ROADMAP ON MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY

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1 FAME PROJECT - INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP TERESA SIMAS 1 20 TH NOVEMBER, 2012

2 OBJECTIVES Overview of marine renewable energy development and prospects CONTENTS Green House Gas emissions targets Renewable energy production prospects Marine renewable energy production prospects Wind offshore Tidal energy Wave energy Conclusions 2

3 GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS EUROPEAN TARGETS Initial EU commitment To avoid the most serious effects of climate change for the well-being of our societies To reduce 80-95% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 Current trends and policies in Europe 40 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 HOW? Renewable energy and energy savings Renewable Energy Directive, 2009: 20% of renewable energy by

4 RENEWABLE ENERGY: PROSPECTS FOR 2020 MEMBER STATES EXPECTATIONS Analysis 27 National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP): European Union will exceed 20% of renewable energy by Member States expect to exceed their 2020 targets Only two Member States (Italy and Luxembourg) plan to resort to Cooperation Mechanisms to achieve the 2020 target Member States NREAPs projections for Source: EREC based on NREAPs 4

5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROSPECTS ENERGY SOURCES Electricity mix Heating mix Transport mix European countries clearly understand the benefits of deploying renewable energy technologies Source: EREC based on NREAPs 5

6 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROSPECTS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES Source: EREC based on NREAPs TWh 70% electricity produced by renewable sources % Offshore wind 10% Wave and tidal

7 OFFSHORE WIND Outside Europe: China and Japan (130 MW operational MW expected) In Europe: 3000 MW operational MW under construction (or fully permitted) MW by MW by 2030 Countries MW UK 1341 Denmark 854 Netherlands 249 Belgium 195 Sweden 164 Germany 92 Finland 26 Ireland 25 Norway 2,3 Portugal 2 TOTAL

8 OFFSHORE WIND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Turbine design is set: fast rotating wind turbines with three rotor blades are the most efficient in generating electricity Better wind speeds offshore then in onshore: higher power supply The challenge for offshore wind: go deeper Floating platforms 8

9 OFFSHORE WIND WINDFLOAT PROJECT 2 MW turbine located in Aguçadoura Póvoa do Varzim WindPlus: Principal Power (US), EDP (PT), Repsol (SN), A. Silva Matos (PT), Vestas Wind Systems (DN) and InovCapital (PT) Delivered about 3 GWh onto the grid The turbine has shown resilience in extreme maritime conditions, having withstood storms with waves as tall as 15 m The project partners applied this summer for EU funding to help build a 25MW offshore array 9

10 TIDAL AND OCEAN CURRENTS Limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities In Europe a high level resource is limited to UK coasts and North of France 10

11 TIDAL AND OCEAN CURRENTS TIDAL AND OCEAN CURRENTS Tidal barrage Well known technology based upon capturing seawater with a barrage Coastal sites where tidal barrages are economically and environmentally feasible is very limited Tidal stream A technology under demonstration Several devices have been tested in Norway, Italy, Ireland, The Netherlands and USA Examples: La Rance in France was the first; Sihwa in Korea is the largest 11 SeaGen The world's first commercial tidal generator was installed in Northern Ireland (Strangford Lough)

12 WAVE ENERGY The best wave conditions for wave power are found at higher latitudes (away from the equator) In Europe a higher wave power resource is located in the Atlantic region 12

13 WAVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Classification of wave energy converters There is little design consensus for wave energy devices: no industry standard Diverse nature of the wave source will allow several device types to exploit different wave climates 13

14 WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY TEST SITES Several test sites have been developed for wave and tidal energy testing Full name Atlantic Marine Energy Test Sites Biscay Marine Energy Platform Ocean Plug - Portuguese Pilot Zone Site d expérimentation en mer pour la récupération de l énergie des vagues Wave Hub European Marine Energy Centre Common Name AMETS Bimep Ocean Plug Country Ireland Spain Portugal Test site promoter / manager Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Ente Vasco de la Energia (EVE) REN - ENONDAS SEMREV France Ecole Centrale de Nantes Wave Hub United Kingdom EMEC United Kingdom South West of England Regional Development Agency EMEC 14

15 MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT FACTORS HAMPERING / ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT Resource and geographical characterisation Technology (Research & Development) Non-technological issues Regulatory issues Financial incentives Infrastructure and logistics Conflict of uses Public perception Environmental issues 15

16 MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES Receptors Stressors Effects / issues Alteration of currents and waves due to the energy extraction and or physical presence of the devices Alteration of substrates and sediment transport and deposition which may alter coastline processes and morphology Benthic habitat disturbance or destruction Physical Changes to factors such as nutrients, temperature, light levels, Physical presence of the environment turbidity (suspended sediments) devices Pelagic habitat Water contamination due to e.g. effluent or waste discharge, oil Chemical effects Benthic habitat leaks Lighting Fish and fisheries Collision, strike, entrapment and entanglement of marine Acoustics Marine birds invertebrates, fish, mammals and birds with the equipment e.g. Electromagnetic fields Marine mammals device, mooring lines Cumulative effects Humans (users) Interference with animal movements and migration Displacement of marine species Noise disturbance Effects of electromagnetic fields in fish (sharks, rays and skates) orientation and reproduction Conflict of uses Environmental Impact Assessments are important tools to proof projects sustainability 16

17 CONCLUSIONS Most part of European countries clearly understand the benefits of renewable energy development European Union will exceed 20% of renewable energy by 2020 Marine energy (offshore wind) will be an important contributor for electricity production from renewable sources Marine wave and tidal technologies are still in a stage of development and several test sites have been created for technology testing There are a number of factors which are influencing technology development (non-technological barriers) Environmental Impact Assessments should be taken serious by developers not only to license the project but to proof project sustainability 17

18 Thanks for your attention! CONTACTOS 18

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