# The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

2 The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones and Meridian lines?' So the Bellman would cry: and the crew would reply 'They are merely conventional signs!' The Hunting of the Snark (1876) 'Fit the Second: The Bellman's Speech' 1. Introduction The Geocentric Datum of Australia, 1994 (GDA94) is an Earth-centred datum, which has been adopted for use throughout Australia by the Inter-Governmental Committee on Survey and Mapping (ICSM) with all states and territories adopting it in The GDA94 datum will replace the existing AGD66 and AGD84 datums throughout Australia. The map projection associated with GDA94 is the Map Grid of Australia, 1994 (MGA94), a transverse Mercator projection, which conforms with the internationally accepted Universal Transverse Mercator Grid system. A Technical Manual for GDA94 has been produced by ICSM to provide rigorous formulae and definitions for geodetic computations of the highest precision on the new Datum. This Simplified Computational Manual is designed as an adjunct to the ICSM Technical Manual and appropriate cross references for the rigorous formulae are provided where applicable. It is also designed to have particular reference to the Victorian region rather than be applicable Australia wide. Computations on the ellipsoid require the use of rigorous formulae which may not always be of convenience of use in survey applications of small extent which do not require the highest precision. The aim of this manual is to provide simplified formulae to enable common computations on the Grid used in everyday surveying applications to be carried out by the use of simple hand held calculators or PC based spread sheet applications. 2. Map Grid of Australia Datum: The Geodetic Datum of Australia realised by the coordinate set of 1994, hence GDA94. Projection: Transverse Mercator, utilising 6 degree Zones, Scale Factor at the Central Meridian in conformity with the Universal Transverse Mercator system. Units: International metre. False Coordinate Origin (All Zones): Northing 10,000,000 metres. Easting 500,000 metres. The true origin for each Zone is the Equator for Northings and the Central Meridian for Eastings. To avoid the problem of negative coordinates south of the Equator or west of the Central Meridian, the quantities above are added to the true coordinates. The Mercator projection is a variation of a simple cylindrical projection drawn or projected onto a vertical cylinder tangential at the Equator to the ellipsoid representing the earth. The Equator then becomes the standard parallel. This simple cylindrical projection is unsuitable for many mapping purposes as land mass shapes become greatly distorted quite quickly when moving away from the Equator as shown below. Page 2

3 To overcome this problem, the transverse form of this projection is used, where the cylinder is tangential along a meridian of longitude, creating a series of tangential (or central) Meridians rather than parallels of latitude in defined Zones around the Earth's circumference. This then leads to sixty zones each of 6 degrees in longitude for the Universal Transverse Mercator system. Mercator's projection is further refined in the UTM system in that for each Zone the cylinder is reduced slightly in size so that it is not tangential but rather cuts the ellipsoid along two meridians at about midway between the centre and each edge of each Zone. The cuts of the ellipsoid are such that the Scale Factor at the Zone edges is reducing to unity at the point where the projection cylinder cuts the ellipsoid, then reducing to a minimum of at the Central Meridian. These scale factors apply to all Zones in the UTM system. Note that Victoria lies wholly within Zones 54 and 55. Page 3

4 3. Scale Factor This is the relationship between the measured survey distance (reduced to the ellipsoid) and that same distance on the map projection and is applied to the measured distance to enable computations on the grid. As noted in the preceding section, Scale Factor will vary with the distance of the survey from the Central Meridian. For many applications the usual practice is to compute the scale factor at particular points of the survey. The simplified formula for Point Scale Factor is: where E is the MGA94 Easting coordinate of the point in question. The rate of change of Scale Factor across a Zone is not linear, which means that for precise applications for longer lines, a line Scale Factor will need to be computed. [Refer to Technical Manual for GDA94. For application to surveys of lesser extent a mean Point Scale Factor computed from the above, using the mean Easting of the two ends of the line, will give a grid distance correct to 1ppm.for any line up to thirty km. in extent in Easting. Surveys of small extent may merely require the use of a point scale factor for the centroid of the area in question. Point Scale Factor may also be read from the nomogram of Scale Factor. An Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is available for download that will assist you with Point Scale Factor, Height Factor and Grid Convergence calculations. Page 4

