# Scope and Sequence KA KB 1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 5A 5B 6A 6B

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1 Scope and Sequence Earlybird Kindergarten, Standards Edition Primary Mathematics, Standards Edition Copyright 2008 [SingaporeMath.com Inc.] The check mark indicates where the topic is first introduced or specifically addressed. Whole Numbers Understand and use ordinal numbers to describe position. Count objects in a set, read and write numerals to 10. Compare two or more sets of objects up to 10 and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Compare two sets of objects up to 10 and determine how many more or less are in one set than the other. Count and identify 1 more than or 1 less than a number within 10. Use place-value models to represent numbers to 30. Count objects in a set, read, and write numerals to 30. Count and identify 1 more than or 1 less than a number within 30. Understand number order and know that larger numbers describe sets with more objects in them than smaller numbers. Count, read, and write whole numbers to 20. Compare numbers within 20. Use place-value models to represent numbers to 100. Read, write in words, standard, and expanded notation, and identify place values of digits for numbers within 100. Count and identify 1 more than, 1 less than, 10 more than, 10 less than a number within 100. Compare numbers within 100 and use the symbols <, +, >. Make reasonable estimates when comparing numbers and sets of objects within

2 Describe and extend regular number patterns within 100, including counting by 2's and 20's. Use place-value models to represent numbers to Read, write in words, standard, and expanded notation, identify place values of digits, and compare and order numbers within Describe and extend regular number patterns within Compare numbers within 1000 and use the symbols <, +, >. Use place-value models to represent numbers to 10,000. Read, write in words, standard, and expanded notation, identify place values of digits, and compare and order numbers within 10,000. Count on and back in steps of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 and complete or extend regular number patterns within 10,000. Round numbers within 100,000 to the nearest 10 or 100 Round numbers within 10,000 to the nearest 10, 100, or Use place-value models to represent numbers to 100,000. Read, write in words, standard, and expanded notation, identify place values of digits, and compare and order numbers within 100,000. Complete or extend regular number patterns for numbers within 100,000. Use place-value models to represent numbers to 1,000,000. Use place-value models to represent numbers to 1,000,000,000. Read, write in words, standard, and expanded notation, identify place values of digits, and compare and order numbers within 1,000,000,000. Complete or extend regular number patterns for numbers within 1,000,000,000. Round numbers within 1,000,000,000 to the nearest 10, 100 or

4 Recognize and extend regular linear patterns. Multiply/divide by 2's and 3's. Learn multiplication/division facts for 2's and 3's. Multiply/divide by 4's, 5's, and 10's. Learn multiplication/division facts for 4's, 5's, and 10's. Use repeated subtraction to divide and find the remainder. Understand quotient and remainder. Understand the properties of 0 and 1 in multiplication and division. Multiply/Divide by 6's, 7's, 8's, and 9's. Learn multiplication/division facts for 6's, 7's, 8's, and 9's. Multiply numbers within 1000 by a 1-digit number. Multiply numbers within 10,000 by a 1-digit number. Divide numbers within 1000 by a 1-digit number, including situations where there is a remainder. Divide numbers within 10,000 by a 1-digit number, including situations where there is a remainder. Multiply numbers within 10,000 by a 2-digit number. Divide numbers within 10,000 by a 2-digit number. Multiply/divide numbers within 1,000,000 by tens, hundreds, or thousands. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results in multiplication and division problems. Check division problems using multiplication. Find the factors and common factors of whole numbers within 100. Find the greatest common factor of up to 3 numbers within 100. Identify prime numbers. Determine the prime factors of numbers within 100 and write the numbers as products of prime numbers, using exponents. Find multiples and common multiples of whole numbers within

5 Find the lowest common multiple of up to 3 numbers within 100. Use divisibility rules for 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, and 10. Use order of operations to solve mathematical expressions with or without parentheses. Understand the distributive property. Mental Math Strategies Use the commutative and associative properties to perform mental calculations and check results. Use the distributive property to perform mental calculations and check results. Add 1-digit numbers involving renaming (e.g ) by making a ten. Subtract 1-digit numbers involving renaming (e.g. 14 8) by subtracting from a ten. Add/Subtract numbers within 100. Add/Subtract 1's, 10's, or 100's to numbers within Subtract from 100. Subtract from Add/Subtract a number close to 100 (e.g. 98). Add/subtract a number close to 1000 (e.g. 998). Add/subtract a number close to a multiple of 100 (e.g. 498). Add and subtract money in compound units (dollars and cents) when the cents are multiples of 5 or close to \$1.00. Add/Subtract measurements in compound units. Add/Subtract tenths, hundredths, or thousandths to or from decimal numbers. Multiply and divide tens, hundreds, and thousands by a 1-digit number. Multiply by 99 or by 25. Multiply 10's by 10's or 100's. Multiply by a number one less than a multiple of 10 or 100 (e.g. 49, 499). Fractions Recognize and name halves and fourths. Recognize, write, name, and illustrate fractions of a whole (denominators 1-12). 5

