History - Geography - Government: Grade 7

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1 1851 Governor Juan de la Pezuela Cevallos, founded the Royal Academy of Belles Letters. This institution contributed greatly to the intellectual and literary progress of the Island. The school licensed primary school teachers, formulated school methods, and held literary contests Vieques was annexed to Puerto Rico Mutiny by the San Cristóbal artillery brigade against the Spanish crown. The castle is held by rebels for 24 hours causing panic in the city when the cannon are turned around and aimed at the city streets The Pilgrimage of Bayoán by Eugenio Maria de Hostos was published, reveals on a fiction tone restrictions of the Spanish Colonial regime. The book was suppressed by the Spanish Government On February 1, all municipalities were required by order of the Governor, José Lemery, to make appropriations for rural schools Puerto Rico reach a population of 656,328; its population recorded as 346,437 whites and 309,891 "of color" (this category included blacks, mulattos and mestizos). The majority of Puerto Ricans lived in extreme poverty. Agriculture, the main source of income, was limited by lack of roads, rudimentary tools and equipment, and natural disasters, such as hurricanes and periods of drought. While illiteracy was 83.7 percent, the intellectual minority remained relatively active within the limitations imposed by local Spanish authorities. On October, Hurricane Saint Narciso strikes the island. On November 18, an earthquake occurred with an approximate magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale. The epicenter was located in the Anegada Passage, between Puerto Rico and St. Croix, Virgin National Heritage Academies 1

2 Islands. The earthquake produced a tsunami that ran inland almost 150 meters (490 feet) in the low parts of the coast of Yabucoa On September 23, several hundred women and men revolted against Spain for Puerto Rican independence, the event took place in Lares and is better known as the Cry of Lares ("Grito de Lares"). The most important figures in the uprising were Manuel Rojas, Mathias Bruckman, Joaquín Parilla, and Francisco Ramírez. The main leader was Ramón Emeterio Betances but he was not given permission to enter the island. Manuel Rojas plantation in the town of Lares became the headquarters for like-minded revolutionaries who would push for a split from Spain. The rebellion is planned by a group, led by Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis, who in January 6, 1868 founded the Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico ("Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico") from their exile in the Dominican Republic The first political parties are organized in the island. The telegraph is introduced into the island On June 4, as a result of Roman Baldorioty de Castro, Luis Padial and Julio Vizcarrondo efforts, the Moret Law is approved, with this law liberty was given to slaves born after September 17, 1868 and to slaves over 60 years old. On November, the Liberal Reformist Party ("Partido Liberal Reformista") and the Liberal Conservative Party ("Partido Liberal Conservador") were founded, becoming the first true political organizations in the island. The Liberal Reformist Party is led by Román Baldorioty de Castro, José Julián Acosta, Nicolás Aguayo and Pedro Gerónimo Goico, among others. The Liberal Conservative Party is led by José R. Fernández, Pablo Ubarri and Francisco Paula Acuña The Spanish Constitutional Monarchy is replaced by a republican government. The Spanish Crown abolished slavery in Puerto Rico. Leaders of the Puerto Rican abolitionist movement, including José Julián Acosta, Francisco Mariano Quiñones, Julio L. de Vizcarrondo, Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis, waged a long struggle to end slavery on the island. National Heritage Academies 2

3 On March 22, the Spanish National Assembly finally abolished slavery in Puerto Rico. The owners were compensated with 35 million pesetas per slave, and slaves were required to continue working for three more years. The Liberal Conservative Party changed names to Unconditional Spanish Party ("Partido Español Incondicional"). The Liberal Reformist Party changed names to Reformist Federal Party ("Partido Federal Reformista") Spain proclaims "El Yunque" a Forest Reserve, making it one of the oldest reserves in the Western Hemisphere The coffee from Adjuntas is considered to be one of the best coffees in the world In San Juan a horse race track is built. On March, Ramón Baldorioty de Castro, José Celso Barbosa, Rosendo Matienzo Cintrón, and Luis Muñoz Rivera formed the Puerto Rican Autonomous Party that tried to create a political and legal identity for Puerto Rico while emulating Spain in all political matters Luis Muñoz Rivera founded the newspaper "La Democracía" The railroad was inaugurated On August 16, Hurricane Saint Roque strikes the island. Electrical lighting was established in San Juan. On October 5, the "Banco Popular de Puerto Rico" was founded. It is the largest bank on the island The Puerto Rican flag is first used on 22 December and adopted as a national symbol. National Heritage Academies 3