5 4. Height Factor As well as Scale Factor a correction for height factor must also be applied to a measured distance to reduce it to the ellipsoid before computations on the grid can commence. The ellipsoidal height of a point is found by the algebraic sum of the AHD height and the geoid - ellipsoid separation. (See Section 9). The grid by definition, is the projection of the ellipsoid onto a flat surface. In Victoria the GDA ellipsoid varies from the geoid by up to a maximum of 15 metres in the far north east of the state. The geoid, which may be thought of as a mean sea level surface, approximates the Australian Height Datum. For practical purposes, within Victoria, the geoid - ellipsoid separation can be ignored when computing the height factor as the error is generally less than 1 ppm. It does however reach an extreme of 2.5 ppm at Corryong. It should be remembered that this is not necessarily the case in all States and Territories. For example the geoid - ellipsoid separation in the Northern Territory ranges from near zero in the far south west to 60 metres in Arnhem Land, leading to an error of up to 10 ppm if the difference in separation is ignored. A measured distance needs to be corrected for instrumental errors and slope before the application of the Height Factor. For practical purposes for surveys within Australia the simplified formula for Height Factor is : The height above sea level should be known to +/-10 metres for an accuracy of 1ppm in the Height Factor at a mean height of 100 metres. At a mean height of 1000 metres the height will need to be known to +/- 5 metres for the same accuracy. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is available for download that will assist you with Point Scale Factor, Height Factor and Grid Convergence calculations. 5. Combined Height and Point Scale Factor For many surveys the use of a combined Factor rather than the individual application of scale factors may be more convenient. A combined Factor is simply obtained by the multiplication of the Point Scale Factor computed from [3] by the Height Factor computed from [4]. Some points of relevance are the east-west distance from the Central Meridian of the survey for scale factor and the amount of topographical undulation present for height factor. 6. Grid Convergence Grid convergence is the angular quantity to be added algebraically to an azimuth between points of known latitude and longitude on the ellipsoid to obtain the MGA 94 grid bearing. In Australia grid convergence is positive for points East of the Central Meridian and negative West. To differentiate between directions on the ellipsoid and on the grid, azimuth is the term applied to the direction between points of known latitude and longitude on the ellipsoid, while bearing is the term applied to the direction between points of known Easting and Northing on the map projection associated with the ellipsoid. These two quantities are not normally the same. The difference arises because the grid of latitude and longitude is drawn on a curved surface (the ellipsoid) while the map projection grid is designed to both represent the curved surface of the Earth on a flat sheet of paper (the map), and to provide simplified computational procedures for survey activities of relatively limited extent. The grid convergence at a survey point, if not supplied with the original coordinate information, is most easily determined from latitudes and longitudes. The simplified formula is : Page 5

6 Depending on the precision of the survey, the Latitudes and Longitudes of the survey point may be found by scaling from a suitable map. Rigorous formulae using both Latitudes and Longitudes and grid coordinates may be found in the Technical Manual for GDA94 An Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is available for download that will assist you with Point Scale Factor, Height Factor and Grid Convergence calculations. 7. Arc to Chord Correction This is the angular quantity to be added algebraically to a grid bearing to obtain a plane bearing. Depending on the job at hand, it may be more convenient to use plane trigonometry for the necessary computations. The difference between the two bearings arises from the fact that the shortest line between two points on the ellipsoid (the geodesic) becomes a curved line concave toward the Central Meridian when projected onto the mapping plane (in this case the MGA). The Arc to Chord correction then corrects the grid bearing to a plane bearing. The nomogram of Arc to Chord Correction will supply correction values of sufficient accuracy for many applications and shows that surveys of limited extent (say less than five kilometres) and requiring lower precision may be able to ignore the correction. As a worst case example a north-south line of 5km at the zone boundary has a correction of 2". Page 6