6 Find the fraction with the same denominator to make a whole with another fraction. Compare and order unit fractions. Compare and order fractions with the same denominator or with the same numerator. Find equivalent fractions and simplest form of a fraction. Compare and order fractions with different denominators. Recognize and name the fraction of a set. Find the value given the fraction of a set, using objects or drawings. Find the fraction of a set where the answer is a whole number. Find the fraction of a set where the answer is a whole number or a mixed number. Find coin amounts as a fraction of a dollar. Find fraction of a set for measurements (e.g. 10 minutes as a fraction of one hour). Add/Subtract like fractions. Add/Subtract related fractions. Add/Subtract unlike fractions. Understand mixed numbers and improper fractions, convert between them, locate them on a number line. Relate division to fractions. Add/subtract mixed numbers. Determine the least common multiple and the greatest common divisor of whole numbers and use them to solve problems involving fractions. Multiply a fraction by a whole number. Multiply a fraction by a fraction. Divide a fraction by a whole number. Divide a whole number or a fraction by a fraction. Money Identify and know the value of coins and use the cent symbol. Identify and know the value of bills and use the dollar symbol. Count combinations of coins. Count combinations of bills. 6

7 Count combinations of bills and coins to \$ Use decimal notation for money. Use decimal notation to add and subtract money within \$ Use decimal notation to add and subtract money within \$ Multiply and divide money amounts in decimal notation. Decimals Understand tenths, hundredths, thousandths, locate decimal numbers on a number line, compare decimal numbers. Convert a decimal to a fraction and simplify. Convert a fraction to a decimal number (denominators are a factor of 10, 100, or 1000). Compare and order decimal numbers of up to 3 decimal places and fractions. Round decimal numbers of up to 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number or to 1-decimal place. Round decimal numbers up to 3 decimal places to the nearest whole number, to 1-decimal place, or to 2-decimal places. Add/Subtract decimal numbers of up to 2 decimal places. Add/Subtract decimal numbers of up to 3 decimal places. Multiply/Divide decimal numbers of up to 2 decimal places by a whole number. Find the quotient of a division problem correct to 1 decimal place. Find the quotient of a division problem correct to 2- decimal places. Convert fractions to decimals correct to 2-decimal places. Multiply/Divide decimal number by tens, hundreds, or thousands. Multiply/divide a decimal number by a 2-digit whole number. Multiply/divide a whole number or a decimal by a decimal. 7

8 Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results in problems involving decimal numbers. Time Understand sequence of events. Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of time (morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, and year). Name the days of the week. Understand the calendar as a tool for measuring time. Tell time to the hour (analog clock face). Relate time to events. Tell time to the half-hour (analog clock face). Tell time to the nearest 5-minute mark (analog clock face). Tell time to the minute (analog clock face). Estimate reasonable time intervals. Find the duration of time intervals. Find starting or ending times, given a time and the interval. Know relationships of time (years, months, days, weeks, hours, and seconds). Convert between of units of time. Length, Weight, Mass, and Capacity Compare and measure length and weight by making direct comparisons with reference objects. Compare and measure capacity by making direct comparisons with reference objects. Compare and measure length, and weight using nonstandard units. Compare and measure capacity using nonstandard units. Measure and estimate length of objects in meters and centimeters, yards, feet, and inches. Understand and estimate length in kilometers and miles. Compare measurements made using different units. Measure and estimate weight in kilograms, grams, pounds, and ounces. 8

