7 The Nervous System Study Guide

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1 Name: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: 7 The Nervous System Study Guide Period: The nervous system is the master coordinating system of the body. Every thought, action, and sensation reflects its activity. The structures of the nervous system are described in terms of two principal divisions-the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS (brain and spinal cord) interprets incoming sensory information and issues instructions based on past experience. The PNS (cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia) provides the communication lines between the CNS and the body's muscles, glands, and sensory receptors. The nervous system is also divided functionally in terms of motor activities into the somatic and autonomic divisions. It is important, however, to recognize that these classifications are made for the sake of convenience and that the nervous system acts in an integrated manner both structurally and functionally. Activities provided in this chapter review neuron anatomy and physiology, identify the various structures of the central and peripheral nervous system, consider reflex and sensory physiology, and summarize autonomic nervous system anatomy and physiology. Because every body system is controlled, at least in part, by the nervous system, these understandings are extremely important to understanding how the body functions as a whole. 1. List the three major functions of the nervous system. a. b. c. 2. Choose the key responses that best correspond to the descriptions provided in the following statements. Insert the appropriate letter or term in the answer blanks. Autonomic nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Somatic nervous system a. Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and spinal cord b. Subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles c. Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia d. Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the activity of the heart and smooth muscle, and of glands; it is also called the involuntary nervous system e. A major subdivision of the nervous system that interprets incoming information and issues orders f. A major subdivision of the nervous system that serves as communication lines, linking all parts of the body to the CNS 1 Miss School, Miss Out

2 3. Relative to neuron anatomy, match the anatomical terms given in Column B with the appropriate descriptions of functions provided in Column A. Place the correct term or letter response in the answer blanks. Column A a. Releases neurotransmitters Axon Column B b. Conducts electrical currents toward the cell body Axon terminal c. Increases the speed of impulse transmission Dendrite d. Location of the nucleus Myelin sheath e. Generally conducts impulses away from the cell body Cell body 4. This figure is a diagram of a neuron. First, label the parts indicated on the illustration by leader lines and the terms below. Next, circle the term in the list of three terms to the left of the diagram that best describes this neuron's structural class. Finally, draw arrows on the figure to indicate the direction of impulse transmission along the neuron's membrane. Axon Dendrites Cell body Myelin sheath 2 Miss School, Miss Out

3 5. Label the following diagram of a synapse. 6. Using the key choices, identify the terms defined in the following statements. Place the correct term or letter response in the answer blanks. Action potential Potassium ions Sodium ions Depolarization Refractory period Sodium-potassium pump Polarized Repolarization a. Period of repolarization of the neuron during which it cannot respond to a second stimulus b. State in which the resting potential is reversed as sodium ions rush into the neuron c. Electrical condition of the plasma membrane of a resting neuron d. Period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron f. The chief positive intracellular ion in a resting neuron e. Transmission of the depolarization wave along the neuron's membrane g. Process by which ATP is used to move sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions back into the cell; completely restores the resting conditions of the neuron 3 Miss School, Miss Out

4 7. The figure is a diagram of the right lateral view of the human brain. Match the letters on the diagram with the following list of terms and insert the appropriate letters in the answer blanks. a. Frontal lobe g. Lateral sulcus b. Parietal lobe h. Central sulcus c. Temporal lobe i. Cerebellum d. Precentral gyrus j. Medulla e. Parieto-occipital fissure k. Occipital lobe f. Postcentral gyrus l. Pons 4 Miss School, Miss Out

5 8. This figure is a diagram of the sagittal view of the human brain. First, match the letters on the diagram with the following list of terms and insert the appropriate letter in each answer blank. Then, color the brain-stem areas blue and the areas where cerebrospinal fluid is found yellow. a. Cerebellum j. Mammillary body b. Cerebral aqueduct k. Medulla oblongata c. Cerebral hemisphere l. Optic chiasma d. Cerebral peduncle m. Pineal body e. Choroid plexus n. Pituitary gland f. Corpora quadrigemina o. Pons h. Corpus callosum p. Thalamus i. Fourth ventricle 5 Miss School, Miss Out

6 9. Referring to the brain areas listed in Exercise 8, match the appropriate brain structures with the following descriptions. Insert the correct terms in the answer blanks. a. Site of regulation of water balance and body temperature b. Contains reflex centers involved in regulating respiratory rhythm in conjunction with lower brain-stem centers c. Responsible for the regulation of posture and coordination of skeletal muscle movements d. Important relay station for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex for interpretation e. Contains autonomic centers, which regulate blood pressure and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing and sneezing centers f. Large fiber tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres g. Connects the third and fourth ventricles h. Encloses the third ventricle i. Forms the cerebrospinal fluid j. Midbrain area that is largely fiber tracts; bulges anteriorly k. Part of the limbic system; contains centers for many drives (rage, pleasure, hunger, sex, etc.) 10. The figure below illustrates a "see-through" brain showing the positioning of the ventricles and connecting canals or apertures. correctly identify all structures having leader lines by using the key choices provided below. One of the lateral ventricles has already been identified. color the spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid blue. 6 Miss School, Miss Out

7 11. This figure shows a frontal view of the meninges of the brain at the level of the superior sagittal (dural) sinus. First, label the arachnoid villi on the figure. Label the following structures on the diagram. Dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater Subarachnoid space 12. This figure is a diagrammatic view of a nerve wrapped in its connective tissue coverings. Identify the following structures and use them to color the coding circles and corresponding structures in the figure. Endoneurium Perineurium Epineurium 7 Miss School, Miss Out

8 functions organization 7 The Nervous System CNS PNS supporting cells of CNS supporting cells of PNS Nerve Impulses also called components Reflexes 3-neuron arc neuron arc 25. Regions of the Brain hemispheres thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata involuntary coordination of body movements 8 Miss School, Miss Out

9 Chapter 7 - The Nervous System Chapter Objectives Organization of the Nervous System 13. List the general functions of the nervous system. 14. Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system. 15. Define central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each. Nervous Tissue: Structure and Function 16. State the function of neurons and neuroglia. 17. Describe the general structure of a neuron, and name its important anatomical regions. 18. Describe the composition of gray matter and white matter. 19. List the two major functional properties of neurons. 20. Classify neurons according to structure and function. 21. List the types of general sensory receptors and describe their functions. 9 Miss School, Miss Out

10 22.Describe the events that lead to the generation of a nerve impulse and its conduction from one neuron to another. 23.Define reflex arc and list its elements. Central Nervous System 24.Identify and indicate the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum on a human brain model or diagram. 25.Name the three meningeal layers and state their functions. 26.Discuss the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier. 27.List two important functions of the spinal cord. 28.Describe spinal cord structure. 10 Miss School, Miss Out

11 Peripheral Nervous System 29.Describe the general structure of a nerve. 30. Identify the cranial nerves by number and by name, and list the major functions of each. 31. Name the four major nerve plexuses, give the major nerves of each, and describe their distribution. 32. Identify the site of origin and explain the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. 33.Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the following organs: heart, lungs, digestive system, blood vessels. 11 Miss School, Miss Out

12 Notes: 12 Miss School, Miss Out

13 Notes: 13 Miss School, Miss Out

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