7 8. Use of GPS The GDA94 national adjustment is based on the fixed values of the Australian Fiducial Network and Australian National Network stations which have resulted from an adjustment of continuous (in the case of AFN stations) GPS data collection and specific national GPS observational campaigns (in the case of ANN stations). By the nature of the national adjustment, with its inclusion of a large amount of GPS data, and by the nature of the reference ellipsoid, observed GPS positions or data which have been related to the WGS 84 ellipsoid are compatible with the GDA94 system and do not require transformation or the use of additive constants. Obviously the preceding sections do not necessarily assist GPS practitioners as they refer mainly to angle and distance observations which, for limited area surveys, are commonly observed via total station instrumentation. The suitability of GPS for control surveys over varying distances has led to an increasing preference for this technology over more conventional approaches. The preceding sections still apply to quantities to be derived from points coordinated by GPS methods where more conventional techniques may be used for extending or infilling the survey. 9. GPS Derived Heights and Geoid - Ellipsoid Separation As GPS observations are referenced to the ellipsoid, the heights obtained from GPS observations are ellipsoidal heights. These ellipsoidal heights are not necessarily the same as AHD 71 heights as these are referred to the Australian Height Datum which was determined by a national level adjustment in This AHD71 surface, for surveys of practical purposes, in the context of this manual, may be taken as being coincident with the geoid. The geoid-ellipsoid separation [N] is the quantity to be applied to ellipsoid heights to equate them to AHD71 values. This quantity will vary across the continent. In Victoria the variation is 15 metres from SW to NE, however this variation is much greater in most other states. N may be estimated from the diagram of the geoid-ellipsoid separation model shown below (also shown in the Technical Manual) or may be computed from digital models such as AUSGeoid (provided by AUSLIG) depending on the required accuracy of the height component of the survey at hand. AUSLIG provide the best available model for Australia. This diagram is based upon AUSGEOID 93 however the model is continually updated. Page 7

9 N: The quantity which is the vertical difference between the ellipsoid and the geoid. This is also known as the Geoid/Ellipsoid separation. Ideally the two surfaces should be coincident, however the ellipsoid is a mathematically smoothed surface whereas the geoid is shaped by physical laws affecting the plastic earth. Obviously the quantity will vary according to the ellipsoid adopted in the area in question. The designation of N should be referenced to the relevant ellipsoid and its date. The geoid, usually taken as mean sea level, may be thought of as a constant ellipsoidal surface which may however be affected by local gravity influences and hence display undulations. Spheroid: See Ellipsoid above. Page 9

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

### WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications

internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research

### 量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong

量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong Survey & Mapping Office Lands Department 1995 All Right Reserved by Hong Kong Government 留 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............... A1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND............

### WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)

### EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

### Geomatics Guidance Note 3

Geomatics Guidance Note 3 Contract area description Revision history Version Date Amendments 5.1 December 2014 Revised to improve clarity. Heading changed to Geomatics. 4 April 2006 References to EPSG

### Case Study Australia. Dr John Dawson A/g Branch Head Geodesy and Seismic Monitoring Geoscience Australia. Chair UN-GGIM-AP WG1 Chair APREF.

Case Study Australia Dr John Dawson A/g Branch Head Geodesy and Seismic Monitoring Geoscience Australia Chair UN-GGIM-AP WG1 Chair APREF Page 1 Overview 1. Australian height system Australian Height Datum

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

### CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 9-2 Standard Abbreviations 9-6 9-1 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy - The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained

### A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain

A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain An introduction to mapping coordinate systems and the use of GPS datasets with Ordnance Survey mapping D00659 v2.3 Mar 2015 Crown copyright Page 1 of 43 Contents

### Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data

Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data Patrick Cunningham President info@bluemarblegeo.com www.bluemarblegeo.com +1 (207) 582 6747 Copyright 2010 Blue Marble Geographics Concepts Geodesy -

### The Chief Directorate: National

Surveying The South African Coordinate Reference System (Part 1) by Aslam Parker, Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information This article will define the various elements of the South African