4 1897 On November 25, the Autonomic Charter ("Carta Autonómica") is approved in which Spain concedes political and administrative autonomy to the island. It allowed the island to retain its representation in the Spanish Cortes, and provided for a bicameral legislature. This legislature consisted of a Council of Administration with eight (8) elected and seven (7) appointed members, and a Chamber of Representatives with one (1) member for every 25,000 inhabitants. The telephone service was inaugurated in San Juan. The Orthodox Autonomist Party ("Partido Autonomista Ortodoxo" was founded, led by José Celso Barbosa and Manuel Fernández Juncos On February 9, the new government officially opened for business in the spring of Governor General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government of Puerto Rico under the Autonomous Charter which gave town councils complete autonomy in local matters. Subsequently, the governor had no authority to intervene in civil and political matters unless authorized to do so by the Cabinet. On March 10, Dr. Julio J. Henna and Robert H. Todd, prominent leaders of the Puerto Rican section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, began to correspond with United States President McKinley and Senate in hopes that they would consider including Puerto Rico in whatever intervention is planned for Cuba. Henna and Todd also provided the U.S. government with information about the Spanish military presence on the island. On April 24, Spanish Minister of Defense Segismundo Bermejo sent instructions to Spanish Admiral Cervera to proceed with his fleet from Cape Verde to the Caribbean, Cuba and Puerto Rico. On May, Lt. Henry H. Whitney of the Fourth Artillery is sent to Puerto Rico on a reconnaissance mission, sponsored by the Army's Bureau of Military Intelligence. He provided maps and information on the Spanish military forces to the U.S. government prior to the invasion. On May 10, Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan exchanged fire with the U.S.S. Yale under the command of Capt. William Clinton Wise. On May 12, A squadron of 12 U.S. ships commanded by Rear Adm. William T. Sampson bombarded San Juan. National Heritage Academies 4

5 On June 25, the U.S.S. Yosemite arrived off San Juan harbor, Puerto Rico, to blockade the port. On July 18, General Nelson A. Miles, commander of the invading forces, received orders to sail for Puerto Rico. On July 21, convoy of 3,300 soldiers and nine transports escorted by the U.S.S. Massachusetts sailed for Puerto Rico from Guantánamo, Cuba. On July, 25 General Nelson Miles came ashore with the first contingent of 16,000 American troops, landed unopposed at the town of Guánica in the South of Puerto Rico. Upon arrival, the ship met with Spanish resistance the morning of August 26. By August, the whole island was practically invaded. On August 8, the Spanish-American War, conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin American. On August 12, peace protocols were signed in Washington, D.C. On September 9, U.S. and Spanish Commissions met in San Juan, Puerto Rico to discuss the details of the withdrawal of Spanish troops and the cession of the island to the United States. On September 29, Governor Macías officially announced that Puerto Rico had been ceded to the United States. On October 1, the Spanish and United States commissioners held their initial meeting in Paris to draft the Peace Treaty. On October 18, the Spanish withdrawal from Puerto Rico was completed as the final troops left San Juan for Spain. General John R. Brooke became military governor. On December 10, Treaty of Paris is signed (ratified by the U.S. Senate Feb. 6, 1899), treaty concluding the Spanish-American War. The American peace commission consisted of William R. Day, Sen. Cushman K. Davis, Sen. William P. Frye, Sen. George Gray, and the Honorable Whitelaw Reid. The Spanish commission is headed by Don National Heritage Academies 5

6 Eugenio Montero Rios, the President of the Senate. Jules Cambon, a French diplomat, also negotiated on Spain's behalf. Spain renounced all claim to Cuba, ceded Guam and Puerto Rico and its dependent islets to United States, and transferred sovereignty over the Phillipines to the United States for $20,000, On January 15, the first boxing match was held in Puerto Rico. The federal military forces changed the name of the island to Porto Rico. Currency was exchanged, Puerto Rican "peso" to the dollar. On May, General George W. Davis succeeded to Island command. Freedom of assembly, speech, press, and religion were decreed and an eight-hour day for government employees was established. A public school system was started and the U.S. Postal service was extended to the Island. The highway system was enlarged, and bridges over the more important rivers were constructed. The government lottery was abolished, cock-fighting was forbidden, and a beginning was made toward the establishment of a centralized public health service. On June, the Socialist Working Party was founded, led by Santiago Iglesias Pantín. On August 8, Hurricane San Ciriaco strikes the island. It rained for 28 days straight and the winds reached speeds of 100 miles per hour. The loss of life and property damage were immense. Approximately 3,400 people died in the floods and thousands were left without shelter, food, or work. The sugar and coffee industry was devastated. Luis Muñoz Rivera founded the newspaper "El Territorio". On October, the American Federal Party ("Partido Federal Americano") was founded, led by Luis Muñoz Rivera. The first company of native born Puerto Ricans is organized as part of the American Colonial Army. National Heritage Academies 6

