# Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. Topographic Survey. CIVL 1101 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 1/8

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1 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 1/8 Introduction Topography - defined as the shape or configuration or relief or three dimensional quality of a surface Topography maps are very useful for engineers when planning and locating a structure Introduction U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed maps for a large part of the US Napoleon onaparte received his first promotion because of ability to make and use maps Typical USGS Topographic Map USGS Topographic Map of Mt. Shasta, The most common method of representing the topography of an area is to use contour lines contour line is an imaginary level line that connects points of equal elevation

2 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 2/8 There are several rules to note when viewing topographic maps: The rule of Vs: sharp-pointed V usually are in stream valleys, with the drainage channel passing through the point of the V, with the V pointing upstream. The rule of Os: closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside, and the innermost loop is the highest area. that point up hill can indicate a valley or stream Spacing of contours: close contours indicate a steep slope; distant contours a shallow slope. Two or more contour lines merging indicates a cliff. Imagine a hill that has its top sliced off with a really big knife When is the steepest part of this terrain? The shallowest part? The selection of the contour is important The contour interval should be small enough to give the desired topographic detail while remaining economic Usually every fifth contour line is shown in a heavy, wider line, this is called a index line

3 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 3/8

4 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 4/8

5 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 5/8 haracteristics of losely spaced contours indicate steep slopes Widely spaced contours indicate moderate slopes should be labeled to the elevation value are not shown going through buildings ontour line do not cross haracteristics of epression and hill look the same; note the contour value to distinguish the terrain Important points can be further defined by including a spot elevation ontour lines tend to parallel each other on uniform slopes onstruction of Group Work The first step in developing a contour map is measuring the elevations of a group of points 68 ft. 66 ft. 64 ft. 62 ft. 60 ft. 58 ft. 56 ft. 54 ft. ft. It will be easier for us to establish a rectangular grid of points (marked with flags) and measure the elevation 52 ft. The location of the flag points can be established by taping and checked by pacing or the odometer What is the elevation of point? Group Work Group Work 68 ft. 66 ft. 64 ft. 62 ft. 60 ft. 58 ft. 56 ft. 54 ft. 68 ft. 66 ft. 64 ft. 62 ft. 60 ft. 58 ft. 56 ft. 54 ft. ft. ft. 52 ft. 52 ft. What is the elevation of point? What is the approximate slope between points and?

6 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 6/8 Group Work onstruction of 68 ft. 66 ft. 64 ft. 62 ft. 60 ft. 58 ft. 56 ft. 54 ft. ft. 52 ft. For our project, the spacing of the grid is established by requiring that no more than 1-foot contour elevation change in each grid cell. To compute that spacing consider the slope along each edge of your site: elevation ft. slope length slope elevation length 53ft. 64ft. 300ft % ft. ft. 1 grid spacing 25ft. slope 4 onstruction of Repeat this calculation for each side of your site and use the smallest value for you grid spacing If the grid spacing value is problematic to use or set-up, round down to a convenient value - probably a multiple of 10 would be convenient. elevation ft. slope length ft. ft. 1 grid spacing 25ft. slope 4 onstruction of Repeat this calculation for each side of your site and use the smallest value for you grid spacing If the grid spacing value is problematic to use or set-up, round down to a convenient value - probably a multiple of 10 would be convenient. Side Length (ft.) Elevation Grid Spacing onstruction of N Once your contour grid is established, measure the elevation of each grid point N

7 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 7/ onstruction of The basic method for estimating contour is applied to each grid cell individually Use linear interpolation to find the location of the desired contour interval Let consider the cell in the upper left hand corner - remember the contour interval is 5 ft. We want a contour map on 5 ft. intervals The grid is rectangular, the dimensions of the sides are 80 ft. (north) and ft. (east) onstruction of Let s look at the top edge of the grid cell First see if a contour interval exist between nodes of the grid cell; if so, estimate where along the side the contour interval would be located pply simple linear interpolation to each side to locate the contour interval 2() x 4 50ft. x a slope b intercept 4 x F(x) = ax + b Let s look at the bottom edge of the grid cell Let s look at the left edge of the grid cell F(x) = ax + b F(x) = ax + b x 91 a slope b intercept x a slope 80 b intercept 4() x 7 57ft. 7 x 2(80) x 3 53ft x

8 IVL 1 Surveying - Introduction to Topographic Modeling 8/8 Let s look at the right edge of the grid cell Locate the contour intervals locations on the grid cell x a slope 80 b intercept F(x) = ax + b Next, simply connect points of equal contour intervals One grid cell down, eight to go... 3(80) x 6 40ft x Repeating the linear interpolation for each of the remaining grid cell gives: End of ing

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