Europe at War (cont.)

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1 Europe at War Germany used a lightning war to gain control of much of western and central Europe, but Britain was undefeated and German troops were stopped in Russia.

2 Europe at War (cont.) Germany s use of blitzkrieg, or lightning war, to attack Poland stunned Europe with the speed and efficiency of the attack. In September 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland. By spring 1940, Hitler used blitzkrieg tactics to attack Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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4 Europe at War (cont.) On June 22, 1940, the French signed an armistice allowing German armies to occupy three-fifths of France. U.S. citizens did not want to get involved in the war. President Franklin D. Roosevelt adopted a policy of isolationism, but denounced Germany s attacks. A series of neutrality acts prevented the United States from becoming involved.

5 Europe at War (cont.) In August of 1940, the German air force, the Luftwaffe, launched a major offensive on Great Britain. The British air force inflicted enough damage on Luftwaffe bombers to persuade Hitler to postpone the invasion of Great Britain.

6 Europe at War (cont.) Hitler believed that Britain would not remain in the war without the support of the Soviet Union. Hitler confidently invaded the Soviet Union, hoping to obtain full occupation by winter.

7 Europe at War (cont.) The German forces quickly captured two million Russian soldiers and swept through Ukraine. An early winter turned the tide of German successes; German troops did not have adequate winter supplies and were forced to halt their advances. The Soviet forces launched a counterattack in December of 1941.

8 Japan at War The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor outraged Americans and led to the entry of the United States into the war.

9 Japan at War (cont.) On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, hoping to destroy the Pacific fleet and any attempt of U.S. involvement. Japan quickly acquired territory throughout Southeast Asia, creating the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

10 Japan at War (cont.) With overwhelming public support, the United States joined forces with European nations and Nationalist China to battle Japan. Four days later, Hitler declared war on the United States, creating a global war.

11 The Allies Advance The Allied forces stopped the advance of the Germans and the Japanese.

12 The Allies Advance (cont.) The three major Allied forces (the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain) agreed to fight until the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) surrendered unconditionally. Hitler was still confident in 1942, as Japan continued to advance in the Pacific, and German forces fought in the Soviet Union and North Africa.

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14 The Allies Advance (cont.) In May of 1943, the tide of the war turned when a British and American coalition forced German and Italian troops to surrender in French North Africa. By the spring of 1943, Hitler realized that the battle over Stalingrad would end in a German defeat.

15 The Allies Advance (cont.) Japanese forces were defeated at the Battle of Midway Island when U.S. planes destroyed four attacking Japanese aircraft carriers. With the help of General Douglas MacArthur, the U.S. Army, Marine, and Navy forces freed the Japanese-held islands of the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

16 Last Years of the War Allied victories forced Germany and Japan to surrender unconditionally.

17 Last Years of the War (cont.) The Allies turned the tide of the war with the surrender of Axis forces in Tunisia on May 13, In September, the Allies took Sicily, an area Winston Churchill referred to as the soft underbelly of Europe. The Allied forces planned a strategic invasion of France from Great Britain known as D-Day.

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20 Last Years of the War (cont.) Allied Forces, under U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, landed on the Normandy beaches in history s greatest naval invasion on June 6, Allied troops liberated Paris by the end of August 1944.

21 Last Years of the War (cont.) With the imminent defeat of Germany and the partisan murder of Mussolini, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, Soviet forces advanced through Eastern Europe until Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945.

22 Last Years of the War (cont.) Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945, after President Harry S. Truman authorized the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II was finally over, with casualty estimates totaling 60 million.

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24 THE END

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