7 1900 The island was surrendered to the United States military authority. On April 2, the Foraker Law (Organic Act of 1900) is approved, establishing civil government and free commerce between the island and United States. The law was impulsed into Congress by senator Joseph B. Foraker. Puerto Rico became U.S. first unincorporated territory. The first civil governor (Charles H. Allen) of the island under the Foraker Act was inaugurated on May 1, in San Juan. On March 19, President McKinley asserts the need for free trade with Puerto Rico. On June 5, President McKinley named an Executive Cabinet under Gov. Charles H. Allen that included five Puerto Rican members--josé Celso Barbosa, Rosendo Matienzo Cintrón, José de Diego, Manuel Camuñas and Andrés Crosas, and six U.S members--william H. Hunt, Secretary; J.H. Hollander, Treasurer; J.R. Garrison, Auditor; W.B. Eliot, Interiors; James A. Harlan, Attorney General; and Dr. M.G. Brumbaugh, Secretary of Education. The Department of Education was formed with Dr. M. G. Braumbaugh (later governor of Pennsylvania) the first Commissioner of Education. The method of of teaching was entirely in English with Spanish treated as a special subject. On November 6, the first elections under Foraker Act were celebrated (registered voters 123,140). On December 3, the first Legislative Assembly which met The Hollander Law was approved, giving Puerto Rico a Resident Commissioner in Washington. On March 4, Federico Degetau takes office in Washington as the first Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. National Heritage Academies 7

8 1902 The Porto Rico Telephone Company was inaugurated. Cuba declares independence; United States declares Puerto Rico a territory. On November 4, the second elections under Foraker Act were celebrated (registered voters 158,924) On March 9, University of Puerto Rico was founded. Roosevelt signed an executive order to surrender the Culebra to Navy Control. U.S. officially designates Luquillo Forest Reserve the only tropical rain forest in the National Forest System Luis Muñoz Rivera and José de Diego founded the Unionist Party of Puerto Rico to fight against the colonial government established under the Foraker Act. On July 4, Beeckman Winthrop became the governor of Puerto Rico and served until First universal suffrage was established, men over 21 years old were allow to participated On March 9, a law establishing the official coat of arms was signed. The original coat of arms was granted by the Spanish Crown in On November 6, President Theodore Roosevelt leaves Washington D.C. for a 17 day trip to Panama and Puerto Rico, becoming the first president to make an official visit outside of the U.S. On December 11, during a visit to Puerto Rico, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt addressed the Puerto Rican Congress and recommended that Puerto Ricans become United States citizens. National Heritage Academies 8

9 1908 Driving licenses began to be issued. The first motion picture projector was brought to the island. It is used in a tent theater called "Cine Puerto Rico" The Olmsted Amendment to the Foraker Act was passed by both houses of Congress, this act placed the supervision of Puerto Rican affairs in the jurisdiction of an executive department to be designated by the president. The legislation was a response to a governmental crisis in Puerto Rico in early The Puerto Rican National Guard was founded On June 29, The Inter American University was established by the United Presbyterian Church. The IAU is a private, nonprofit institution. The system includes schools of law and optometry. Rosendo Matienzo Cintrón, Manuel Zeno Gandía, Luis Llorens Torres, Eugenio Benítez Castaño, and Pedro Franceschi founded the Independence Party which was the first party in the history of the island to exclusively want Puerto Rican independence. Though short-lived, it established a precedent for future organizations with similar ideologies The first Puerto Rican officers are assigned to the Executive Cabinet, allowing islanders a majority. The officers were Martin Travieso, Secretary, and Manuel V. Domenech, Commissioner of Interiors. The first postal savings bank was opened in San Juan. National Heritage Academies 9

