# CHAPTER III METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

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1 CHAPTER III METHOD OF INVESTIGATION This chapter discusses sources of data, research design, research setting, population and sample of research, variables and indicators of research, methods of data collection, and methods of data analysis. A. Research Design This research is quantitative in nature, because the result of the students achievement in pre test and post test were expressed in the language of mathematic, evaluated consequently and also interpreted by appropriate statistical procedures. In this term, quantitative data refers to the use of T-test. Experimental Research is an attempt which conducted by the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. An experimental research involved two groups: experimental group and control group. An experimental group will receive a new treatment while control group receives a usual treatment. According to Nunan, experiment is designed to collect data in such a way that threats to the reliability and validity of the research are ministered. David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 99), p.47 34

2 Referring to this research, the experimental and control group are consisting of seventh grade of SMPN 3 Semarang. The experimental group received a new treatment by using Two Stay Two Stray as cooperative learning technique while the control group was treated conventionally. This study used pre-test and post-test to measure both groups changes in the period before and after receiving a treatment. The design of the experiment could be described as follows: Pattern: E 0 X 0 C 0 3 Y 0 4 Figure 3. Research Design Where: E = experimental group C = control group 0 = pre-test for experimental group 0 = post test for experimental group 0 3 = pre-test for control group 0 4 = post test for control group X = treatment using Two Stay Two Stray technique Y = treatment using conventional method Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta:Rineka Cipta, 006), p

3 ased on the above pattern, the subjects of research were classified into an experimental group (top line) and a control group (bottom line). The quality of subjects was first checked by pre-testing them (0 and 0 3 ). Then, the experimental treatment (taught by using Two Stay Two Stray as cooperative learning technique) was applied to the experimental group. This treatment was symbolized as X while the control group was taught using conventional method. This treatment was symbolized as Y. The test was held in the form of written. Then, the results of post-test (0 and 0 4 ) were computed statistically.. Research Setting. Subject and Place of the Research This study was conducted at SMPN 3 Semarang which is located at Mijen Semarang. The subject of this study is the seventh grade of SMPN 3 Semarang in the academic year of 04/05.. Time of the Research This research was conducted from November th to 3 th 04 on the first semester in the academic year 04/05, counted since the proposal is submitted until the end of the research. 36

4 No. Table List of Time of Study Activity. Try-Out Class. Experimental Class a. Pre-Test b. Treatment c. Post-Test 3. Control Class a. Pre-Test b. Explaining c. Post-Test Month/ Week November 3 rd 4 th th nd C. Source of Data. Population According to Sukardi, population is all members of well defined class of people, events and objects. Population can be divided into two kinds, target of population and access of population. Target of population is population that has been planned in the research planning. And access of population is population that can be accessed when the researcher determined the number of population. 3 The population of this research is All st grade of SMPN 3 Semarang in the Academic Year 04/05 which consists of four classes with thirty two to thirty four students in each class. 3 Sukardi, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, (Yogyakarta: umi Aksara,00), p

5 . Sample and Sampling Technique Sample means apart of population that will be observed, whose characteristic can represent and describe the real population. 4 Sample was done by taking the subject/sample which is not based on strata, random, or area but it is based on the consideration of a certain purpose. Some reasons for using sample: a. The large amount of population. b. The observation that done for all unit of population may damage. c. Saving time, money, power. d. e able to give the comprehensive output In this research, the researcher used cluster random sampling in choosing the sample, because it is one of the techniques that all individual of population may have the same opportunity and have been chosen as the sample. 5 The researcher took two classes, VII A and VII as the sample. Each class has 3 students. The two classes were given the same material but with different way. VII A as the experimental class was taught by using cooperative learning type of Two Stay Two Stray technique and VII as control class was taught conventional learning type of Direct Method. 4 Sugiharto, Teknik Sampling, ( Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 003), nd Ed, p. 5 Sukardi, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, p.58 38

6 D. Variables and Indicators of Research Every research requires variable since it roles is the fundamental elements to support the study. The existences of variable determine the outcome of the research itself. In quantitative research, where variable are central and knowing the right variable ought to be based on its appropriate definition. As variable refers to Suharsimi Arikunto, it simply means the object in which the research is focused. 6 According to Sugiyono, research variable is an attribute, characteristic, and value of person, object, or the variation of activity which has been determined by researcher to observe and take the conclusion. There are two types of variables based on the term of causation: 7. Independent Variable (X) Sugiyono said that independent variable can be called stimulus, predictor, or antecedent. Independent variable is variable which has the influence or the cause of change or make the existence of dependent variable. So, the independent variable in this research is the use of Two Stay Two Stray as cooperative learning technique in teaching learning process. 6 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta:Rineka Cipta, 006), p Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R & D), (andung: Alfabeta, 009), p.6 39