### What are map projections?

Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

### UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus - Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICA-CEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed

### SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination

### GCalc 2.1. GDA94 Datum Transformation DLL Technical Specification

GCalc 2.1 GDA94 Datum Transformation DLL Technical Specification This publication has been compiled by Roger Fraser previously of Department of Natural Resources and Mines. State of Queensland, 2013. The

### THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM

NGA Office of GEOINT Sciences Coordinate Systems Analysis (CSAT) Phone: 314-676-9124 Unclassified Email: coordsys@nga.mil March 2007 THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military

### SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering stars. LAB: Analyzing the geometric pattern of constellations. POST: Exploring

### GNSS permanent stations as the part of integrated geodetic system in Estonia

GNSS permanent stations as the part of integrated geodetic system in Estonia Karin Kollo (MSc) Department of Geodesy Estonian Land Board United Nations/Croatia Workshop on the applications of Global Navigation

### GPS LOCATIONS FOR GIS: GETTING THEM RIGHT THE FIRST TIME

GPS LOCATIONS FOR GIS: GETTING THEM RIGHT THE FIRST TIME Caroline Erickson and Pierre Héroux Geodetic Survey Division, Geomatics Canada Natural Resources Canada 615 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E9

### PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

### Chapter 5: Working with contours

Introduction Contoured topographic maps contain a vast amount of information about the three-dimensional geometry of the land surface and the purpose of this chapter is to consider some of the ways in

### Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies. 13 th May 2004. Content. What is GIS?

Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13 th May 2004 Content Introduction to GIS Data concepts Data input Analysis Applications selected examples What is GIS? Geographic Information

The Basics of Navigation Knowledge of map reading and the use of the compass is an indispensable skill of bushcraft. Without this skill, a walker is a passenger and mere follower on a trip. To become a

### Beacon to Beacon Northern & Southern Maps

Beacon to Beacon Northern & Southern Maps Disclaimer: When using the Beacon to Beacon Guide booklets and/or the maps contained therein for commercial or non-commercial purposes, the Department of Transport

### Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

### Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007

Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,

### 4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation

4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4.1 Details on Great Circles In fig. GN 4.1 two Great Circle/Rhumb Line cases are shown, one in each hemisphere. In each case the shorter distance between

### NJDEP GPS Data Collection Standards For GIS Data Development

NJDEP GPS Data Collection Standards For GIS Data Development Bureau of Geographic Information Systems Office of Information Resource Management June 8, 2011 1.0 Introduction... 3 2.0 GPS Receiver Hardware

### ASF Cave Survey and Map Standards

ASF Cave Survey and Map Standards by Edward G. Anderson and others, 1978 Replaces ASF Survey Standard of 1962 Ken Grimes, 1 March, 1997 ASF Survey Commission Copyright 1962, 1978, 1985, 1997 Australian

### Gravitational potential

Gravitational potential Let s assume: A particle of unit mass moving freely A body of mass M The particle is attracted by M and moves toward it by a small quantity dr. This displacement is the result of

### Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars

Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars Vocabulary List Adult Education at Scienceworks Pre-visit Activity 1: What is longitude and latitude? Activity 2: Using the Southern Cross to find

### The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT MIDDLE SECTION DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes NAME: CLASS VI SEC: ROLL NO: DATE:.04.2015 I NAME THE FOLLOWING: 1. A small spherical model of the Earth:

### WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams

WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams -Laboratory- TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty chris@gis.usu.edu Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez alex@gis.usu.edu

### *UDYLW\)LHOG7XWRULDO

% *UDYLW\)LHOG7XWRULDO The formulae and derivations in the following Chapters 1 to 3 are based on Heiskanen and Moritz (1967) and Lambeck (1990). ([SDQVLRQRIWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOLQWRVSKHULFDOKDUPRQLFV

### John F. Cotton College of Architecture & Environmental Design California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California JOHN F.