9 Measure and estimate capacity in liters, cups, pints, quarts, half-gallon, and gallon. Measure and estimate capacity in milliliters. Convert units within a metric system using multiplication. Add/subtract measurements in compound units. Multiply/divide measurements in compound units. Convert fractional measurements to a different unit or a compound unit, within a measuring system. Convert units involving decimals within a measuring system. Perimeter, Area, and Volume Find the perimeter of polygons. Find the area of shapes by covering them with unit squares or by counting squares. Understand and use units of area, such as square centimeter and square inch. Find the area, perimeter, and unknown sides of rectangles. Find the area and perimeter of composite figures made from squares and rectangles. Derive the formula for area of a triangle and find the area of triangles. Derive the formula for area of a parallelogram and find the area of parallelograms. Find the surface area of cubes and rectangular prisms. Count unit cubes in 2-dimensional representations of 3-dimensional solids. Find the volume of solid figures by counting cubic units. Understand and use units of volume, such as cubic centimeter and cubic inch. Find the volume of rectangular prisms. Find the side of a rectangular prism given the volume and two sides or area of one side. Understand the relationship between cubic centimeters, milliliters, and liters. Solve problems involving the change in height of liquids and volume of liquids in rectangular tanks, including rate problems. 9

10 Find the volume of triangular prisms and cylinders. Find the volume of composite figures involving prisms and cylinders. Identify the radius and diameter of a circle, find one given the other. Derive the formula for circumference of a circle and find circumference when given the radius or diameter. Derive the formula for area of a circle and find area when given the radius or diameter. Find the perimeter and area of compound figures involving squares, rectangles, triangles, and halfcircles or quarter circles. Geometry Give and follow directions about location. Arrange and describe objects in space by proximity, position, and direction. Identify, describe, and categorize common 2- dimensional and 3-dimensional objects. Identify, describe, and categorize common 2- dimensional shapes, including the faces of 3- dimensional objects. Identify common 2-dimensional shapes within compound shapes, combine shapes to form common shapes. Describe and classify common 3-dimensional shapes according to number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices. Describe and extend repeating patterns involving objects, colors, or shapes. Describe and extend repeating patterns involving color and shapes. Describe and extend repeating patterns involving combination of shapes (compound shapes). Identify common 3-dimensional shapes within compound shapes. Identify intersecting and parallel lines. Identify and describe polygons. Identify attributes of triangles and quadrilaterals. Identify right angles and compare angles to right angles. 10

11 Identify acute, obtuse, and right angles and relate 90 o, 180 o, 270 o, and 360 o with quarter, half, threequarter, and whole turn. Measure and construct angles. Identify perpendicular and parallel lines. Name different types of triangles and quadrilaterals. Find the lengths of unknown sides given the length of other sides or the perimeter of triangles and quadrilaterals. Identify angles as vertical, adjacent, complementary, or supplementary and provide descriptions of these terms. Find unknown angles in figures based on identifying vertical, adjacent, complementary, or supplementary angles. Know and use angle properties of intersecting lines, triangles, parallelograms, rhombuses, and trapezoids to solve problems involving finding find unknown angles. Construct triangles, parallelograms, and rhombuses with specified angles. Construct trapezoids various quadrilaterals with specified angles and lengths of sides. Visualize, describe, and draw geometric solids. Identify nets of solids, or solids of nets. Identify congruent figures Create tessellations. Identify figures that have line symmetry. Identify figures that have rotational symmetry. Understand the coordinate grid, locate points, and write ordered pairs (first quadrant). Understand the coordinate grid, locate points, and write ordered pairs (all four quadrants). Find the length of horizontal and vertical lines on the coordinate grid. Percentage Understand and use percent. Find decimal and fraction equivalents for percentages. Write fractions as percentages. 11

12 Solve problems involving percentage of a quantity. Solve problems involving part of a whole as a percentage. Solve problems involving one quantity as a percentage of another. Solve percentage problems using a unitary method. Calculate given percentages of quantities and solve problems involving discounts at sales, interest earned, percentage increase or decrease. Ratio/Average/Rate/Speed Use ratios to compare two quantities. Use ratios to compare three quantities. Find equivalent ratios and simplify ratios Use ratios to solve problems. Relate ratios to fraction of a quantity. Solve problems involving changing ratios. Relate ratios to proportions. Solve problems involving proportions. Understand rate as the measure of one quantity per unit value of another. Solve problems involving rate. Use a unitary approach to solve rate problems. Solve discontinuous rate problems involving time. Understand and use speed and average speed to solve problems. Word Problems Make addition/subtraction stories from problem situations. Write equations and solve simple addition/subtraction stories. Solve simple multiplication/division problems using objects and pictures. Write equations and solve one-step word problems involving addition/subtraction. Write equations and solve one-step word problems involving multiplication/division. Solve simple word problems involving fraction of a set. Solve 2-step word problems which involve the four operations on whole numbers. 12