7 This variable affects the dependent variable throughout its treatments. The indicators from this variable are: a. Give a task to a small group of students. b. Assign two persons as spy or pirate to see the answers of other students and share with group. c. Group assigns two persons from their group to stay behind and share product or ideas with others who visit their poster or station. d. Discussing. The class discusses, first in groups and then as a whole class. All of the groups in the class give an interesting presentation of the topics studied. e. Evaluation. In cases where groups pursued different aspects of the same topic. Pupils and teacher evaluated each group s contribution to the work of the class as a whole. Evaluation included either individual or group assessment, or both.. Dependent Variable (Y) Dependent variable is variable which is influenced or became effect of the independent variable. 8 Dependent variable in this study is students understanding on narrative reading rext. The researcher can measure it based on students score from the test, and the indicators are: a. Identifying the definition of narrative text 8 Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R & D), (andung: Alfabeta, 009), p.6 40

8 b. Identifying social function, generic structure, language feature. E. Methods of Data Collection To get the accurate data, in this study the writer used two ways to collect data, they are follows:. Test Test is an instrument to collect the data that gives response about the question in the instrument, and the students have to show their ability. 9 In another word, test means a question which is used to measure competence, knowledge, intelligence, and ability of talent which is possessed by individual or group to collect data. 0 The writer gathered the data by analyzing the test based on the material of narrative reading text. He gave the test twice (pre-test and post-test) in both experimental and control class. a. Pre-Test efore the teacher explained material by using cooperative leaning type of Two Stay Two Stray technique, the teacher gave pre-test to experimental and 9 Purwanto, Evaluasi Hasil elajar, (Yokyakarta: Pustaka elajar, 009), p M. Chabib Thoha, Teknik Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 00), p

9 control class in same way. It was given before the experiment was run. b. Post-Test Post-test was given to the experimental class and the controlled class. It was given in order to know students understanding and score on degrees of comparison after they were taught using cooperative learning type of Two Stay Two Stray technique (experimental class) and conventional method (control class). The score of students achievement can be calculated by using this following formula: The numberof right answer Score x00% The numberof questions. Documentation esides data from result of the test, the documentation is needed to help the researcher conducted research. According to Arikunto, the documentation method is used to look for the data concerning matters or the variable that took the form of the note, transcript, book, newspaper, magazine, inscription, notes of a meeting, agenda, etc. Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, (Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 006), p.35. Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, (Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 006), p.74 4

10 The researcher used the documents related to the object of research such as students name list, the number of students, lesson plan, English subject schedule, etc. F. Data Analysis Technique The data analysis method which used in this research is quantitative analysis. Quantitative is concerned with the amount or number.. Try-Out Instrument Try out test analysis is meant to get the validity, reliability, index difficulty and discriminating power. The try out test was given to VII A of the students of SMPN 3 Semarang. After finishing the test, the answer sheets were collected in order to be scored. From 30 items test of tryout, some items were chosen as the instrument of the test. The choosing of the instrument had been done by considering: validity, reliability, the degree of test difficulty and discriminating power as follows: a. Validity The validity is an important quality of any test. It is a condition in which a test can measure what is supposed to be measured. According to Arikunto, A test is valid if it measures what it purpose to be measured. 3 3 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, (Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 006), p

11 The validity of an item can be known by doing item analysis. It is counted using product moment correlation formula: Where: r xy = N xy x y N x x N y y r xy = the correlation of the scores on two halves of the test N = the number of students in group X = the score of each component of test Y = the total score of correct answers X = the sum of total X score in each group Y = the sum of total score from each student in the group XY = the sum of multiple score from each student with the total score X = the sum of the square score in each component of test Y = the sum square of total score from each student in the group. Calculation result of r xy is compared with r table of product moment by 5% degree of significance. If r xy is higher than r table, the item of question is valid. 4 4 Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p

12 b. Reliability Reliability means consistent. 5 It refers to the consistency of test scores. esides having high validity, a good test should have high reliability too. K - R Where: Alpha formula is used to know reliability of test is r n S n S pq r : The reliability coefficient of items n : The number of item in the test P : The proportion of students who give the right answer q : The proportion of students who give the wrong answer S : The standard deviation of the test Calculation result of r is compared with r table of product moment by 5% degree of significance. If r is higher than r table, the item of question is reliable. 7 5 J. Heaton, Writing English Language Tests (London: Longman, 975), p Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D, (andung: Alfa eta, 008), p Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p

13 c. Index Difficulty According to Arikunto, good question is not very easy and is not very difficult. The easy question will not stimulate the students to heighten their power in solve problem. Conversely, the difficult question will make the students be giving easily up and have not spirit try to solve that problem on the question. ecause they think that the question is beyond the reach of their brain. 8 Item analysis is carried out to find out the effectiveness of the items. It means to check whether each item meet the requirement of good test item or not. formula: Where: P JS To know the item difficulty, the writer used the P JS = index of difficulty = the number of students who answer an item correctly = the total number of students 8 Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p