SO L I DMO D E L I N GAS A TO O LFO RCO N S T RU C T I N SO G LA REN V E LO PE S by John F. Cotton College of Architecture & Environmental Design California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo,

### Keywords: coordinate systems, latitude, longitude, georeferencing, global positioning system, GPS, geodetic datum, ellipsoid, geocoding, postal code

Core Curriculum-Geographic Information Science (1997-2000) UCSB Peer Reviewed Title: Units 012-017 - Position on the Earth Book Title: Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science Author: 012-017,

### ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING

ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 4 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 4-0 Elements of Surveying and Mapping Utah's system of land surveying is the rectangular survey system as set forth on

### CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND METHODS OF DESCRIBING REAL ESTATE

r CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND A legal description is a detailed way of describing a parcel of land for documents such as deeds and mortgages that will be accepted in a court of

### GNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations. A Parker National Geo-spatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform

GNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations A Parker National Geo-spatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Global Positioning

### Guideline for Control Surveys by Differential Levelling

Guideline for Control Surveys by Differential Levelling Special Publication 1 Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) Permanent Committee on Geodesy (PCG) 24 September 2014 Intergovernmental

### Oregon Coordinate Reference System

OREGON DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Highway Division Geometronics Unit Ron Singh, PLS Geometronics Manager Chief of Surveys (503) 986-3033 Mark L. Armstrong, PLS NGS Oregon Advisor (503) 986-3775 Michael

### SURVEY DIRECTIONS Tasmania. Pursuant to the Surveyors Act 2002

SURVEY DIRECTIONS Tasmania Pursuant to the Surveyors Act 2002 Revision Status Revision Date: 101214 Part / Schedule Division Heading Last Revision Date Table of Contents 101214 Part 1 Preliminary 101214

### Technical Drawing Specifications Resource A guide to support VCE Visual Communication Design study design 2013-17

A guide to support VCE Visual Communication Design study design 2013-17 1 Contents INTRODUCTION The Australian Standards (AS) Key knowledge and skills THREE-DIMENSIONAL DRAWING PARALINE DRAWING Isometric

### European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG. Guidance Note Number 10. April 2001. Geodetic Transformations Offshore Norway

European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 10 April 2001 Geodetic Transformations Offshore Norway Background 1. European Datum 1950 (ED50) is the de facto and de jure geographic coordinate

### Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011. Basara MIYAHARA, Tokuro KODAMA, Yuki KUROISHI

Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 11 Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 Basara MIYAHARA, Tokuro KODAMA, Yuki KUROISHI (Published online: 26 December 2014)

### The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below

### GPS ALIGNMENT SURVEYS AND MERIDIAN CONVERGENCE

GPS ALIGNMENT SURVEYS AND MERIDIAN CONVERGENCE By Tomás Soler, 1 Member, ASCE, and Rudolf J. Fury 2 ABSTRACT: Since the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), geodetic azimuths can be accurately

### Learning about GPS and GIS

Learning about GPS and GIS Standards 4.4 Understand geographic information systems (G.I.S.). B12.1 Understand common surveying techniques used in agriculture (e.g., leveling, land measurement, building

### 3D Visualization of Seismic Activity Associated with the Nazca and South American Plate Subduction Zone (Along Southwestern Chile) Using RockWorks

3D Visualization of Seismic Activity Associated with the Nazca and South American Plate Subduction Zone (Along Southwestern Chile) Using RockWorks Table of Contents Figure 1: Top of Nazca plate relative

### Power and Water Corporation Report for Bathymetric and Benthic Survey of the Proposed East Point Outfall

Power and Water Corporation Report for Bathymetric and Benthic Survey of the Proposed East Point Outfall Part Two Bathymetric Report January 2009 Photo: East Point at high tide Contents 1. Hydrosurvey

### Total Program's Units

Associate Degree Program Department of Civil and Architectural Technology Major : Survey Technology First Semester NO 5 6 Code SRV 0 SRV 0 SRV 0 ENG 0 MTH 7 CMT 0 Course Title Land survey Survey drawing