10 1915 A delegation from Puerto Rico, accompanied by the Gov. Arthur Yager, traveled to Washington in order to ask Congress to grant the island more autonomy On December 5, the Jones Act is approved, with this law: 1. Puerto Rico becomes U.S. territory ("organized but unincorporated,") 2. U.S. nationalizes all Puerto Ricans as a citizens and allows Puerto Ricans to elect their legislature. As citizens, they were now allowed to join the army, only 300 rejected the citizenship and many others refused to join the army. During World War I, over 18,000 Puerto Ricans served. 3. Separated the three governmental powers: the legislative, the executive and the judicial. 4. A bill of rights was created. 5. Arranged that elections were to be celebrated every four years On March 2, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Jones Act. Puerto Rico became a territory of the United States "organized but unincorporated," a bill of rights and also established a locally elected Senate and House of Representatives. In addition, it granted Puerto Ricans U.S. statutory citizenship, which means that Puerto Ricans were granted citizenship by act of Congress, not by the Constitution and citizenship is therefore not guaranteed by it. On the other hand, the Foraker Act still determined economic and fiscal aspects of government. On May, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs compulsory military service act into law. 20,000 islanders are drafted into World War I. On July 6, the first elections under Jones Act were celebrated. The Organic Act was approved. This gave the island a legislature (19 senators, 39 representatives) elected freely by the Puerto Rican people "El Imparcial" newspaper was founded. On October 11, an earthquake occurred, with an approximate magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale and was accompanied by a tsunami which got up to 6 meters (19.5 feet) high. The epicenter was located northwest of Aguadilla in the Mona Canyon (between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic), causing great damage and loss of life at Mayagüez, and lesser damage along the west coast. The National Heritage Academies 10

11 tremors continued for several weeks "El Mundo" newspaper was founded. The U.S. Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) program was created. ROTC was originally compulsory for university students, but became voluntary after Santiago Iglesias was elected senator, becoming the first Socialist senator, and marking the rise of the Socialist Party as a major party in insular politics Emmet Montgomery Reilly was appointed governor of Puerto Rico. ( ) Montgomery is one of the most hated governors. On June 3, during President Harding's term, the Johnson Act was passed. The act establishes immigration quotas, restricted the immigration of Europeans to the United States. The quota system was based on 3% of existing foreign-born nationality's population in US. As a result, the availability of jobs for Puerto Ricans choosing to migrate to the United States increased In the case of Balzac v. Porto Rico (258 U.S. 308) the U.S. Supreme Court declared that Puerto Rico was a territory rather than a part of the Union. The decision stated that the U.S. constitution did not apply in Puerto Rico. On September 17, the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party was founded. On December 2, the first radio station WKAQ was inaugurated The construction on the Capitol Building began. Fort Buchanan was established in 1925, originally named Fort Miles On September 13, Hurricane Saint Phillip ("San Felipe") strikes the island. Charles Lindbergh visited the island in his plane Spirit of St. Louis. National Heritage Academies 11

12 1929 With the Wall Street stock-market crash of 1929 precipitated the Great Depression, the worst economic downturn in the history of the United States. The depression had devastating effects on the island, creating widespread hunger and unemployment. Many banks couldn't continue to operate. Farmers fell into bankruptcy. The depression lasted over a decade. On January 9, Pan Am Airline started the first flights to Miami. The air mail service was inaugurated Pedro Albizu Campos was elected president of the Nationalist Party Hurricane Saint Nicholas strikes the island On May 17, the Congress of United States approved a law to change back the name of the island Porto Rico, to its original name, Puerto Rico. On September 30, Hurricane "San Ciprián" strikes the island. Two hundred people were killed, a thousand injured, and property damage reached $40,000, Blanton Winship was appointed Governor of Puerto Rico, Elisha Francis Riggs Chief of Police, and Robert A. Cooper Judge of the Tribunal of the United States in Puerto Rico. The program for economic assistance known as Puerto Rican Emergency Relief Administration (PRERA) begins to be implemented. Sixto Escobar became the first Puerto Rican to win a boxing championship of the National Boxing Association. On May 9, cock fighting was legalized in Puerto Rico Franklin D. Roosevelt visited the island. National Heritage Academies 12

