement The same measurement configuration as Ref [2] is used to illustrate the new developed measurement placement algorithm We have injections at nodes 1, 2, 7, 9, 12, and 14, and flows in branches 1-2, 1-5, 2-3, 4-7, 4-9, 6-13, 7-8, and 7-9 and pseudomeasurements (injections at node 3, 5, and 10) Pseudo-measurements are only utilized to make the whole system observable when the network is found to be unobservable under the existing measurement configuration We first form the gain matrix and compute its triangular factors At step 2, we find the network is unobservable since three zero diagonal entries appear at position 10, 13, and 14 in At step 3, after is computed, we obtain the observable islands: [ ], [ ], [10], [11], and [14] At step 4, we get the candidate list: 5, 6, 10, 11, and 13 At step 5, we choose pseudo-measurement at node 5 and perform the triangular factor REFERENCES [1] A Monticelli and F F Wu, Network Observability: Theory, IEEE Trans on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS-104, no 5, pp , May 1985 [2] A Monticelli and F F Wu, Network Observability: Identification of Observable Islands and Measurement Placement, IEEE Trans on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS-104, no 5, pp , May 1985 [3] G R Krumpholz, K A Clements, and P W Davis, Power System Observability: A Practical Algorithm Using Network Topology, IEEE Trans on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS-99, no 4, pp , July 1980 Bei Gou is from Sichuan, China He received the BS degree in electrical engineering from North China University of Electric Power, China, in 1990, and ME(Electrical) degree from Shanghai JiaoTong University, China, 1993 From 1993 to 1996, he taught at the department of electric power engineering in Shanghai JiaoTong University Currently, he is working as a research assistant and pursuing PhD degree at Texas A&M University Ali Abur (SM 90) received the BS degree from METU, Turkey in 1979, the MS and PhD degrees from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, in 1981 and 1985 respectively Since late 1985, he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, where he is currently a Professor His research interests are in computational methods for the solution of power system monitoring, operation and control problems

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