### Australian Hydrographic Service Charting the Australian waters near and far

Australian Hydrographic Service Charting the Australian waters near and far L Pietrini Australian Hydrographic Service, Wollongong, NSW Abstract The Australian Hydrographic Service (AHS) collects, manages

### FOREWORD. Executive Secretary

FOREWORD The Botswana Examinations Council is pleased to authorise the publication of the revised assessment procedures for the Junior Certificate Examination programme. According to the Revised National

### Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 10

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 10 Geodetic Transformations Offshore Norway Revision history Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 2001 First release 1 Background European Datum 1950 (ED50) is the de

### SURVEYING WITH GPS. GPS has become a standard surveying technique in most surveying practices

SURVEYING WITH GPS Key Words: Static, Fast-static, Kinematic, Pseudo- Kinematic, Real-time kinematic, Receiver Initialization, On The Fly (OTF), Baselines, Redundant baselines, Base Receiver, Rover GPS

### Sun Earth Relationships

1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

### Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments

Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments Positive Internal Forces Acting Recall from mechanics of materials that the internal forces P (generic axial), V (shear) and M (moment) represent resultants

Emergency Management Australia MAP READING AND NAVIGATION safer sustainable communities Emergency Management Australia is a Division of the Attorney-General s Department PART IV Skills for Emergency Services

### Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System

Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System By Dr. Joshua Greenfeld Surveying Program Coordinator NJ Institute of Technology Objective Modern surveying operations which involves working with GIS/LIS

### NC General Statutes - Chapter 102 1

Chapter 102. Official Survey Base. 102-1. Name and description. The official survey base for the State of North Carolina shall be a system of plane coordinates to be known as the "North Carolina Coordinate

### Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

### The Process of Changing from Local Systems into SWEREF 99

Tina Kempe, Anders Alfredsson, Bengt Andersson, Lars E. Engberg, Fredrik Dahlström, Géza Lohász, Lantmäteriet, Sweden SUMMARY Lantmäteriet has decided that SWEREF 99, the Swedish realisation of ETRS89,

### Topo Grabber Help. 2010 Fountain Computer Products

Topo Grabber Help Topo Grabber Help All rights reserved. No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping,

### City of Tigard. GIS Data Standards

City of Tigard GIS Data Standards City of Tigard 13125 SW Hall Blvd Tigard, Oregon 97223 503 639-4171 Page 1 of 5 1.0 Purpose The purpose of these standards is to provide guidance for geospatial data development

### Pre-Algebra 2008. Academic Content Standards Grade Eight Ohio. Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard. Number and Number Systems

Academic Content Standards Grade Eight Ohio Pre-Algebra 2008 STANDARDS Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard Number and Number Systems 1. Use scientific notation to express large numbers and small

### Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced

### Perspective of Permanent Reference Network KOPOS in Kosova

143 Perspective of Permanent Reference Network KOPOS in Kosova Meha, M. and Çaka, M. Kosovo Cadastral Agency, Kosovo Archive Building II nd floor, P.O. 10000, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo, E-mail: mmeha@yahoo.com,

### Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

### TerraColor White Paper

TerraColor White Paper TerraColor is a simulated true color digital earth imagery product developed by Earthstar Geographics LLC. This product was built from imagery captured by the US Landsat 7 (ETM+)

### p atmospheric Statics : Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure: linear change in pressure with depth Measure depth, h, from free surface Pressure Head p gh

IVE1400: n Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Statics : Pressure : Statics r P Sleigh: P..Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk r J Noakes:.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk January 008 Module web site: www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/ive/fluidslevel1

### Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

Academic Content Standards Grade Eight and Grade Nine Ohio Algebra 1 2008 Grade Eight STANDARDS Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard Number and Number Systems 1. Use scientific notation to express

### Charlesworth School Year Group Maths Targets

Charlesworth School Year Group Maths Targets Year One Maths Target Sheet Key Statement KS1 Maths Targets (Expected) These skills must be secure to move beyond expected. I can compare, describe and solve

### Searching Land Records thru the BLM General Land Office Records.

Searching Land Records thru the BLM General Land Office Records. Land Records can be an exciting addition to your family history search. The United States Government transferred ownership of land to millions

