LAB 5: INTRODUCTION TO TOPOGRAPHIC (TOPO) MAPS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LAB 5: INTRODUCTION TO TOPOGRAPHIC (TOPO) MAPS"

Transcription

1 Introduction LAB 5: INTRODUCTION TO TOPOGRAPHIC (TOPO) MAPS A topographic (topo) map is simply a map that depicts three-dimensional landform features on a two-dimensional sheet of paper. Topo maps use special lines called contour lines to delineate points on the landscape having the same elevation. By studying the patterns created by these lines, we can visualize how the landscape looks in three dimensions. This kind of visualization is an important component to the success of many activities you are already familiar with. A baseball fielder visualizes the possible plays as each new batter steps up, just as a carpenter visualizes what he or she wants a structure to look like in a blueprint before any nails are driven or lumber is purchased. Thus, visualization results in a fuller understanding of a situation, the circumvention of potential problems, sound decision-making, and successful, efficient outcomes. When geologists study a topo map, however, they see more than just the lay of the land in their mind's eye. They also look for and identify patterns in the landscape. These patterns are very significant because they yield important clues as to what processes are shaping the landscape and how long these processes have been at work. While many of these patterns might be apparent 'on the ground' when a geologist is in the field, the topo map is a valuable tool because it allows the geologist to look for both large and small scale patterns over a large area from a bird's eye perspective. A standard set of map symbols is used to depict natural and cultural features on topo maps. Other important information, such as the map's name, scale, and contour interval can be found on the bottom margin of the map (see Figure 5.1). Scale Because a topo map is a two-dimensional scale model or representation of the landscape, dimensions of all features must be reduced proportionally. Common scale factors for topo maps are 1:24,000, 1:62,500, and 1:250,000. For example, on a 7-1/2 minute quadrangle topo map (scale = 1:24,000), all features are reduced to one twenty-four thousandth of their actual size, or one unit on the map (the numerator) equals a certain number of units in the field (the denominator). A graphic (bar) scale, printed at the bottom of the map, will help you convert from map scale (in inches) to actual scale (in miles and kilometers). The scales of topo maps can be described relatively as "large-scale" or "small-scale." This simply refers to the relative numerical value of the maps' fractional scales. For example, a 1:10 (1/10) map would be larger-scale than a 1:1000 (1/1000) map, and a particular feature on the 1:10 map would appear 100 times larger than it would on the 1:1000 map. 1

2 Figure 5.1. Information that appears in the margins of U.S.G.S. quadrangle maps. 2

3 Questions - General 1. Suppose you want to buy a topo map of your neighborhood in Tucson in order to determine the elevation of your property. What scale would be more appropriate, 1:24,000 or 1:250,000? Why? 2. If a pond is one inch across at its maximum width on a 1:24,000 scale map, how many feet wide is it in actuality? How many miles? (5280 feet in a mile). Show your work. 3. If the pond in question 2 were on a 1:250,000 map, how many feet wide is it? How many miles? Show your work. Latitude and Longitude The Earth's surface is arbitrarily divided into a system of reference coordinates called latitude and longitude. This coordinate system consists of imaginary lines on the Earth's surface called parallels (latitude) and meridians (longitudes). Both of these are best described by assuming the Earth to be represented by a globe with an axis of rotation passing through the north and south poles. Figure 5.2 The latitude/longitude grid system for the Earth, showing a quadrangle. 3

