IL PASSATO PROSSIMO CON ESSERE

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1 IL PASSATO PROSSIMO CON ESSERE

2 WHAT IS THE PASSATO PROSSIMO? The passato prossimo is used to describe actions and events that have occurred in the past, particularly in the recent past. The passato prossimo is a compound tense that consists of two parts.

3 THE TWO PARTS ARE helping verb + past participle (essere + participio passato)

4 PART ONE THE HELPING VERB Essere: to be io sono noi siamo tu sei voi siete lui è loro sono lei è Lei è Loro sono

5 PART TWO THE PAST PARTICIPLE -are -ato andare andato -ere -uto cadere caduto -ire -ito partire partito

6 BOTH ESSERE AND THE PAST PARTICIPLE ARE NECESSARY TO EXPRESS THE PAST TENSE IN ITALIAN. NOTE THAT THE PAST PARTICIPLES MUST AGREE IN GENDER AND NUMBER. THEY CAN END IN -O, -A, -I, OR -E DEPENDING ON WHO HAS DONE THE ACTION. MANY OF THE VERBS WITH ESSERE INVOLVE MOVEMENT.

7 ANDARE: TO GO io sono andato / andata = I went / I did go tu sei andato / andata = you lui è andato = he lei è andata = she Lei è andato / andata = you noi siamo andati / andate = we voi siete andati / andate = you (all) loro sono andati / andate = they Loro sono andati / andate = you (all)

8 CADERE: TO FALL io sono caduto / caduta = I fell / I did fall tu sei caduto / caduta = you lui è caduto = he lei è caduta = she Lei è caduto / caduta = you noi siamo caduti / cadute = we voi siete caduti / cadute = you (all) loro sono caduti / cadute = they Loro sono caduti / cadute = you (all)

9 PARTIRE: TO LEAVE io sono partito / partita = I left / I did leave tu sei partito / partita = you lui è partito = he lei è partita = she Lei è partito / partita = you noi siamo partiti / partite = we voi siete partiti / partite = you (all) loro sono partiti / partite = they Loro sono partiti / partite = you (all)

10 THE PAST PARTICIPLE OF VERBS CONJUGATED WITH ESSERE MUST AGREE WITH THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE IN GENDER AND NUMBER.

11 MASCULINE SINGULAR: (PAST PARTICIPLE ENDS IN O) Valerio è andato in America. Valerio went to America.

12 MASCULINE PLURAL: (PAST PARTICIPLE ENDS IN I) Tutti sono partiti per le vacanze. Everyone left for vacation.

13 FEMININE SINGULAR: (PAST PARTICIPLE ENDS IN A) Solo Maria è restata a casa. Only Maria stayed at home.

14 FEMININE PLURAL: (PAST PARTICIPLE ENDS IN E) Gina e Flavia sono andate in Grecia. Gina and Flavia went to Greece.

15 INTRANSITIVE VERBS Notice how a preposition follows the verb. This is a good indication that a verb is intransitive. Common prepositions include: a (to), in (in), per (for), da (from), di (of), fra / tra (between), con (with).

16 INTRANSITIVE VERBS Verbs that use essere in the passato prossimo are intransitive, that is, they DO NOT take a direct object. These verbs usually express a change of place or condition. They sometimes can answer the questions Where? or When?

17 INTRANSITIVE VERBS Sergio è partito (quando?) ieri. Sergio left (when?) yesterday. Noi siamo andati (dove?) in Sicilia. We went (where?) to Sicily. Io sono tornato (quando?) martedì. I returned (when?) on Tuesday. Loro sono stati (dove?) in Italia. They were (where?) in Italy.

18 OTHER VERBS CONJUGATED WITH ESSERE Andare (andato): to go Arrivare (arrivato): to arrive Cadere (caduto): to fall Costare (costato): to cost Crescere (cresciuto): to grow Diventare (diventato): to become Entrare (entrato): to enter Essere (stato): to be

19 OTHER VERBS CONJUGATED WITH ESSERE Morire (morto): to die Nascere (nato): to be born Partire (partito): to leave Piacere (piaciuto): to be pleasing Restare (restato): to stay Rimanere (rimasto): to remain Ritornare (ritornato): to return

20 OTHER VERBS CONJUGATED WITH ESSERE Salire (salito): to go up Scendere (sceso): to go down Stare (stato): to be, to stay Tornare (tornato): to come back Uscire (uscito): to go out Venire (venuto): to come Vivere (vissuto): to live

21 REFLEXIVE VERBS **All REFLEXIVE VERBS used in the passato prossimo take ESSERE as the helping verb.** io mi sono tu ti sei lui si è lei si è Lei si è noi ci siamo voi vi siete loro si sono Loro si sono

22 REFLEXIVE VERBS Farsi la doccia to take a shower Io mi sono fatto la doccia stamani. I took a shower this morning. (masc. sing. only) Alzarsi to get up Maria si è alzata alle sei e mezzo di mattina. Maria got up at 6:30 am. (fem. sing. only)

23 REFLEXIVE VERBS Lavarsi i denti to brush one s teeth Noi ci siamo lavati i denti dopo di mangiare. We brushed our teeth after eating. (masc. & fem. plural or masc. plural) Vestirsi to get dressed Voi vi siete vestite in fretta. You (girls) got dressed in a hurry. (fem. plural only)

24 PAST TIME EXPRESSIONS The passato prossimo is often accompanied by an expression of past time, such as ieri, scorso, or fa.

25 EXPRESSIONS WITH IERI: ieri: yesterday ieri mattina: yesterday morning ieri pomeriggio: yesterday afternoon ieri sera: last night l altro ieri: the day before yesterday

26 EXPRESSIONS WITH FA: un ora fa: one hour ago due giorni fa: two days ago tre settimane fa: three weeks ago cinque anni fa: five years ago molto tempo fa: a long time ago poco tempo fa: not long ago qualche tempo fa: some time ago quanto tempo fa?: how long ago?

27 EXPRESSIONS WITH SCORSO: sabato scorso: last Saturday la settimana scorsa: last week il mese scorso: last month l anno scorso: last year

28 OTHER EXPRESSIONS: già: already mai: ever (never)

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