Environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. Jakob Asjes Jakob Asjes IMARES, Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies

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1 Environmental aspects of offshore wind energy Jakob Asjes Jakob Asjes IMARES, Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies

2 Contents Part hrs Overview Dutch/North Sea situation Dutch/European Policy and Legislation Main Environmental Issues Environmental Research Programmes Short break Part 2: hrs Results Environmental Research Cumulative Impacts Future Developments and Possibilities Conclusions

3 Current situation Celtic Sea, North Sea, Baltic (2010)

4 Plans & Projects in the Netherlands

5 Plans & Ambitions North Sea

6

7 Facts and figures Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Owned by 108 MW 36 turbines of 3 MW each km from shore Build in 2006 In operation since April 2007 Demonstration Project Large Scale Monitoring & Evaluation Programme Included

8 Facts and figures Q7/Prinses Amalia Windfarm Owned by 120 MW 60 Vestas of 2 MW each 23 km from shore Build in 2007 In operation since June

9 Dutch Policy and Legislation:1 st Round 1995: National Spatial Planning Decision Offshore Wind Result: Demonstration Project OWEZ, within territorial waters E-connection asks permit outside Territorial Waters Legislation: Wet Beheer Rijkswaterstaatwerken (WBR, currently Water Act) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 2002: Permits issued for both parks 2006/2007: Parks were build

10 Dutch Policy and Legislation:2 nd Round 2005: New WBR Policy regarding Offshore Wind Basic principle: first come first serve Heavy competition Result: 80 requests and EIA s 50 locations MW total capacity Appropriate Assessments WBR policy Subsidizing Policy 2005/2006: Nota Ruimte, Energierapport EZ, Management Plan North Sea 2015: target 6000 MW Available subsidy: ± 900 MW

11 80 EIA s

12 Current situation 17 complete EIA s and Appropriate Assessments 3 main decision criteria: Safety with regard to shipping Environmental impact Safety with regard to helicopter flights 2009: 12 permits issued, 5 rejected 2010: Subsidy issued for 750 MW All decisions (permits & subsidy) were challenged in court! Virtually all court cases were won by Dutch Government

13 Dutch Policy and Legislation:3 rd Round National Waterplan: 3 areas for Offshore Wind Long-term targets vague

14 Natura 2000 EU Habitats Directive & Birds Directive Nature Protection Act Area Protection Flora & Fauna Act Species Protection Territorial Waters ànd Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Appropriate Assessment External impacts

15 Natura 2000 Areas on the DCS

16 Main Environmental Issues Construction phase: Underwater noise related to pile hammering (fish and marine mammals Impact of pile hammering on fish/fish larvae and marine mammals Operational phase: Underwater noise related to wind turbines (fish and marine mammals) Impact on marine mammals, i.e. harbour porpoise Impact on seals Impact on local birds Impact on migrating birds (evasive behaviour of birds) Impact on breeding birds Impact on fish Impact on zoobenthos Development of hard-substrate communities

17 Measures related to environmental aspects No pile hammering between 1 st of January and 1 st of July: Impact on seals Impact on fish larvae Certain locations/initiatives didn t get a permit: Impact on lesser black backed gull Obligation to carry out a monitoring and evaluation programme Financial consequences!

18 Relevant Dutch research (programs) Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Research Line 2 EIA s and Appropriate Assessments Shortlist Masterplan Wind Program (SMW): e_monitoring_wind_op_zee/ Website in Dutch; reports in English

19 Monitoring Programme Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): Benthos Sound Fish Local Birds Flying birds Seals Porpoises

20 Research Line 2: Site atlas and cumulative impacts Morphological and ecological impacts New monitoring techniques

21 Shortlist Masterplan Wind: 2010/2011 Fish larvae: survey and noise experiments Baseline monitoring of birds and porpoises Behavioral studies lesser black-backed gull Sound experiments common seal and harbour porpoise

22 End of part 1 Questions? Wageningen UR

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