# Three Sections. Energy. Energy. Kinetic Energy. Potential Energy. Formula. The Nature of Energy Conservation of Energy Energy Sources

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1 Three Sections Energy The Nature of Energy Conservation of Energy Energy Sources Energy Definition: Energy is the ability to cause change, or ability to do work. Types of Energy: Kinetic energy Potential energy Elastic potential energy Chemical potential energy Gravitational potential energy Kinetic Energy Definition: Energy in the form of motion. The amount of kinetic energy an object has depends on its mass and its velocity Formula: ½ mass x velocity 2 Joule The SI unit used to measure energy. Potential Energy Formula Energy stored in a motionless object, giving it the potential to cause change. P.E. = mass (m) x height (h) 1

2 Elastic Potential Energy Energy stored by things that stretch or compress. Chemical Potential Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) Energy stored by things that are above Earth. The amount of GPE an object has depends on its mass, the acceleration due to gravity, and its height above ground. GPE = mass (m) x 9.8 m/s2 x height (h) GPE = mgh on Forces Conservation of Energy Energy conversions Law of Conservation of Energy Energy Conversions Definition: Energy changing from one form to another Fuel store energy in the form of chemical potential energy. Mechanical energy: the sum of an object s kinetic and potential energy. 2

3 Laws of Conservation of Energy Definition: Energy may change from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Example: A swing moves back and forth, energy continually converts from kinetic to potential and back. Friction converts some of the mechanic energy into thermal energy. (KE + GPE) before = (KE + GPE) after Conservation of energy in your body Chemical potential energy from food is stored in your body is used to fuel processes that keep you alive. The food calorie is used to measure how much energy you get from various foods. One Calorie is equivalent to about 4,180J. Cross Puzzle Word Bank Calorie Friction Potential Kinetic Electrical Nuclear Mechanical Light 3

4 TAKS Questions Law of Conservation of Energy, therefore, 10 Joules Energy Sources Nonrenewable Energy Resources A natural energy supply that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used. E.g., Fossil fuel (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) Renewable Energy Resources Energy supply that is replaced as quickly as it is used, or is inexhaustible. Far less polluting E.g., sun, wind, and moving water. Energy from Fossil Fuel Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas Benefits / Advantages Gasoline produces a lot of energy at a relatively low cost Drawbacks Supply is limited Petro refinement can be disruptive to wildlife habitats, e.g. drilling Burning petro releases gases into air, causing air pollution and acid rain. Energy from Nuclear Power Nonrenewable energy resource. Think of mass as energy in nuclear reaction. Advantages Great energy released No air pollutant Drawbacks / Disadvantages Obtaining uranium is dangerous Radiation and Radioactive waste Solar Energy Energy from sun in the form of electromagnetic waves. Solar Panels (contain solar cells) convert this energy to electrical and thermal energy. high cost to install not all areas receive sufficient sunlight. Wind Energy Obtained from moving air. Harnessed by wind mills. Not all places have consistent winds. The sight of wind farm can be unappealing. 4

5 Hydroelectric Energy Obtained from kinetic energy of water that flows through a dam. Benefits: Dams control flooding downstream, and minimize soil erosion Dams cause disruption to the ecosystem. Biomass Energy Any organic material that can be used as an energy source. Examples: Burning wood and discarded plant material Burning dried animal dung Methane gas from decomposing material Drawback: Releases gas that pollute air. Tidal Energy Definition: Energy obtained by harnessing the kinetic energy of the rise and fall of ocean tides. Disadvantages: Limited to use in only a few locations. Geothermal Energy Definition: Energy obtained from within Earth that can be used to heat buildings and produce electricity. Disadvantages: Limited to use in only a few locations. Rechargeable Batteries Batteries store energy in the form of chemical energy, which is converted into electrical energy. TAKS Questions Advantages - Reduce waste because they can be re-used. Disadvantages - Contains heavy metal which is toxic to human and environment - High initial cost 5

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