4 Meridians, or lines of longitude, are circles drawn on this globe that pass through the two poles. Meridians are labeled according to their positions, in degrees, from the zero meridian, which by international agreement passes through Greenwich near London, England. These longitudinal lines, or meridians, are drawn every 10 degrees in an easterly direction from Greenwich (toward Asia) and in a westerly direction from Greenwich (toward North America), creating a family of great circles around the entire globe. Another great circle passing around the Earth mid-point between the two poles is the equator. It divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A family of lines drawn on the globe parallel to the equator constitute the second set of reference lines needed to locate a point on the earth accurately. These lines form circles that are called parallels of latitude, and are labeled according to their distances in degrees north or south of the equator. The parallel that lies halfway between the equator and the North Pole is latitude 45 North, and the North Pole itself lies at latitude 90 North. For increased accuracy in locating a point, degrees may be subdivided into 60 subdivisions known as minutes indicated by the notation '. Minutes may be subdivided into 60 subdivisions known as seconds indicated by the notation ". Thus a position description might read: longitude 64 32'32" East, latitude 44 16'18" South. Longitude is always denoted first; latitude second. Public Land Survey We can use the latitude longitude system as a base for other methods from which to pinpoint smaller features or locations on a map. One of these systems is the United States Public Land Survey System (USPLSS), used in legal transactions in the Unites States. Each state has one or more east-west running baselines and north-south running principal meridians. Additional lines spaced six miles apart run parallel to the baselines and principal meridians. The east-west strips created by these lines are called townships, and the north-south strips are called ranges. Townships and ranges are numbered (and named) according to their position relative to the baseline and principal meridian. Every 6 mile by 6 mile township is subdivided into 36 squares, each with an area of one square mile. These squares are called sections and are numbered sequentially in a serpentine manner starting in the upper right corner. Locations within sections can be pinpointed to whatever level of precision is needed by quartering the section, and then quartering the quarters repeatedly. All of these basics of the PLS system are illustrated in Figure

5 Fig 5.3: Township and Range system of land subdivision. Universal Transverse Mercator system The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system is used by the military and scientists alike to describe locations in a simple grid system. The world is split into over 30 zones. One corner of the zone is deemed the (0,0) point and then distance is counted away from these points in meters. Topographic maps have the number of the zone, the datum used, and any other notes printed in the bottom left corner of the map. The UTM coordinates are found along all four edges of the topographic map. In addition to being relatively easy to use, this system allows Pythagorean mathematics to calculate distance between two points. See attached handout for more information on the UTM system. Magnetic Declination Longitudinal lines always lie in a true north-south direction, and parallels of latitude always lie in a true east-west direction. Magnetic north, however, is the direction towards which the northseeking end of a magnetic compass needle will point. Because the magnetic poles are not coincident with the north and south ends of the Earth's rotational axis, magnetic north is different from true north except on the meridian that passes through the magnetic north pole. The angle between true north and magnetic north is called the magnetic declination, and is normally shown on the lower margin of most U.S.G.S. maps for the benefit of those who use a compass in the field to plot data on a base map. The magnetic declination varies in a systematic manner for each location on Earth. Therefore, it is crucial that the magnetic declination of the area you will be mapping or orienteering is set on your compass. 5

6 Vail, AZ 7.5 Quad Questions - Location 4. What is the fractional scale of this map? 5. What is the magnetic north declination for this map (degrees and direction)? 6. There is one area in the world in which true north is the same as magnetic north. Can you think of where it might be? 7. Use the Public Land Survey system to describe the location of the north shore of Rancho Del Lago (near the center of the map). 8. Use longitude and latitude to describe the same location. 9. Use the UTM system to describe the same location. 10. Determine the exact distance between the buildings at Colossal Cave State Park to the peak of Pistol Hill. 11. What is the elevation at the top of Pistol Hill? 12. What is the gradient (slope) between the top of Pistol Hill and the base of the Radio Tower on the southwest flank of the hill? Show your work. 6

7 Contour Lines On a topo map, the third dimension, the dimension of height (elevation) is shown through the use of contour lines. A contour line, or contour, connects all points on the map having the same elevation above sea level. The contour interval is the vertical difference in elevation between adjacent contour lines and varies according to the scale, purpose, and relief of the map. Index contours are thicker and darker than regular contour lines and are labeled with the corresponding altitude. Relief is the difference in elevation between two map points. Rules for Contour Lines (applicable in both reading and making topo maps) 1. A contour line must never divide or split. 2. A contour line must never simply end. Somewhere (usually off the map) the two ends of a contour line must join to enclose an irregularly circular region. 3. A contour line must represent one and only one elevation. 4. A contour line may never intersect other contour lines. (Overhanging cliffs are a rare exception, in which case the hidden contours are dashed.) 5. Contour lines form a V pattern when crossing streams. The V always points upstream (uphill). 6. Closely spaced contour lines indicate a steep slope; widely spaced lines indicate a gentle slope. 7. Concentric circles of contour lines indicate a hilltop or mountain peak. 8. Concentric circles of hachured contour lines indicate a hollow or closed depression. Figure 5.4. Construction of a contour line from points of known elevation. Figure 5.4 above illustrates how a contour line is constructed from surveyed points of known elevation. To add contour lines at 490' and 510', we would have to interpolate between the known points as shown below. 7

