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1 cold war Short Answer 1. Recognize Ideologies The banner carried by these East German demonstrators in the autumn of 1989 reads, Improve Politics--only with new Government. Explain the meaning of this slogan. What ideology are the demonstrators protesting against? Describe the historical background of this protest. 2. Identify Assumptions Explain how the Soviet political and economic system differed from economic and political systems in democratic, capitalist countries. Why do you think the Soviet systems failed? 3. Recognize Cause and Effect Explain how public opinion in the United States influenced the decisions of presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon concerning the Vietnam War. 4. Make Comparisons Draw some comparisons between the situation in the city of Berlin and the global rivalry between the superpowers during the Cold War. In what ways did life in the city reflect the international conflict? 5. Synthesize Information During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union confronted each other indirectly by supporting opposite sides in local conflicts. Explain how the Cuban situation in the late 1950s and early 1960s was an example of this type of indirect conflict. So we ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. In a sense we ve come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.

2 This note was a promise that all men... would be guaranteed the inalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.... The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream speech. Delivered on August 28, 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. 6. Identify Central Issues Read the excerpt above from the speech Dr. King delivered during a civil rights march on Washington, D.C. in 1963.What does Dr. King mean when he says he has come to Washington to cash a check? What does Dr. King say to his followers about the way they should conduct their struggle? What are the central issues driving this protest? 7. Make Comparisons Compare and contrast communist command economies and capitalist market economies. How are prices determined in each? Who owns property? Which system does a better job satisfying the needs of most people? Why do you think this is so? 8. Recognize Propaganda In the 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy was concerned about the spread of communism in American society and government. Explain how he conducted his search for communists and its result. What does the term McCarthyism mean? Do you think McCarthy may have been motivated by goals other than the security of the United States? Explain your answer. 9. Recognize Cause and Effect Explain how a political crisis in the Middle East in the early 1970s led to a serious recession in the United States and other industrialized democracies in Do you think the same problem could occur today? 10. Summarize Describe Japan s economic miracle that took place between 1950 and Why was Japan so successful during this period? Why do you think the United States supported Japan s economic success even though Japan was in competition with the United States?

3 cold war Answer Section SHORT ANSWER 1. ANS: Possible response: The slogan indicates that protesters would like to see democratic reforms in their country. They think that effective reforms can only be accomplished with an entirely new type of government. They are protesting against communism and the reactionary East German government which strongly resisted reform. This demonstration took place at the end of the Cold War. At this time, recent Soviet policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring) encouraged demonstrations and political reform movements to take hold in Eastern Europe where they were previously prohibited. Political change was taking place in countries such as Poland and Hungary. The rigidly communist East German government resisted all calls for change and even banned Soviet publications. Despite censorship, the protesters have been made aware of the economic benefits of reforms probably from television and radio broadcasts from neighboring West Germany and the rest of the western world. PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp OBJ: Analyze the changes that transformed Eastern Europe. STA: SS.912.W.8.5 TOP: democratic reform 2. ANS: Possible response: Under Soviet communism, the government made all political decisions and controlled most aspects of public life. In a typical democracy, decisions are made by the people and their elected representatives. Communism also featured a command economy, in which the government made most economic decisions and owned most property. This differs from a capitalist market economy in which private consumers and producers make most economic decisions and own most property. The Soviet political leadership valued obedience, discipline, and economic security. Democratic political leadership values freedom and prosperity. The Soviet political and economic systems failed because they did not make allowance for the need of citizens to own property and participate in their own government. The Soviet political system created widespread resentment since it was repressive and cruel. The Soviet economic system was not able to fulfill the most basic needs of the population. PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp TOP: communism 3. ANS: Possible response: Antiwar sentiment grew in the United States during the late 1960s and early 1970s as more and more American troops became casualties in the Vietnam conflict. Public opinion was also influenced by television coverage of burned Vietnamese villages. Street demonstrations became part of the active domestic antiwar movement. As a result of the increasingly unpopular conflict, President Johnson decided not to run for a second term. He also opened up peace talks with North Vietnam. After Nixon took office, he negotiated the Paris Peace Accord in January 1973, which involved the removal of U.S. troops from Vietnam. PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 996 OBJ: Understand how the Vietnam War ended. TOP: Vietnam 4. ANS: STA: SS.912.W.8.4

