2 Meg Heubeck- UVA Center for Politics Polish Perspectives How does fear affect one s acceptance of authority? Poland and its neighbors during WWII Emily Grannis- UVA Research Assistant
3 Some questions this presentation will answer: How do our moral development and needs influence our choices? What was life like for the Poles during the war? How does the Polish wartime experience compare to the rest of Europe?
4 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs
5 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs According to the theory, adults move through all the levels they can. They risk the lower needs, such as hunger and shelter to realize in some way, selfactualization. A model of true human needs which shows that a well-adjusted person satisfies their physical needs, such as hunger and thirst, on level one before the other safety needs such as shelter and clothing of level two, etc. The last and highest level is selfactualization. Theoretically, if this need is fulfilled, people can reach their fullest potential.
6 Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young children. A series of moral dilemmas were presented to children, who were then interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario. Level 1. Preconventional Morality Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment. Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests. Level 2. Conventional Morality Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships. Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one s duty, and respecting authority. Level 3. Postconventional Morality Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards. Stage 6 - Universal Principles Kolhberg s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
7 World War II Began September 1 st, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. At about 5:00 A.M. on that date, Germany initiated the war by firing on the Polish fort, Westerplatte. Seventeen days later, the Soviets invaded Poland from the east- September 17 th, 1939 Two weeks later, England and France declared war on Germany. The war in Europe ended May 8 th, 1945, referred to as V-E Day.
8 Life in Poland during the War During the war, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany occupied Poland. Blitzkrieg or lightning war - Included extensive bombing of Poland, and other allied countries, as a strategy to force submission. Germans bombed planes, railroads, communication posts, weapons and ammo depots, other military targets, and often civilians. The Germans followed the huge air strikes with troops, tanks, and artillery.
9 Germans confiscated food from Poles to feed their army. Soviets looted Polish industrial goods and machinery. Soviets and Germans created intentional conflict between Poland s Jews, Ukrainian immigrants, and Christians. Soviets arrested and deported up to 1.5 million people for slave labor to gulags in Siberia and elsewhere. Large portions of the Jewish population in Poland sent to ghettos and concentration camps by the SS.
10 During the war, approximately 6 million Poles were killed. This represents a greater proportion of Poland s population than any other participant in the war. In addition, Nazis and Soviets killed cultural, intellectual, and economic elites in Poland. Germany also destroyed museums, universities, and burned the capital, Warsaw. Notice the bird in the little boy s cage.
12 A member of the Polish resistance
13 This poster warns Poles of the death penalty for harboring Jews, and delivering, providing or selling food. Poland: only German occupied country where the death penalty for helping Jews was OFFICIALLY ENFORCED
14 Another example
15 Polish Forces 1945 (WorldWar2incolor.com)
16 Let s compare the Polish experience to some other countries occupied by the Nazi regime
18 Germany invaded Demark April 9 th, The Danish Army surrendered a day later. Germany allowed Denmark to keep its monarchy in place. The Danish government kicked out Allied diplomats and heavily censored their people. Germany forced Denmark to give up food and supplies to the German military. This had a negative effect on the Danish economy, causing inflation. Denmark
19 France Vichy-French Government cooperated with Nazi Germany and fought against Allied forces. The French Resistance, mainly in Southern France, opposed the Vichy government and Nazi rule over France. Like other countries during the war, France experienced rationing and food shortages.
20 Annihilation of the Jewish Population of Europe by Country: Country Est. Pre-War Jewish Population Est. Jewish Population Annihilated Percent Killed Poland 3,300,000 3,000, Baltic Countries 253, , Germany & Austria 240, , Slovakia 90,000 75, Greece 70,000 54, Netherlands 140, , Hungary 650, , Ukrainian SSR 1,500, , Belgium 65,000 40, Yugoslavia 43,000 26, Romania 600, , Norway 2, France 350,000 90, Bulgaria 64,000 14, Italy 40,000 8, Luxembourg 5,000 1, Denmark 8, <1 Finland 2, <1 *Occupied Nations Shown in Red
21 Some Penalties for Helping Jews in Poland: Help provided to a person of Jewish faith was punishable by death All household members were punishable by death if a Jew was found on the property Threat of death was a huge deterrence to helping Jews in Poland Nazi death squads carried out mass executions of entire villages that were discovered to be aiding Jews. Polish responses varied. They included acts of altruism at the risk of endangerment, to blackmail, and denunciation or even forced participation in massacres of Jewish inhabitants
22 Comparing the Wartime Experience in Europe... Country Invaded Occupied/Government Status Germany Founding state of anti-semitic Hitler is Chancellor, President, Dictator of Nazi Nazi ideology Germany (Third Reich) Austria Annexed by Germany in March 1938 (Anschluss) Controlled by Germany, non-independent until post WWII Poland Invaded in September 1939 Never surrendered- fought on all fronts from first day to last Controlled by, divided between (mainly) Germany and the Soviets France Invaded, surrendered in June 1940 Divided into French and Italian occupation zones, Vichy Regime (pro-german) established, Free French Forces led by De Gaulle in exile Belgium Invaded, surrendered in May 1940 Occupied by German forces until 1944 Netherlands Invaded, surrendered in May 1940 Harshly occupied by Germany until 1945, Queen Wilhelmina evacuated to London, founded a government in exile
23 Greece Invaded by Italy in 1940, invaded by Germany in April 1941 Occupied by Germany until 1944 Denmark Invaded, surrendered in April 1940 Occupied by Germany during WWII Norway Invaded in April 1940, surrendered in June 1940 Occupied by Germany during WWII, important source of resources, operational base Finland Invaded by USSR in November 1939, surrendered in March 1940 Allied with both the Axis and Allied Powers during the war, assisted both factions Sweden Maintained an official policy of neutrality Allowed troops to pass through Swedish territory Hungary Signed the Tripartite Pact in November 1940, joined the Axis powers Withdrew troops in April 1943 to prevent Soviet aggression, led to German occupation Romania Invaded by Germany in October 1940, signed the Tripartite Pact in November 1940, joined the Axis powers Iron Guard, the Romanian Nazi Party, assisted the Axis Powers military, resource-wise (oil)
24 Using the Biography: Based on what you have learned, how might the individual have reacted to the Jewish genocide? What justification would Maslow offer to explain such action? Kohlberg? How can an activity such as this be used with students to help them understand why some people didn t do anything to help?
25 Modern Relevance Police: As many as 20 present at gang rape outside school dance What caused many to walk by and not offer aid? Why didn t anyone call for help?
26 Those who ignore history- Are doomed to repeat it. George Santayana
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