8 When ridge tops or valley bottoms are depicted on topographic maps, contour lines of the highest or lowest elevation are repeated to show that the orientation of the slope has changed. Figure 5.5. Repetition of contour lines when slope orientation is changed. Likewise, contours are repeated to show the changes in slope orientation found in depressions. Note, however, that in cases where a depression is found on a hillside, slope orientation changes only on the downhill side of the depression or crater. Figure 5.6. Repetition of contour lines when slope orientation is changed in depressions. 8

9 Nankoweap, AZ 15 Quad Questions - Contours 13. What is the scale of this map? Are images smaller or larger compared to the previous map? 14. What is the contour interval on this map? Don t forget units. 15. Near the UTM location N, E which side of canyon is the steepest? 16. What direction do the streams in Saddle Canyon flow? Why is the water represented by dotdashed lines? 17. What is the gradient of the river between Nankoweap Rapids and President Harding rapids? Measure your distance along the river, not straight from point to point. 18. Which way is the Tilted Mesa tilted? The location of the mesa is N, E. 9

10 19. Draw in all necessary contour lines on the map below. Use a contour interval of 10 feet. 20. Match the hill cross-sections on the right to their corresponding contours

11 Topographic Profiles Topo maps depict the terrain of an area as viewed from above. It is possible to convert the aerial view of a topo map into a view that shows the topography along a given line as viewed from ground level by constructing a topographic profile. The profile is a cross sectional graph with elevation plotted vertically and distance plotted horizontally, and it clearly outlines the relief and slope along a given line on a topo map. Topo profiles may be readily constructed using the following steps (from Pipkin and Cummings 1983): 1. Choose the line of the profile on the map. Note the relief along the profile line so you can estimate the values for the vertical axis. 2. Lay a strip of paper along the line of the profile. Mark the ends of the profile line on the paper using the designation of the profile line (e.g., A-A', NE-SW). 3. Wherever a contour line intersects the strip of paper, mark a short dash at the edge of the paper. Label the index contours. It is also a good idea to label the points where streams, ridge crests, or other topographic features and certain man-made features such as roads and railroads cross the profile. 4. Select a vertical scale (other than the map scale if appropriate). Label the vertical scale such that the highest and lowest elevations (relief) along the profile are shown. It is not necessary to start from sea level. 5. Plot the elevations noted on the bottom edge of the strip of paper at their appropriate height according the scale on the vertical axis. 6. Connect the points with a smooth curve rather than straight lines. Interpolate for hill tops and valley floors. 7. Label the streams, peaks, and cultural features. 8. If you are exaggerating the vertical scale, calculate the vertical exaggeration (VE) with the equation. Do not forget to convert feet to inches! VE = Representative fraction - vertical Representative fraction - horizontal 1"/12 000" 1"/24 000" = 2 Therefore VE = 2 x actual vertical relief 9. Identify the cross-section by writing on it the title, vertical scale or exaggeration, horizontal scale, name of map, and your name. 11

12 The basics of topographic profiling are illustrated in Figure 5.7. The contour interval on this map is 40, and Old Caves Crater in northeastern Arizona near Flagstaff has been translated into two topographic profiles; one with vertical exaggeration (VE) of 2 and one with VE of 4. To demonstrate the technique for preparing topographic profiles, several representative points are plotted. Figure 5.7. Example of topographic profiling. Topographic Profile for the Lost Continent After you review the introductory information on topo maps with your lab instructor, construct a topographic profile for section A to A' on a topo map of the Lost Continent. Use the map on the next page and draw a profile on the page following the map. 12