4 Possible response: After World War II, Berlin was split into two cities, the democratic West Berlin and the communist East Berlin. A concrete wall was built between East and West Berlin, and citizens of East Berlin were not allowed to travel to the West. West Berlin became a showcase for West German prosperity, whereas East Berlin struggled economically. This situation mirrored the global Cold War in several ways: (1) The conflict split the world into two camps, pro-soviet communist and pro-western democratic, with a deep rift between them. (2) Cultural exchanges and travel between the two worlds were often politically limited. (3) The democracies tended to succeed economically during the Cold War, whereas the Soviet bloc nations struggled financially under the communist system. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 966 pp OBJ: Understand how two sides faced off in Europe during the Cold War. TOP: Berlin 5. ANS: Possible response: The U.S. and Soviet Union feared the possibility of nuclear war that could be brought about if their armed forces fought directly with each other. At the same time, each superpower worked to expand its political influence by supporting factions in various local conflicts. During the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro sought and received support from the Soviet Union. According to the Soviet model, he nationalized businesses and restricted political freedoms in Cuba. In 1961, the U.S. supported the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by U.S.-trained Cuban exiles. When the invasion failed, the U.S. implemented a trade embargo against Cuba. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp OBJ: Understand how the Cold War spread globally. STA: SS.912.W.8.2 TOP: Cold War 6. ANS: Dr. King explains that the Constitution and Declaration of Independence are a promise of equality and justice for all Americans, similar to a promissory note or a check. Dr. King points out that these promises remain unfulfilled for some groups, particularly African Americans. Dr. King warns his followers that they must not give in to bitterness and hatred. He is probably referring to race hatred and the possible violence that could result from this that could hurt their cause. The protest march is being driven by the central issue of discrimination in such areas as employment and housing. Other issues are the establishment of equal voting rights and outlawing segregation. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp OBJ: Explain how the United States prospered and expanded opportunities. TOP: civil rights 7. ANS: Possible response: In command economies, government bureaus make most of the economic decisions, including setting prices. They often make decisions for political reasons rather than economic ones. The government also owns most of the property. In market economies, producers and consumers make economic decisions. Prices are based on supply and demand and affected by competition. Property is privately owned. Through their purchasing choices, consumers decide which products are successful. Market economies do a better job of fulfilling the needs of most people. That is because in a market economy the producers of goods and services have a personal stake in making products at a level of quality and quantity that satisfies the needs of the consumer. In other words, the producers success is dependent upon consumer satisfaction. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 972 p. 973 TOP: economies 8. ANS:

5 Possible response: During the early 1950s, the Cold War made many Americans fear that communism might secretly undermine the U.S. government and society. McCarthy publicly accused many people of being communists. This created a climate of fear in which people were not given a fair hearing. Many of his accusations were false and unfair. The term McCarthyism came to mean making unproven accusations. McCarthy s crusade against communism put him on center stage and gave him power over others. It is possible that this influenced his crusade. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 974 TOP: red scare 9. ANS: Possible response: A political crisis in the Middle East in the early 1970s led to decreased oil exports. Oil prices soared worldwide. In America and other industrialized democracies, higher prices for oil left businesses and consumers with less to spend on other products. The result was a serious economic recession in At this time, Americans became very aware of their dependence upon foreign oil and how their lives could be affected by global economic forces. Today the United States and other industrialized democracies remain dependent upon foreign energy supplies, and the availability of these supplies still affects the world economy. If a political event cut off oil shipments from a group of major producers today, it is possible that this could once again cause a worldwide recession. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 977 p. 978 OBJ: Understand how the United States prospered and expanded opportunities. TOP: economies 10. ANS: Possible response: Between 1950 and 1970, Japan s gross domestic product (GDP) soared. Japan s success was dependent upon producing products for export. These products included textiles, steel, and machinery. By the 1970s, Japan s products included cars, cameras, and other consumer goods. Japan was successful because it had experience with an industrial economy in the past. After World War II this helped Japan to quickly build efficient, modern factories that outproduced older Western industries. Because of American military protection, Japan spent little money on its own military which provided more money to invest in the economy. Japan benefited from an educated and skilled workforce. Also the Japanese government protected home industries by imposing tariffs that limited imports. During the Cold War, Japan s economic success was in the interest of the United States since Japan became a strong ally in this important region of the world. PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 984 OBJ: Describe how Japan was transformed. TOP: Japan

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