13 1935 On May 28, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Puerto Rican Reconstruction Administration (PRRA), which provided for agricultural development, public works, and electrification of the island. The Sixto Escobar Stadium was inaugurated On February 23, Puerto Rican Nationalists Hiram Rosado and Elias Beauchamp, in retaliation for the University Massacre ("Masacre of Rio Piedras"), kill Police Chief Riggs in San Juan. They are captured and killed in the police headquarters of Old San Juan. On July 31, Pedro Albizu Campos, Juan Antonio Corretjer, Clemente Soto Vélez and other Nationalists sentenced to 6-10 years in federal prison. Women given full suffrage. Bacardi y Compañía was established by the Bacardi family in Puerta de Tierra At the beginning of "Nacionalista de Puerto Rico" Party parade, in Ponce, occurred as called "Masacre de Ponce" were 20 people are killed and 100 people are wounded. Pedro Albizu Campos and other Nationalists are transferred out of Puerto Rico to serve time in Atlanta, Georgia. The Mercedita airport in Ponce started operations. President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed every October 12 as Christopher Columbus Day The Partido Popular Democratico (Democratic Popular Party) was founded, under the leadership of Luis Muñoz Marín, which adopted the slogan "Bread, Land, and Liberty." The "Cervecería India" was inaugurated The U.S. Navy purchased 27,000 acres of land on Vieques Island. National Heritage Academies 13

14 1940 The United States Congress grants U.S. Citizenship to Puerto Rican Natives. Camp Santiago in Salinas was established as a Puerto Rican National Guard training facility United States began to establishe military bases in the islands of Culebra and Vieques. The Roosevelt Roads Naval Station is one of the largest naval facilities in the world, covering about 32,000 acres and encompassing three harbors and two-thirds of the island of Vieques. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Rexford Guy Tugwell as governor of Puerto Rico ( ). The Ponce Cement Corporation was founded and started operations in Ponce The "Banco Gubernamental de Fomento" was founded. Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company was established. On May 11, the 188 Law was signed, the law regulates a industrial development program, better known as the "Manos a la Obra" (Hands to work), under the direction of pharmacist Teodoro Moscoso and the Industrial Company of the Development. ICD became the main promoter of the economic development in Puerto Rico On April 2, U.S. Senator Tydings introduces bill to Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico. The U.S. Postal Service issued an stamp to commemorate the 450th anniversary of Columbus' landing on Puerto Rico Puerto Ricans began to emigrate to United States, looking for job and better economic situation On July 7, Pan American Airlines starts non-stop flights to New York. On July 21, President Harry Truman designates native born Jesús T. Piñero governor. National Heritage Academies 14

15 The Independent Party was founded. The Caribbean National Forest, commonly known as "El Yunque" was designated an insular wildlife refuge On August 5th, United States Congress decides to allow Puerto Ricans to elect their governor, President Harry Truman signed the act Pedro Albizu Campos was invited to speak at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras by its students. The Rector Jaime Benitez is against the invitation. A strike is held in the University of Puerto Rico, which lead to violent police repression. On August 15, gambling was legalized in Puerto Rico. On October, Nationalists attempt to assassinate the governor. Guards resisted the attack, killing four of the five Nationalists. (Raimundo Diaz Pacheco, Domingo Hiraldo, Roberto Acevedo and Manuel Torres. Gregorio Hernandez was badly wounded.) On November 2, the first governor was elected by the Puerto Ricans. Luis Muñoz Marin was elected, with 61.2% of the vote. Luis Muñoz Marin campaigned for economic reforms and structural changes in the political relationship between the U.S. and islanders. Marin and other political leaders considered agricultural countries to be underdeveloped and industrial countries developed, manufacturing was seen as the means by which Puerto Rico could develop economically. As a consequence the government launched an industrialization program known as "Operation Bootstrap." Under this program the island was to become industrialized by providing labor locally, inviting investment of external capital, importing the raw materials, and exporting the finished products to the U.S. market. The Statehood Republican Party was founded. The Catholic University of Puerto Rico was founded. It has faculties of arts and humanities, science, education, business, and law. Puerto Rico sends the first delegation to the Olympics. National Heritage Academies 15

16 1949 Caribe Hilton Hotel was inaugurated. (Fomento invested more than $7 million dollars.) San Juan National Historic Site was established. National Heritage Academies 16