13 13

14 Topographic Profile Lost Continent A A' Contour interval = meters Calculate vertical exaggeration. 14

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. RELIEF (brown) Hills, valleys, mountains, plains, etc. WATER. land boundaries, etc. CULTURAL

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. RELIEF (brown) Hills, valleys, mountains, plains, etc. WATER. land boundaries, etc. CULTURAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS MAP 2-D REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH S SURFACE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP A graphic representation of the 3-D configuration of the earth s surface. This is it shows elevations (third dimension). It

More information

Topographic Maps Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007

Topographic Maps Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 Topographic Maps Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 1. In the illustration shown below what navigational features are represented by A, B, and C? Note that A is a critical city in defining

More information

OBJECTIVES. Identify the means by which latitude and longitude were created and the science upon which they are based.

OBJECTIVES. Identify the means by which latitude and longitude were created and the science upon which they are based. Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: isolines, gradient, topographic map, contour interval, hachured lines, profile, latitude, longitude, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, elevation, model EARTH

More information

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

More information

Maps A Primer for Content & Production of Topographic Base Maps For Design Presented by SurvBase, LLC

Maps A Primer for Content & Production of Topographic Base Maps For Design Presented by SurvBase, LLC Maps A Primer for Content & Production of Topographic Base Maps For Design Presented by Definition and Purpose of, Map: a representation of the whole or a part of an area. Maps serve a wide range of purposes.

More information

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball. Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

More information

Laboratory 6: Topographic Maps

Laboratory 6: Topographic Maps Name: Laboratory 6: Topographic Maps Part 1: Construct a topographic map of the Egyptian Pyramid of Khafre A topographic map is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional space. Topographic

More information

Chapter 5: Working with contours

Chapter 5: Working with contours Introduction Contoured topographic maps contain a vast amount of information about the three-dimensional geometry of the land surface and the purpose of this chapter is to consider some of the ways in

More information

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

More information

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

More information

ACTIVITY 9.1 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

ACTIVITY 9.1 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS ACTIVITY 9.1 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 9.1A. Latitude: 40 S Longitude: 20 W 9.1B. 1. north 24 east; azimuth of 24 2. south 24 west; azimuth of 204 9.1C. 1. center SW1/4, NE1/4, SE1/4, sec. 11, T1S, R2W

More information

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

More information

Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface

Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface Topographic maps represent the complex curves of earth s surface with contour lines that represent the intersection

More information

World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography

World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Name World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography

More information

Basic Elements of Reading Plans

Basic Elements of Reading Plans Center for Land Use Education and Research at the University of Connecticut Basic Elements of Reading Plans University of Connecticut. The University of Connecticut supports all state and federal laws

More information

Searching Land Records thru the BLM General Land Office Records.

Searching Land Records thru the BLM General Land Office Records. Searching Land Records thru the BLM General Land Office Records. Land Records can be an exciting addition to your family history search. The United States Government transferred ownership of land to millions

More information

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

More information

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

More information

Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Site Plans

Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Site Plans Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Site Plans Sacramento City College EDT 300/ENGR 306 EDT 300/ENGR 306 - Site Plans 1 Cabin Project Site Plan/Bubble Diagram - Assignment 1 =10-0 Floor Plan - Assignment 1/4

More information

Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. CIVL 1101 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 1/8

Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. CIVL 1101 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 1/8 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 1/8 Introduction Topography - defined as the shape or configuration or relief or three dimensional quality of a surface Topography maps are very useful

More information

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 1 UNIT 1. PURPOSE OF MAPS... 3 1.1 MAP DEFINITION 1.2 MAP ACCURACY UNIT 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MAPS... 5 2.1 CATEGORIES 2.

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 1 UNIT 1. PURPOSE OF MAPS... 3 1.1 MAP DEFINITION 1.2 MAP ACCURACY UNIT 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MAPS... 5 2.1 CATEGORIES 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 1 UNIT 1. PURPOSE OF MAPS... 3 1.1 MAP DEFINITION 1.2 MAP ACCURACY UNIT 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MAPS... 5 2.1 CATEGORIES 2.2 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY UNIT 3. MAP LEGEND... 9 3.1 MAP

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

More information

The Basics of Navigation

The Basics of Navigation The Basics of Navigation Knowledge of map reading and the use of the compass is an indispensable skill of bushcraft. Without this skill, a walker is a passenger and mere follower on a trip. To become a

More information

PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES

PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES 16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something

More information

PREFACE. The many TRADOC service schools and DOD agencies that produce the ACCP materials administered by the AIPD develop them to the DETC standards.

