The Cold War: A Conflict of Ideologies

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1 The Cold War: A Conflict of Ideologies Political Realignment after World War II Fractures of Allied Forces Development of Two Camps; Partition Definition of Cold War Causes of the Cold War (Who s to Blame?) American & Soviet Domestic Policies McCarthyism, Red Scare; Paranoia & Dissent Stalinism, Khrushchev; Economic Security Foreign Policies & the Global Theater American Containment of Communism Capitalist Dominance vs. the Left Communist International Socialist Countries vs. Exploitation Colonies & Client States (Domino Theory) Asia, Latin America, Africa Map of U.S. & Soviet Ships in the Atlantic; 1962, Height of the Cuban Missile Crisis Short- & Long-Term Effects of the Cold War

2 Political Realignment after World War II Fractures of Allied Forces Britain, France, U.S., U.S.S.R, Associates Alliance as Fragile as Hitler s Regime in 45 Tension on Lands, Economies, Reparations Yalta, February, 45; Potsdam, July, 45 Development of Two Camps Western Capitalist Countries; NATO, 49 Eastern Communist Bloc; Warsaw Pact, 55 Berlin Airlift, Supplies to West Berlin German Partition; Soviet Gains; U.S. Influence Marshall Plan to Rebuild Europe Berlin Airlift, 48/9; Berlin Wall, 61 Definition of Cold War Hostilities short of armed conflict, consisting in threats, violent propaganda, subversive political activities, or the like. OED

3 Territorial Impact of WWII & Spheres of Influence d

4 Partition of Germany, Berlin d The Berlin Wall, early 1960s Areas of Occupation by (former) Allies

5 Causes of the Cold War (Who s to Blame?) Matter of Perspective & Polarity All Soviets or All Americans Fault? Russians Fault Aggressive Communist Revolutionaries Worked with Hitler to Divide Poland Only Last-Minute vs. Japan Imposed Regimes in Eastern Europe Buffer Border vs. Capitalist West Americans Fault Aggressive Political Rhetoric vs. Comintern Broken Promises on Rebuilding Russia Large Military Presence in W. Germany Collaboration with U.K./France Open Threat/Signal of Atomic Bomb Anti-Communist Comic Book, 1960 Cyclical Problem of Competing Conspiracy Theories

6 American Domestic Policies McCarthyism, from 1950 Forward Senator Joe McCarthy, R-Wisconsin Minor Figure, Little-Respected List of 205 in the State Department Strong Anti-Communist Polemic Conservative, Nationalist Supporters Falls in 54; Groundless Accusations of a Bully Red Scare Fear of Communist Espionage; Soviet H-Bomb Federal Employees Loyalty Program, 47 House Un-American Activities Committee Paranoia & Dissent Stringent Attempt on Social Conformity Simple Polarizing Message of Us & Them Liberal, Socially-Minded were Targeted Strong Tinge of Anti-Intellectualism Senator McCarthy, 1954

7 Soviet Domestic Policies Stalinism Strict Obedience to the State Political Dissidents Imprisoned, Killed Political Conformity > Personal Liberties Nikita Khrushchev, De-Stalinization (Correcting the Wrongs) Massive Military Expenditure (cf. U.S.) Missile Defense Systems Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you Agricultural Reforms; Space Exploration Economic Security Pride in the Experience of Everyman Safety Net for All People; Common Wealth Vapid Consumerism < Educated Communism Russian Stamp Commemorating the 1st Sputnik, October 4, 1957

8 Foreign Policies & the Global Theater American Containment of Communism Capitalist Dominance vs. the Left Extension of Domestic Policy Truman Doctrine, 47; Encircling U.S.S.R. Massive Retaliation: Nuclear if Needed To the Brink, but not Abyss Military-Industrial Complex Interested Coalition for Arms Race Superpower w/o Western Parallel It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.... The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. Harry Truman, March 1947, regarding $500 Million in aid for Greece & Turkey Communist International Socialist Countries vs. Exploitation Communist Parties in Network Opposition to Capitalist Imperialism Similar Military Build-up; Keeping up Strength in Uniformity of Ideology Polarized Ideas & Militaries; Mutual Distrust President Truman at Potsdam, with Stalin & Churchill, August 1945

9 Eisenhower s Farewell Speech, 1961 We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-eminence, we yet realize that America's leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment.... Throughout America's adventure in free government, our basic purposes have been to keep the peace; to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among people and among nations.... Progress toward these noble goals is persistently threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world. It commands our whole attention, absorbs our very beings. We face a hostile ideology -- global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method.... Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties. A huge increase in newer elements of our defense... may be suggested as the only way to the road we wish to travel.... Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose.... As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war... I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.

10 Colonies & Client States (Domino Theory) Post- Neocolonialism Battleground for Politics & Ideas Asia Conflict in Korea, U.S. vs. Communists/China Vietnam War, U.S. vs. Communists/Soviet Union Latin America Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 U.S. vs. Castro/Soviet Union Warheads in Cuba, Europe/Turkey Che Guevara in Bolivia, 67 Greek Australians in Vietnam: A Strange Mix of Imperialism, Immigration, & Anti- Communism Africa Guevara in the Congo, 65 Exporting Marxist Guerrilla Tactics

11 Khrushchev to Kennedy, Oct. 26, 1962 I think you will understand me correctly if you are really concerned about the welfare of the world. Everyone needs peace: both capitalists, if they have not lost their reason, and, still more, Communists, people who know how to value not only their own lives but, more than anything, the lives of the peoples. We, Communists, are against all wars between states in general and have been defending the cause of peace since we came into the world. We have always regarded war as a calamity, and not as a game nor as a means for the attainment of definite goals, nor, all the more, as a goal in itself. Our goals are clear, and the means to attain them is labor. War is our enemy and a calamity for all the peoples. It is thus that we, Soviet people, and, together with US, other peoples as well, understand the questions of war and peace. I can, in any case, firmly say this for the peoples of the Socialist countries, as well as for all progressive people who want peace, happiness, and friendship among peoples.... Armaments bring only disasters. When one accumulates them, this damages the economy, and if one puts them to use, then they destroy people on both sides. Consequently, only a madman can believe that armaments are the principal means in the life of society. No, they are an enforced loss of human energy, and what is more are for the destruction of man himself. If people do not show wisdom, then in the final analysis they will come to a clash, like blind moles, and then reciprocal extermination will begin.

12 Short- & Long-Term Effects of the Cold War Massive Military Build-up Nuclear Arms Race; Armageddon Anxiety American Bases around the Globe Alliances between Business & Gov t Mental War in the Interest of Both Social Developments Civil Liberties Infringed; Dissent Quelled Culture of Youth Protests; 1968 Polarization of Popular Ideologies Gov t Spending Reallocated International Boundaries Post- & Neocolonialism Territorial < Cultural Imperialism Success & Failure of Diplomacy Need for Peaceful Resolutions University Teachers at the Protest in Paris, May 1968

13 Spodek, 732 Defense Spending: N.B. 50 to 97

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