17 1950 The first Health Center was founded in Adjuntas. The first Social Security cards are issued. On November 1, two Puerto Ricans from New York (nationalists) attempt to kill President Harry S. Truman at Blair House in Washington. One of the assailants and one White House policeman die On July 4, the 600 Law was passed, giving Puerto Rico the right to establish a government with proper constitution On March 3, the flag of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was officially adopted - based on a flag designed by a group of patriots in the year On July 25, the New Constitution was approved by voters in a referendum in March, and Puerto Rico was proclaimed as Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. On November 4, Luis Muñoz Marín was re-elected governor to his second 4-year term, with 64.9% of the vote The largest migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States mainland ocurred, with 69,124 emigrating (mostly to New York, New Jersey and Florida) First experimental transmissions of television occurred. On March 1, Puerto Rican nationalists (Lolita Lebron, Rafael Cancel Miranda, Irvin Flores and Andres Figueroa) open fire in the U.S. House of Representatives, wounding five Congressmen. They are sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. National Heritage Academies 17

18 1955 On June 21, the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture was founded. The first Pueblo supermarket was established (located in Puerto Nuevo, San Juan) On August 12, Hurricane Saint Clare strikes the island. On November 6, Luis Muñoz Marín was re-elected governor to his third 4-year term, with 62.5% of the vote The "El Comandante" horse race track was inaugurated. The first Pablo Casals Music Festival took place in University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Bacardi y Compañía was moved to Cataño. Ponce Art Museum was inaugurated. The San Juan Star newspaper was founded On November 8, Luis Muñoz Marín was re-elected to his fourth 4-year term with 58.2% of the vote President John F. Kennedy visited the island. Rita Moreno wins an Oscar for her acting performance in the motion picture West Side Story. The newspaper San Juan Star wins the Pulitzer prize under the category of Journalism and Editorial Writing. William J. Dorvillier obtained the prize for his editorials on clerical interference in the 1960 gubernatorial election in Puerto Rico Roberto Sanchéz Vilella was elected governor. Observatory of Arecibo was inaugurated (the world largest radio telescope of its type). National Heritage Academies 18

19 1964 On November 3, Roberto Sanchez Vilella was elected governor, with 59.2% of the vote Pedro Albizu Campos leader of the Nationalist Party dies The shopping mall "Plaza Las Americas" was inaugurated, the largest shopping center in central and South America On July 23, first plebiscite on the political status of Puerto Rico is held. Voters overwhelmingly affirm continuation of Commonwealth status. Commonwealth 60% Statehood 39% Independence 1% 1968 On November 5, Luis A. Ferré, leader of a pro-statehood party, was elected governor, with 43.6% of the vote, becoming the first time a pro-statehood governor has received a majority. The New Progressive Party was founded. Formal research efforts to save the endangered Puerto Rican parrot began in the Forest with collaboration of U.S. Fish and Wildlife, the PR Department of Natural Resources and the World Wildlife Fund On March 16, José Feliciano wins a Grammy On May 18, "El Nuevo Día" newspaper was founded. Marisol Malaret wins the Miss Universe Pageant United States army takes possession of almost all of Culebra Island. President Richard Nixon declared Christopher Columbus day a federal public holiday on the 2nd Monday in October. National Heritage Academies 19

20 1972 The Puerto Rican Socialist Party was founded. On November 7, Rafael Hernández Colón was elected governor, with 50.7% of thw vote, becoming the youngest elected governor, at age 36. Roberto Clemente a baseball player with the Pittsburgh Pirates, who was declared the league's Most Valuable Player in 1966 died in a plane accident On March 5, Luís Aponte Martínez became the first Puerto Rican Cardinal. Roberto Clemente was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame For the sake of controlling the costs of the marine transport in the island, the administration of Rafael Hernandez Colon decided to buy by $176 million the operations of the marine company Is Land to form Navieras de Puerto Rico 1975 On January 24, a bomb set off in historical Fraunces Tavern, New York City, killed four and injured more than 50 persons. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility and police tied 13 other bombings to it. Igneri and pre-taíno ruins found at Tibes, north of Ponce On November 2, Carlos Romero Barceló was elected governor, with 48.3% of the vote. The 936 section of the United States Internal Revenue Tax Code was implemented. This new code allowed American companies to make profit in the island without paying taxes. Banks on the island experienced an unprecedented growth. About 100,000 Puerto Ricans were directly dependent on employment generated by Section 936 companies. The "Ateneo Puertorriqueño" was founded. After numerous investigations and amendments to that statute, the coat of arms final version was approved and signed into law. National Heritage Academies 20

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