PREFACE. The many TRADOC service schools and DOD agencies that produce the ACCP materials administered by the AIPD develop them to the DETC standards. PREFACE The Army Institute for Professional Development (AIPD) administers the consolidated Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP), which provides highquality, economical training to its users. The

More information

Map reading made easy

Map reading made easy Map reading made easy What is a map? A map is simply a plan of the ground on paper. The plan is usually drawn as the land would be seen from directly above. A map will normally have the following features:

More information

Freehand Sketching. Sections

Freehand Sketching. Sections 3 Freehand Sketching Sections 3.1 Why Freehand Sketches? 3.2 Freehand Sketching Fundamentals 3.3 Basic Freehand Sketching 3.4 Advanced Freehand Sketching Key Terms Objectives Explain why freehand sketching

More information

Learning about GPS and GIS

Learning about GPS and GIS Learning about GPS and GIS Standards 4.4 Understand geographic information systems (G.I.S.). B12.1 Understand common surveying techniques used in agriculture (e.g., leveling, land measurement, building

More information

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

More information

Chapter 4: Representation of relief

Chapter 4: Representation of relief Introduction To this point in our discussion of maps we have been concerned only with their planimetric properties, those relating to the location of features in two-dimensional space. But of course we

More information

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

Amendment List Date Amended by Incorporated No Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i

Amendment List Date Amended by Incorporated No Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i No Amendment List Date Amended by Date Incorporated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i ACP 32 NAVIGATION CONTENTS Volume 1... Map reading Volume 2... Basic Navigation Volume 3... Air Navigation Volume

More information

Grade 6 Book 3. Map Work

Grade 6 Book 3. Map Work Grade 6 Book 3 Map Work 1 Map Work I am my best work a series of road maps, reports, recipes, doodles, and prayers... Audre Lord Book 3 - Map Work Grade 6 Term 1 (Social Science - Geography) Looking at

More information

Basic Map & GPS Skills. How to read a topographic map, use a compass, and determine GPS locations on a map

Basic Map & GPS Skills. How to read a topographic map, use a compass, and determine GPS locations on a map Basic Map & GPS Skills How to read a topographic map, use a compass, and determine GPS locations on a map Table of Contents This booklet covers what a topographic map (topo map) is, how to use a map, and

More information

Appendix E: Graphing Data

Appendix E: Graphing Data You will often make scatter diagrams and line graphs to illustrate the data that you collect. Scatter diagrams are often used to show the relationship between two variables. For example, in an absorbance

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF LANDSCAPE TECHNOLOGY GSD Harvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Landscape Architecture Fall 2006

FUNDAMENTALS OF LANDSCAPE TECHNOLOGY GSD Harvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Landscape Architecture Fall 2006 FUNDAMENTALS OF LANDSCAPE TECHNOLOGY GSD Harvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Landscape Architecture Fall 2006 6106/ M2 BASICS OF GRADING AND SURVEYING Laura Solano, Lecturer Name

More information

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering stars. LAB: Analyzing the geometric pattern of constellations. POST: Exploring

More information

ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING

ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 4 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 4-0 Elements of Surveying and Mapping Utah's system of land surveying is the rectangular survey system as set forth on

More information

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

More information

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere 1. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through telescopic observations of other planets photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite observations of the Sun's altitude

More information

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

More information

Maximum / Minimum Problems

Maximum / Minimum Problems 171 CHAPTER 6 Maximum / Minimum Problems Methods for solving practical maximum or minimum problems will be examined by examples. Example Question: The material for the square base of a rectangular box

More information

WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps do 4 things:

WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps do 4 things: WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps show us a range of features, for example: Landforms: Settlement: Communication: Land Use: Geology: Other Info: - hills - valleys - mountains - isolated dwellings - farms - villages