14 The index of difficulty level can be classified as follows: < P 0.30 is difficult 0.30 < P 0.70 is medium 0.70 P.00 is easy d. Discrimination Power Item of discrimination power tells how well the item performs in separating the better students from the poorer students. If the good students tend to do well on an item and the poor students do badly on the same item, then the item is a good one because it distinguishes the good students from the bad students. To calculate the index of discriminating power, the writer used the formula: 0 Where: J A J A D J A A J P A P = Number of all students in the upper group = Number of all students in the lower group = Number of students in the upper group who answered the item correctly = Number of students in the lower group who answered the item correctly 9 Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p

15 P A P = The proportion of the upper group who answered the item correctly = The proportion of the upper group who answered the item correctly The criteria of determining the index of discriminating are below: D = D = D = D = Pre-Requisite Test : Poor : Satisfactory : Good : Excellent efore the writer determined the statistical analysis technique used, he examined the normality and homogeneity test of the data. To get the normality and homogeneity, the researcher used pre test score. Pre-test was given before the treatments. The researcher determined the statically analysis technique whether both groups have normal distribution. If the data have normal and homogeny distribution, the treatment and teaching can be conducted to both classes. a. Normality test It is used to know the normality of the data that is going to be analyzed whether both groups have normal distribution or not. The normality test with Chi-square is Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Jakarta: umi Aksara, 007) 7 th Ed, p

16 done to find out the distribution data. Step by step Chisquare test is as follows: ) Determine the range (R); the largest data reduced the smallest. ) Determine the many class interval (K) with formula: K = + (3, 3) log n 3) Determine the length of the class, using the formula: P = range number of class 4) Make a frequency distribution table 5) Determines the class boundaries (bc) of each class interval 6) Calculating the average Xi ( X ), with the formula: X = f x i f i i 7) Calculate variants, with the formula: S f i ( xi x) n 8) Calculate the value of Z, with the formula: Z = x x s x = limit class x = Average S = Standard deviation 49

17 9) Define the wide area of each interval 0) Calculate the frequency expository (Ei), with formula: Ei = n x wide area with the n number of sample ) Make a list of the frequency of observation (Oi), with the frequency expository as follows: Class c Z P L Ei Oi Oi Ei Ei ) Calculate the chi-square ( X X k i O E i E i i ), with the formula: 3) Determine dk = k-3, where k is the number of class intervals and = 5% 4) Determining the value of X table 5) Determining the distribution normality with test criteria: If X count > X table distribution and the other way if the so the data is normal distribution. b. Homogenity test so the data is not normal X count < X table It was meant to get the assumption that sample of research came from a same condition or homogenous. It is Sudjana., Metode Statistika (andung: Tarsito, 00), 6 th p. 7 50

18 used to know whether experimental class and control class, that are taken from population have same variant or not. The steps as follows: ) Calculate variants both classes (experimental and control classes), with the formula: ( x x) S And S n ) Determine Where: Vb F Vk Vb : igger Varian Vk : Smaller Varian ( x x) n Determine dk = ( n ) : ( n ) 3) Determine F table with = 5% 4) Determining the distribution homogeneity with test criteria: If F count > F table the other way if the homogeneous. 3, the data is not homogeneous and F count < F table, the data is p Sugiyono, Statistika Untuk Penelitian, (andung: Alfabeta, 007), 5

19 c. Test of the Average It is used to examine average whether experimental group and control group have been decided having different average. 4 T-test is used to analyze the data of this research. A t-test would be measured you would use to compare the mean scores of the two groups. 5 If = (has same variant), the formula is: t S X X n n With S ( n ) S ( n ) S n n Where: X : The mean score of the experimental group X : The mean of the control group n : The number of experimental group n : The number of control group S : The standard deviation of experimental group S : The standard deviation of both groups If = (has no same variant) the formula is: 4 Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 995) 6 th Ed., p H. Douglas rown, Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices, (San Fransisco: Longman, 004), p

20 t X X S S n n 3. Post-Test The hypotheses are: Ho = = Ha = : average data of experimental group : average data of control group t If count t > table so Ho is rejected and there is no difference of average value from both of groups. Moreover, the other way if the tcount t < table so Ho is accepted and there is significant difference of average value from both of groups. 6 Post-test was held after all treatments were conducted. This test was used to measure students achievement after experimental and control classes were given treatments and explanations. The result of test was analyzed statistically. There are types of post-test, as follow: a. Normality Test Steps normality second step is the same as the normality test on the initial data. 6 Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 995) 6 th Ed., p

21 b. Homogenity Test Steps homogenity second step is the same as the homogeneity test on the initial data. c. Test Average (Right-hand Test) This test proposed that hypothesis test in average similarity with the right test as the steps right-hand test the initial data. G. Statistical Hypothesis This study has a hypothesis, those are : Ho: Ha: There is no differentiaton on average of students study result taught by Two Stay Two Stray technique as Cooperative Learning, with students study result taught by Direct Method as Conventional Method. There is differe ntiaton on average of students study result taught by Two Stay Two Stray technique Cooperative Learning, with students study result taught by Direct Method Conventional Method. 54

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