UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

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1 Practical Cartographer s Reference #01 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w 36w 30w 24w 18w 12w 84n 1X w X 30 6e 12e 31 18e 33 24e 30e 35 36e 42e 48e 54e 60e 66e 72e 78e 84e 90e 96e 102e 108e 114e 120e 126e 132e 138e 144e 150e 156e 162e 168e 174e 12w 180 6w 84n X 37 72n 72n W W W V V V 64n 64n 56n 56n U U U T T T S S S R R R 48n 48n 40n 40n 32n 32n 24n 16n P 8n 0 24n 20 Q 1N Q Q P P 16n n N N M M M L L L K K K J J J H H H G G G F F F E E E D D D 8s 8s 16s 16s 24s 24s 32s 32s 40s 40s 48s 48s 56s 56s 64s 64s 72s 80s 72s 1C C X w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w 36w 30w 24w 18w 12w 6w 0 6e 12e 18e 24e 30e 36e 42e 48e 54e 60e 66e 72e 78e 84e 90e 96e 102e 108e 114e 120e 126e 132e 138e 144e 150e 156e 162e 168e 174e 180 Zones Coordinates The UTM system divides the Earth into 60 longitudinal projection zones numbered 1 to 60 starting at 180 W. Each of the zones is 6 degrees wide with a few exceptions around Norway and Svalbard. Each zone is based on its own Transverse Mercator projection. UTM uses a secant version of the Transverse Mercator with two standard lines located about180 km from the central meridian A location referenced in the UTM system is denoted by the zone (north or south) and the easting and northing coordinate pair. The easting is the projected distance, in meters, from the central meridian and the northing is the projected distance, in meters, from the Equator. Latitudinal zones are not part of the UTM, they are part of the Military General Refernce System (MGRS). They are often used in conjunction with the UTM. They extend from 84 N to 80 S and are designated with the letters C to X (skipping I and O). Each latitudinal zone is 8 degrees, except for the 12 degree zone X. Beware of confusion between the standard N and S (indicating north and south of the Equator in the UTM system) and zone S in the MGRS with is in the northern hemisphere The point of origin of each UTM zone is the intersection of the Equator and the zone's central meridian. In order to avoid dealing with negative numbers for easting, the central meridian of each zone is given a "false easting" value of 500,000 meters. Northern hemisphere northings are measured from the Equator, which has an initial northing of 0 meters. In the southern hemisphere northings decrease as you go southward from the Equator, which is given a "false northing" of 10,000,000 meters so that no point within the zone has a negative northing value. 80s

2 Practical Cartographer s Reference #02 Most Used Unit Conversions for Mapping For calculating scale 63,360 inches in one mile 5,280 feet in one mile 1,000,000 millimeters in one kilometer 100,000 centimeters in one kilometer Between systems of measurement (* constants are exact) You have multiply by to get You have multiply by to get Centimeters Inches 2.54* Centimeters Meters Feet * Meters Kilometers Miles * Kilometers Nautical Miles Miles Nautical Miles Nautical Miles 1.852* Kilometers Nautical Miles Square Centimeters Square Inches * Square Centimeters Square Centimeters Square Feet * Square Centimeters Square Meters Square Feet * Square Meters Hectares Acres Hectares Square Kilometers Square Miles Square Kilometers Square Kilometers 100.0* Hectares 0.01* Square Kilometers Square Miles 640.0* Acres * Square Miles Degrees Radians Degrees

3 Practical Cartographer s Reference #03 LandSat Image Info for Mapping Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Channels Landsat-8 Channels Band Pixel Size Wavelength Range (micrometers) No. Pixel Size Wavelength Range (micrometers) m 15 m 100 m (resampled to 30) 100 m (resampled to 30) Coastal-aerosol, Blue, Green, Red, Near infrared, Short-wave Infrared 1, Short-wave Infrared 2, Pan-chromatic, Cirrus, TIRS 1, TIRS 2, m 15 m Blue, Green, Red, Near infrared, Mid Infrared, Infrared, Shortwave Infrared, Pan-chromatic, (Landsat 7 only) Common Channel Combinations R-G-B Characteristics Red, green and blue visible light channels; closest to image as seen by human eye Near infrared combined with red and green visible channels, as known as Color Infrared (CIR); vegetation analysis Used by USGS in creating ETM+ Mosaics for the world; natural-ish color, cuts through atmospheric interference

4 Practical Cartographer s Reference #04 Making Colors Additive color. Mixing with light. Subtractive color. Mixing with pigment. RED Yellow GREEN CYAN Blue MAGENTA Magenta Cyan Green Red BLUE YELLOW