More information

Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7

Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Introduction The purpose of this document is to serve as a set of Oregon best practices

More information

CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND METHODS OF DESCRIBING REAL ESTATE

CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND METHODS OF DESCRIBING REAL ESTATE r CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND A legal description is a detailed way of describing a parcel of land for documents such as deeds and mortgages that will be accepted in a court of

More information

Watershed Delineation

Watershed Delineation ooooo Appendix D: Watershed Delineation Department of Environmental Protection Stream Survey Manual 113 Appendix D: Watershed Delineation Imagine a watershed as an enormous bowl. As water falls onto the

More information

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 9-2 Standard Abbreviations 9-6 9-1 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy - The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained

More information

Slope Density. Appendix F F-1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE DISCUSSION OF SLOPE

Slope Density. Appendix F F-1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE DISCUSSION OF SLOPE Appendix F Slope Density F-1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE This document has been prepared with the intent of acquainting the general reader with the slope-density approach to determining the intensity of residential

More information

Used by New Zealand. Emergency Services. Map Reading Guide 1:50 000. How to use a Topographic map

Used by New Zealand. Emergency Services. Map Reading Guide 1:50 000. How to use a Topographic map Used by New Zealand Emergency Services Map Reading Guide How to use a Topographic map 1:50 000 This guide provides information on: datums projections the New Zealand topographic map series Topo50 (and

More information

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

More information

LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES

LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES Introduction Structural geology is the study of the ways in which rocks or sediments are arranged and deformed

More information

Structural Geology. Practical 1. Introduction to Stereographic Projection

Structural Geology. Practical 1. Introduction to Stereographic Projection Structural Geology Practical 1 Introduction to Stereographic Projection Lecture Practical Course Homepage Contact Staff 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 71 8 9 10 STEREONETS 1 INTRODUCTION TO STEREOGRAPHIC

More information

The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT MIDDLE SECTION DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes NAME: CLASS VI SEC: ROLL NO: DATE:.04.2015 I NAME THE FOLLOWING: 1. A small spherical model of the Earth:

More information

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System Practical Cartographer s Reference #01 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System 180 174w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w

More information

Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg

Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg Vern Lindberg 1 Making Graphs A picture is worth a thousand words. Graphical presentation of data is a vital tool in the sciences and engineering. Good graphs convey a great deal of information and can

More information

Motion & The Global Positioning System (GPS)

Motion & The Global Positioning System (GPS) Grade Level: K - 8 Subject: Motion Prep Time: < 10 minutes Duration: 30 minutes Objective: To learn how to analyze GPS data in order to track an object and derive its velocity from positions and times.

More information

GEOLOGIC MAPS. PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps

GEOLOGIC MAPS. PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps GEOLOGIC MAPS PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps Geologic maps show the distribution of the various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks at Earth s surface in

More information

Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes

Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes Numeracy and mathematics Experiences and outcomes My learning in mathematics enables me to: develop a secure understanding of the concepts, principles and processes of mathematics and apply these in different

More information

Geometry and Measurement

Geometry and Measurement The student will be able to: Geometry and Measurement 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of geometry and measurement and operations using measurements Use the US system of measurement for

More information

Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Dimensioning and Tolerancing Dimensioning and Tolerancing Dimensioning Before an object can be built, complete information about both the size and shape of the object must be available. The exact shape of an object is communicated

More information

Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

More information

EXPONENTS. To the applicant: KEY WORDS AND CONVERTING WORDS TO EQUATIONS

EXPONENTS. To the applicant: KEY WORDS AND CONVERTING WORDS TO EQUATIONS To the applicant: The following information will help you review math that is included in the Paraprofessional written examination for the Conejo Valley Unified School District. The Education Code requires

More information

MILITARY TOPOGRAPHIC MAP I B181936 STUDENT HANDOUT

MILITARY TOPOGRAPHIC MAP I B181936 STUDENT HANDOUT UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019 MILITARY TOPOGRAPHIC MAP I B181936 STUDENT HANDOUT Basic Officer Course Introduction Importance

More information

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

More information

Registered map layers

Registered map layers Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

More information

CAD-Earth User s Manual

CAD-Earth User s Manual CAD-Earth User s Manual Table of Contents Introduction... 2 CAD-Earth commands Import image from Google Earth... 4 Export CAD screenshot to Google Earth... 7 Import objects from Google Earth... 10 Export

More information

Create a folder on your network drive called DEM. This is where data for the first part of this lesson will be stored.

