Japan. Italy. Germany. Spain. 29-1: Prelude to World War II. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and created a new colony

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1 COUNTRY Japan Italy 29-1: Prelude to World War II ACTS OF AGGRESSION Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and created a new colony Japan started the Second Sino-Japanese War when it attacked China in 1937 Mussolini sent Italian forces to conquer Ethiopia in Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis supported aggressive expansion Germany Spain Hitler defiantly re-armed Germany and created the Wehrmacht Nazi forces occupied the Rhineland in 1936 and violated the Versailles Treaty General Franco led his Fascists to victory in the Spanish Civil War with German and Italian help in 1939

2 March : Steps to War in Europe GERMAN ACTS OF AGGRESSION Hitler forced the Anschluss, or union of Austria with Nazi Germany, which was another explicit violation of the Versailles Treaty September 1938 March 1939 September 1939 At the Munich Conference, Britain and France appeased Hitler s demand concerning the Sudetenland which was in Czechoslovakia Hitler broke his promise made in the Munich Conference and invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia; Britain and France officially ended their policy of appeasement The German Wehrmacht used blitzkrieg, or lightning war, to invade Poland leading Britain and France to declare war

3 29-2: The Axis Advances September 1939 Germany invaded Poland April 1940 Blitzkrieg campaigns against Denmark and Norway May 1940 British rescued troops at Dunkirk June 1940 France surrendered to Germany September 1940 Mussolini ordered forces into Egypt October 1940 Italian forces invaded Greece September 1940 to June 1941 Battle of Britain June 1941 German Wehrmacht invaded the Soviet Union September 1941 Siege of Leningrad began December 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor

4 Slavs and other groups were seen as inferior Jews were sent to concentration camps Final Solution was the planned genocide of Jews Nazi occupation Japanese occupation 29-2: Axis Control Brutal and inhumane treatment of conquered peoples Chinese, Filipinos, and Malaysians used for slave labor Local resistance came in the formof guerilla warfare

5 29-3: The Allies Turn the Tide Allies increased production of arms and vehicles May: First naval victory against Japan at the Battle of the Coral Sea June: Japan is defeated at Midway and is forced to fight a defensive war November: Allies ended the German advance in Africa at the Battle of El- Alamein Big Three agreed to focus on European war and Hitler January: Germans surrendered to the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad May: Germans are forced to surrender in North Africa to Gen. Eisenhower July: Allies invaded Sicily in order to launch attack against Italy September: Italy surrenders and then joins the Allies but is occupied by German forces still fighting Allied bombing raids destroyed German war production and morale June: Allied invasion of Normandy (Operation Overlord) on D-Day August: Allied forces liberated Paris from Nazi occupation December: Allies defeated the final German offensive during the Battle of the Bulge

6 29-4: Victory in Europe and over Japan October 1944 U.S. began the campaign to re-take the Philippines February to March 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima March 1945 Allies crossed Rhine into western Germany April to July 1945 Battle of Okinawa April 1945 The Red Army fought its way into Berlin May 1945 Germany surrendered after Hitler s suicide July 1945 U.S. successfully tested an atomic bomb August 1945 U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki September 1945 Japan formally surrendered and signed peace treaty

7 29-5: The World After the War I. The War s Aftermath A. Devastation 1. As many as 50 million people died as a direct or indirect result 2. Horrors of the Holocaust were discovered B. War Crimes Trials 1. Axis leaders were put on trial for their crimes against humanity 2. Many of those accused were never captured or put on trial 3. Political /military leaders were held accountable for their actions C. Occupying Allies 1. Totalitarian ideologies were discredited and their parties outlawed 2. United States wanted to strengthen democracy to ensure peace II. Establishing the United Nations A. The General Assembly 1. Each member nation had one representative and one vote B. Security Council 1. There were five permanent members on the council (Allies) 2. Power to apply sanctions or send peacekeeping forces

8 IV. New Conflicts Developed A. The Truman Doctrine 1. Result of Soviet incursions into southeastern Europe 2. Founded on the policy of containment of Soviet Union/communism 3. Guided the United States foreign policy for decades 29-5: The World After the War II. Establishing the United Nations (cont.) C. Other UN activities 1. Created the World Health Organization 2. Food and agricultural programs for developing countries III. The Alliance Broke Apart A. Differences grew between the Allies 1. Divided over reparations and governments in Eastern Europe 2. Conflicting ideologies and mistrust led to the Cold War B. The Cold War begins 1. Stalin wanted to spread communism and a western buffer zone 2. Roosevelt & Churchill favored popular sovereignty 3. By 1948, pro-soviet governments are established in Eastern Europe

9 29-5: The World After the War IV. New Conflicts Developed (cont.) B. The Marshall Plan 1. United States gave food and economic assistance to Europe 2. Helped war-shattered Europe to recover very quickly 3. Stalin declined aid and forbade Eastern Europe from accepting it C. Germany Divided 1. Soviet Union gained reparations by dismantling German industry 2. Britain, France, and U.S. also took reparations 3. Western allies united occupation zones to form West Germany 4. Soviets established East Germany under Stalin s control D. Berlin Airlift 1. Stalin sealed off roads and railways to western part of Berlin 2. West responded with an airlift for more than a year 3. Soviets ended the blockade but the rift widened and deepened D. Opposing Alliances 1. United States formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Soviets responded with the Warsaw Pact in 1955

10 29-5: The World After the War IV. New Conflicts Developed (cont.) F. Propaganda War 1. United States defended democracy and capitalism from Soviets 2. Soviets claimed the moral high ground against Western imperialism

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