5 Practical Cartographer s Reference #05 Web Mercator Parameters Projection info for web map tiling (used by ArcGIS Online, Google Maps, OSM and Bing Maps among others) Projection: Spherical Mercator, WGS 1984; EPSG:3857 (old EPSG 3785 and ) Coordinate system in ArcGIS: Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere (WKID ) Global Extent: 180 West to 180 East, approximately South to North Pixel density for scales below: 96 pixels per inch Zoom level Scale 1 to 0 591,657, ,828, ,914, ,957, ,978, ,489, ,244, ,622, ,311, ,155, , , , , , , , , , ,128

6 Practical Cartographer s Reference #06 Earth Information Globe characteristics: Rotation: Counter-clockwise when viewed from above Tilt: Line DMS Decimal Degrees Arctic Circle N S Tropic of Cancer N N Equator 0 0 Tropic of Capricorn S S Antarctic Circle S S Measurements: Metric Imperial Description 40,075 km 24,901 mi Circumference, Equatorial 40,008 km 24,860 mi Circumference, Meridianal 8,848 m 29,029 ft Highest Land Elevation -377m -1,237 ft Lowest Land Elevation -10,916 m -35,814 ft Deepest Ocean Depth 510,072,000 km 2 196,939,900 mi 2 Surface Area 148,940,000 km 2 57,506,055 mi 2 Land Area 361,132,000 km 2 139,433,845 mi 2 Water Area 29.2% Land as percentage of surface area 70.8% Water as percentage of surface area

7 Practical Cartographer s Reference #07 U.S.Geological Survey Standard Conic Projections Continental United States Projection: Albers Equal Area Coordinate System: NAD 1983 Central Meridian W Standard Parallel N Standard Parallel N Latitude of Origin 23.0 N mi Alaska Projection: Albers Equal Area Coordinate System: NAD 1983 Central Meridian W (for all Aleutians, older = -140 W) Standard Parallel N Standard Parallel N Latitude of Origin 50.0 N Hawaii Projection: Albers Equal Area Coordinate System: NAD 1983 Central Meridian W Standard Parallel N Standard Parallel N Latitude of Origin 13.0 N Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Projection: Albers Equal Area Coordinate System: NAD 1983 Central Meridian W Standard Parallel N Standard Parallel N Latitude of Origin 13.0 N mi mi mi

8 Practical Cartographer s Reference #08a Lengths of a Degree of Longitude Measured along the parallel Parallel Kilometers Miles Parallel Kilometers Miles Parallel Kilometers Miles

9 Practical Cartographer s Reference #08b Lengths of a Degree of Latitude Measured along the meridian Parallel Kilometers Miles Parallel Kilometers Miles Parallel Kilometers Miles

10 Practical Cartographer s Reference #09 Digital Video and Map Preparation Digital Video Parameters Aspect Ratio Pixel Dimensions Frame Rates Codec File Format Pixel Shape 16:9 or 4:3; see below See below 15, , 25, 29.97, 30, 60; find out from your video production partner; otherwise use 30fps Save without codec if possible by using Animation or uncompressed setting; find out from you video production partner; otherwise use h264 Find out from you video production partner; otherwise save as QuickTime or AVI as default Create yours as square but remember that some video systems use rectangular Most Common Pixel Dimensions for creating graphics for video Ratio Size Frame Rates Used by 16: x 1080 various HD 1080p digital video systems, highest quality 16: x 720 various HD 720p digital video systems, lower quality 4:3 768 x 576 various NTSC and PAL SD video systems 4:3 640 x 480 various VGA video systems 640 x x x x 3 4 x 3 16 x 9 16 x x 1080

11 Practical Cartographer s Reference #10 Standard Paper Sizes American paper sizes (many aspect ratios) Name in x in mm mm Letter 8.5 x x 279 Legal 8.5 x x 356 Jr. Legal 8.0 x x 127 Ledger 17 x x 279 Tabloid 11 x x 432 Name in x in mm mm Ratio Arch A 9 x x 305 3:4 Arch B 12 x x 457 2:3 Arch C 18 x x 610 3:4 Arch D 24 x x 914 2:3 Arch E 36 x x :4 Arch E1 30 x x :7 Arch E2 26 x x :19 Arch E3 27 x x 991 9:13 Name in x in mm mm Alias Similar ISO A ANSI A 9 x x 279 Letter A4 ANSI B 17 x x 279 Ledger A3 11 x x 432 Tabloid ANSI C 17 x x A2 ANSI D 22 x x A1 ANSI E 34 x x A0 A Letter B Tabloid E D C ISO paper sizes (based on aspect ratio = 2) The ANSI series Format A series B series C series Size mm mm in in mm mm in in mm mm in in A8 A6 A7 A5 A3 A4 A0 A1 A2 The ISO A series

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