Create a folder on your network drive called DEM. This is where data for the first part of this lesson will be stored. In this lesson you will create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A DEM is a gridded array of elevations. In its raw form it is an ASCII, or text, file. First, you will interpolate elevations on a topographic

More information

CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK. Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS

CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK. Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS IMPORTANCE In road, railroad, and airfield construction, the movement of large volumes of earth (earthwork) is one of the most important

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Lines on Maps and Globes. Cross Curricular Writing Activity Social Studies Grade 4

Lines on Maps and Globes. Cross Curricular Writing Activity Social Studies Grade 4 Lines on Maps and Globes Cross Curricular Writing Activity Social Studies Grade 4 Fourth Grade Social Studies Standard Map: Chart/Globe The learner will be able to use maps, charts, graphs, and globes

More information

Navigation: Latitude and Longitude

Navigation: Latitude and Longitude Sextants and Chronometers Help Sailors Find Their Position at Sea Latitude lines run horizontally across the globe and are used to measure distances north and south of the equator. Sailors used a sextant

More information

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

More information

Session 6 Area. area midline similar figures

Session 6 Area. area midline similar figures Key Terms in This Session Session 6 Area Previously Introduced scale factor New in This Session area midline similar figures Introduction Area is a measure of how much surface is covered by a particular

More information

9. What name have geographers given to the movement of the continents over millions of years?

9. What name have geographers given to the movement of the continents over millions of years? Name BASICS OF GEOGRAPHY: Water and Landforms Viewer's Guide DIRECTIONS: Review the following questions before watching the video, and be prepared to discuss the answers with the class after the video

More information

720 Contour Grading. General. References. Resources. Definitions

720 Contour Grading. General. References. Resources. Definitions 720 Contour Grading General Contour grading directs water to a desired point, prevents erosion, provides noise deflection, provides visual fit of the facility into the landscape, and protects desirable

More information

Parallel and Perpendicular. We show a small box in one of the angles to show that the lines are perpendicular.

Parallel and Perpendicular. We show a small box in one of the angles to show that the lines are perpendicular. CONDENSED L E S S O N. Parallel and Perpendicular In this lesson you will learn the meaning of parallel and perpendicular discover how the slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines are related use slopes

More information

Appendix E FAA ALP Sheet Checklist

Appendix E FAA ALP Sheet Checklist Appendix E FAA ALP Sheet Checklist AC 150/5070-6B (incl. Chg. 1, 5/1/07) Airport Layout Plan Drawing Set The following list provides general guidelines in preparing the Airport Layout Plan set. The individual

More information

EARTH SCIENCES - TYPES OF MAPS TEACHER GUIDE

EARTH SCIENCES - TYPES OF MAPS TEACHER GUIDE EARTH SCIENCES - TYPES OF MAPS TEACHER GUIDE MATERIALS: Electronic Reader - Maps 5 different types of maps (see lab) inflatable globes local topographical map Objective: To understand the uses and importance

More information

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5 European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

More information

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

More information

Geographic Grid. Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3

Geographic Grid. Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3 Geographic Grid Name The geographic grid refers to the internationally-recognized system of latitude and longitude used to location positions on Earth's surface. Accurate use of this coordinate system

More information

Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name)

Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name) Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name) Geologic maps show the distribution of different types of structures and rock stratigraphic units generally on a topographic base such as a quadrangle map. Key structures

More information

Expression. Variable Equation Polynomial Monomial Add. Area. Volume Surface Space Length Width. Probability. Chance Random Likely Possibility Odds

Expression. Variable Equation Polynomial Monomial Add. Area. Volume Surface Space Length Width. Probability. Chance Random Likely Possibility Odds Isosceles Triangle Congruent Leg Side Expression Equation Polynomial Monomial Radical Square Root Check Times Itself Function Relation One Domain Range Area Volume Surface Space Length Width Quantitative