13 Solve 2-step word problems which involve fraction of a set. Solve 2-steip word problems which involve decimals and fractions. Solve multi-step word problems involving all four operations on whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentage, and ratios. Solve multi-step word problems involving average, rate, and percentage. Solve multi-step word problems involving speed and average speed. Data Analysis and Probability Identify, sort, and classify objects by common attributes (e.g. appearance, size, shape, color, pattern, function). Identify objects that do not belong to a particular group. Sort objects and data by common attributes. Collect, organize, and represent data using objects, pictures, picture graphs, and bar graphs (within 10). Represent and compare data using picture graphs Represent and compare data bar graphs. Represent and compare data using tally charts. Collect, organize, and analyze data using tables and bar graphs. Collect, organize, and analyze data using tally charts. Ask and solve questions related to data representation, including finding the range and mode. Collect, organize, and analyze data using line plots. Collect, organize, and analyze data using line graphs. Collect, organize, and analyze data using coordinate graphs Collect, organize and display data in pie charts. Collect, organize and display data in histograms. Find the average of a set of data. Find a data value given the average and the other values. Identify the mode and median of categorical data. 13

14 Understand, find, and compare mean, median, and mode of a set of data. Find the range of a set of data. Understand how additional data added to data sets may affect measures of central tendency. Understand how the inclusion or exclusion of outliers affects measures of central tendency. Compare different samples of a population with the data from the entire population and identify situations in which it makes sense to use a sample. Identify different ways of selecting a sample and which method makes the sample more representative of the population. Know why a specific measure of central tendency provides the most useful information in a given context. Analyze data displays and identify data that represent sampling errors. Identify claims based on statistical data and, in simple cases, evaluate the validity of the claims. Identify ordered pairs of data from a graph. Identify whether common events are certain, likely, unlikely, or impossible. Record the possible outcomes for a simple event and systematically keep track of the outcome when it is repeated many times. Summarize and display results of simple probability experiments, use the results to predict future events. Represent all possible outcomes for simple probability experiments. Express all possible outcome of experimental probability situations verbally and numerically and as fractions. Use data to estimate the probability of future events. Represent probabilities as ratios, proportions, decimals, and percentages. Find the probability of disjoint events and understand that the theoretical probability of disjoint events is the sum of the two individual probabilities. 14

15 Find the probability of combined events and understand that the theoretical probability of combined events is the product of the two probabilities. Understand the difference between independent and dependent events. Algebra Solve problems involving numeric equations or inequalities. Select appropriate operational symbol to make an expression true. Use boxes and other symbols to stand for unknown numbers in expressions and equations. Use letters to stand for unknown numbers in equations and solve for the unknown numbers using properties of the four operations. Represent unknown quantities with bar diagrams and solve word problems involving whole numbers using bar diagrams. Use bar diagrams to solve word problems involving fractions. Use bar diagrams to solve word problems involving decimals. Use bar diagrams to solve word problems involving percentage. Use bar diagrams to solve word problems involving ratio. Solve word problems involving the functional relationship between two quantities. Use and interpret formulas to answer questions about quantities and their relationships. Write simple equations involving related changes in quantities (e.g. y = 3x + 5) and solve for the dependent value when given the independent value. Write and evaluate simple algebraic expressions in one variable using substitution. Write and evaluate simple algebraic expressions for a given situation, using up to three variables. Use the distributive property in expressions with variables. Simplify algebraic expressions in one variable. 15

16 Use variables in expressions describing geometric quantities. Solve simple algebraic equations in one variable. Solve problems involving simple linear functions with whole numbers values, write the equation, and graph the resulting ordered pairs on a grid. Understand and interpret negative numbers, locate negative numbers on a number line, compare and order integers. Compare and order positive and negative fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers and place them on a number line. Recognize and extend regular number patterns that include negative numbers. Find the numerical value of negative numbers. Add and subtract positive and negative integers. Multiply and divide positive and negative integers. Apply algebraic order of operations and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to evaluate expressions that involve positive and negative integers. Solve problems involving linear functions with integer values, write the equation, and graph the resulting ordered pairs on a grid. 16

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