Dissection on Demand: The Heart

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1 TEACHER GUIDE Dissection on Demand: The Heart 60 Minute Health Lesson Science-to-Go! Program Grades: 6 12 Dissection on Demand: The Heart Description The heart keeps the entire body nourished with oxygen and nutrients, but how much do you really know about this vital organ? Heart disease is the number one cause of mortality in the United States! This program will stress the importance of the cardiovascular system, while highlighting ways to keep it healthy. This dissection of a preserved sheep heart is an engaging way to review cardiac anatomy, function, and coronary diseases. Real human specimens will be displayed for comparison with animal samples. Objectives Identify heart anatomy and physiology. Practice safe dissection techniques with professional instruments. Compare animal heart anatomy to that of preserved human specimens. Discuss ways to keep the cardiovascular system safe and healthy. Students will test their own cardiovascular functions with classroom activities. Ohio s Learning Standards Grade 6: Life Science- Cellular to Multicellular Cells are the fundamental unit of life. Cells carry on specific functions that sustain life. Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. High School: Biology: Cells Cellular processes (characteristics of life regulated by cellular processes). National Health Education Standards Grade 6-8: Standard 1 Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health. Grades 9-12: Standard 1 Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.

2 How to Set Up Your Room Please have student desks clear before the program begins. Please provide an empty desk or small table for the museum educator to set up display items. Use the vocabulary and additional resources provided in this Teacher Guide to preview or review program content with your class. If booking multiple programs, transitions will be easier if museum staff sets up in only one location. The Museum will provide all materials for dissection. Vocabulary aorta - the largest artery of the body, sending blood from the heart to the rest of the body. atrium (atria) - the superior chambers of the heart, receiving blood from veins and sending blood down to the ventricles. artery - a muscular blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart. blood - a fluid tissue that transports vital components throughout an organism. blood pressure - the amount of force that is exerted on a blood vessel wall by blood. capillary - the smallest blood vessels in the body, where microscopic components are transferred between the blood and the body s cells. cardiac muscle - a special type of striated muscle found in the heart that is able to coordinate regular rhythmic contractions through electrochemical signals. cardiovascular (circulatory) system - the system of the body composed of the heart and blood vessels, mean to deliver vital component to and from all the cells of the body. cell - the smallest unit of life in all living organisms. chamber - a large compartment within the heart- mammal hearts are composed of four chambers- two atria and two ventricles. cholesterol - a biochemical component that is vital to many structures in animal cells, but can also create plaque in major arteries leading to restriction of blood flow to end organs. coronary artery - arteries branching from the aorta that feed the cells of the heart. heart - a muscular organ that pumps blood through the lungs and to the rest of the body. heart attack - damage to the heart due to low oxygenation, usually from poor blood flow from a diseased coronary artery. heart rate - how frequently a heart beats per minute. hypertension - having blood pressure that is too high, which is a risk factor for heart disease, strokes and other vascular pathologies.

3 hypotension - having blood pressure that is too low, which can result in end organs being deprived of oxygen and other vital components. lungs - organs that provide air exchange for the blood. muscle - a contractile tissue that provides the capability of movement. oxygen- a gas that is required in animals for cellular respiration to make energy. plaque - a blockage on the inner linin of arterial walls that can prevent blood flow to end organs. pulse - a regular beat that can be felt on the heart or its arteries. valve - a flap that allows one-way movement of a fluid such as blood through the heart or veins. vena cava - the largest veins of the body, returning blood from the body and head to the heart. ventricle - the inferior muscular chambers of a heat that are used to pump blood though arteries. Extension Activities 1) Heart Rate Studies. Students can measure their resting heart rates (count the number of beats in one minute) and take a class average. Try experiments to see how different situation affect heart rate- exercise (try more than one kind!), lying down, meditation, reading, eating, etc. Does time of day affect heart rate? Do the students heart rates differ from their parents or teachers? 2) Family History & Risk Factors a. Discuss with the class various risk factors that are associated with heart disease. b. Ask for student volunteers who are comfortable with the topic to research if anyone in their family has had a heart attack or a stroke, and if those individuals engaged in any risk factors discussed with the class. c. Use the volunteers research to decide what percentage of the group has close relatives with these cardiovascular diseases, and how many might be linked to specific behaviors and/or choices. d. Have students research ways to reduce risks of coronary disease, and the difference between genetic and environmentally linked health issues.

4 Online Resources for Teachers and Students Click the link below to find additional online resources for teachers and students. These websites are recommended by our Museum Educators and provide additional content information and some fun, interactive activities to share with your class. CMNH Educators regularly review these links for quality. Web addresses often change so please notify us if any links have issues. Cleveland Museum of Natural History https://cmnh.org/edlinks Educator Resource Center (ERC) The Educator Resource Center offers educator workshops, thematic teaching kits, animal dioramas, and more for loan to area teachers. Contact the ERC at for information on individual or school membership. Visit the Museum s ERC website for more information on workshops https://www.cmnh.org/erc Hours o Monday through Friday, 1 to 5 PM o Wednesday, 1 to 6 PM o Saturday, 9 AM to 2 PM Materials for Loan If you re interested in additional resources be sure to check out the following ERC materials or browse ERC materials online at Related ERC kits to this topic include: The Body s Many Systems: Props within this health kit reveal elementary concepts in the study of the human body, including skeletal/muscular, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and nervous system. Nutrition and You: Get a taste of the MyPlate personal nutrition tool while learning to create healthy meals based on different food groups. Lesson plans include how to identify and interpret information on nutrition labels.

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