### Data Visualization Techniques and Practices Introduction to GIS Technology

Data Visualization Techniques and Practices Introduction to GIS Technology Michael Greene Advanced Analytics & Modeling, Deloitte Consulting LLP March 16 th, 2010 Antitrust Notice The Casualty Actuarial

### Homework #1 Solutions

Homework #1 Solutions Problems Section 1.1: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 Section 1.2: 2, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 26 Extra Problems #1 and #2 1.1.8. Find f (5) if f (x) = 10x x 2. Solution: Setting x = 5, f (5) = 10(5)

### ESTIMATION USABILITY OF THE FREE SOFTWARE FOR TRANSFORMATION OF GEODETIC COORDINATES BETWEEB LOCAL AND GLOBAL DATUMS-EXAMPLE OF THE ADRIATIC SEA

ESTIMATION USABILITY OF THE FREE SOFTWARE FOR TRANSFORMATION OF GEODETIC COORDINATES BETWEEB LOCAL AND GLOBAL DATUMS-EXAMPLE OF THE ADRIATIC SEA Duplančić Leder, Tea; Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture,

### 2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles

2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles

### Geography I Pre Test #1

Geography I Pre Test #1 1. The sun is a star in the galaxy. a) Orion b) Milky Way c) Proxima Centauri d) Alpha Centauri e) Betelgeuse 2. The response to earth's rotation is a) an equatorial bulge b) polar

### Experiment (13): Flow channel

Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and

### Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to:

Chapter 5 Section 1 Lesson Angle Measure Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: Use the most common conventions to position and measure angles on the plane. Demonstrate an understanding

### Understanding Map Projections

Understanding Map Projections Melita Kennedy ArcInfo 8 Copyright 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The

### Chapter 4: The Concept of Area

Chapter 4: The Concept of Area Defining Area The area of a shape or object can be defined in everyday words as the amount of stuff needed to cover the shape. Common uses of the concept of area are finding

### The Sphere of the Earth Description and Technical Manual

The Sphere of the Earth Description and Technical Manual December 20, 2012 Daniel Ramos MMACA (Museu de Matemàtiques de Catalunya) 1 The exhibit The exhibit we are presenting explores the science of cartography

### G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M

G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M CONTENTS Foreword... 2 Forces... 3 Circular Orbits... 8 Energy... 10 Angular Momentum... 13 FOREWORD

### GEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN

GEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN C. C. Chang Department of Surveying and Mapping Engineering Chung Cheng Institute of Technology Tahsi, Taoyuan 335,

### Math 215 Project (25 pts) : Using Linear Algebra to solve GPS problem

Due Thursday March 1, 2012 NAME(S): Math 215 Project (25 pts) : Using Linear Algebra to solve GPS problem 0.1 Introduction The age old question, Where in the world am I? can easily be solved nowadays by

### COVER VERSION 10.4.12

COVER VERSION 10.4.12 P a g e 1 Copyright notice This ebook is provided, and may be used, free of charge. Selling this ebook in its entirety, or extracts from it, is prohibited. Obtain permission from

### Geometry and Measurement

The student will be able to: Geometry and Measurement 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of geometry and measurement and operations using measurements Use the US system of measurement for

### CHAPTER 8 - LAND DESCRIPTIONS

CHAPTER 8 - LAND DESCRIPTIONS Notes: While the location of land is commonly referred to by street number and city, it is necessary to use the legal description in the preparation of those instruments relating

### Mensuration. The shapes covered are 2-dimensional square circle sector 3-dimensional cube cylinder sphere

Mensuration This a mixed selection of worksheets on a standard mathematical topic. A glance at each will be sufficient to determine its purpose and usefulness in any given situation. These notes are intended

### Prof. Ludovico Biagi. Satellite Navigation and Monitoring

Prof. Ludovico Biagi Satellite Navigation and Monitoring Navigation: trajectories control positions estimations in real time, at high frequency popular applications: low accuracy (10 m) required specific