More information

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

More information

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

More information

Where on Earth? Our world from the International Space Station

Where on Earth? Our world from the International Space Station AUTUMN 1 Where on Earth? Our world from the International Space Station Where on Earth? Our world from the International Space Station This chapter continues to explore the world at global, national and

More information

Geography River Study Resource Higher

Geography River Study Resource Higher Geography River Study Resource Higher 4304 Autumn 1998 HIGHER STILL Geography River Study Resource Higher Support Materials θρστ υϖ CONTENTS Introduction Collecting river flow data Measuring the width

More information

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

More information

Geographic Coordinates

Geographic Coordinates Geographic Coordinates At A Glance Established Goals Robotics/GPS/GIS Skill: Obtain geographic coordinates from a given positioning device. Life Skills: Performing as a Team Member; Organizing Information

More information

DRAFTING MANUAL. Dimensioning and Tolerancing Symbols GENIUM PUBLISHING. Section 6.1 Page 1 February 1997* Update by: Bruce 56A. Wilson.

DRAFTING MANUAL. Dimensioning and Tolerancing Symbols GENIUM PUBLISHING. Section 6.1 Page 1 February 1997* Update by: Bruce 56A. Wilson. Update 56 Update by: Bruce 56A. Wilson Symbols Section 6.1 Page 1 SYMBOLS 1.0 GENERAL 1 2.1 Diameter - A diameter symbol is placed in front of any dimension value that is a diameter. See Figure 2. This

More information

Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007

Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,

More information

Lines of Latitude and Longitude

Lines of Latitude and Longitude ED 5661 Mathematics & Navigation Teacher Institute Keith Johnson Lesson Plan Lines of Latitude and Longitude Lesson Overview: This lesson plan will introduce students to latitude and longitude along with

More information

Which month has larger and smaller day time?

Which month has larger and smaller day time? ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

More information

The Coordinate System

The Coordinate System Math 6 NOTES (.) Name The Coordinate Sstem A coordinate sstem, or coordinate plane, is used to locate points in a -dimensional plane. The horizontal number line is the. The vertical number line is the.

More information

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

More information

Discovering Math: Exploring Geometry Teacher s Guide

Discovering Math: Exploring Geometry Teacher s Guide Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6 8 Curriculum Focus: Mathematics Lesson Duration: Three class periods Program Description Discovering Math: Exploring Geometry From methods of geometric construction and threedimensional

More information

CAAP 89W-1(0) Guidelines on provision of obstacle information for take-off flight planning purposes

CAAP 89W-1(0) Guidelines on provision of obstacle information for take-off flight planning purposes Civil Aviation Advisory Publication This publication is only advisory. It gives the preferred method for complying with the Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR 1988). It is not the only method, but experience

More information

Organizing a class orienteering event

Organizing a class orienteering event Organizing a class orienteering event Orienteering is a wonderful teaching tool. It allows the teacher to illustrate many abstract ideas in concrete terms. The sport also appeals to students operating

More information

MINIMUM STANDARDS OF ACCURACY, CONTENT AND CERTIFICATION FOR SURVEYS AND MAPS ARTICLE I. TYPES OF SURVEYS

MINIMUM STANDARDS OF ACCURACY, CONTENT AND CERTIFICATION FOR SURVEYS AND MAPS ARTICLE I. TYPES OF SURVEYS MINIMUM STANDARDS OF ACCURACY, CONTENT AND CERTIFICATION FOR SURVEYS AND MAPS ARTICLE I. TYPES OF SURVEYS Current with material published in Conn.L.J. through 5/13/08 Sec. 20-300b-1. General There are

More information

THE OFFICIAL U.S. MILITARY PRECISION LENSATIC COMPASS

THE OFFICIAL U.S. MILITARY PRECISION LENSATIC COMPASS THE OFFICIAL U.S. MILITARY PRECISION LENSATIC COMPASS INSTRUCTIONAL BOOKLET Phone (616) 92-7999 0 Aniline Avenue, Suite 258 Holland, Michigan 49424 www.cammenga.com Fax (616) 92-942 INSTRUCTIONAL BOOKLET

More information