# Calculating P-Values. Parkland College. Isela Guerra Parkland College. Recommended Citation

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1 Parkland College A with Honors Projects Honors Program 2014 Calculating P-Values Isela Guerra Parkland College Recommended Citation Guerra, Isela, "Calculating P-Values" (2014). A with Honors Projects. Paper Open access to this Essay is brought to you by Parkland College's institutional repository, SPARK: Scholarship at Parkland. For more information, please contact

2 Calculating P- values Part 1: Ex: Employees in an accounting firm claim that the mean salary of the firms accountants is less than that of its competitor s which is \$45,000. (Assume that the standard deviation of the firm s accountants is known to be \$5,200.) A random sample of 30 of the firm s accountants has a mean salary of \$43,500. Test the employees claim at the.01 level of significance. Step 1: H 0: µ = H 1: µ < Step 2: α =.01 Using Z-Test Step 3: Figure 1 [Because this was a test about the mean, the population standard deviation is known and n 30, the Z- test was selected. We are attempting to test the claim that the mean salary is less than \$45,000. Our null hypothesis is then equal to \$45,000. The argument is that the mean is less than \$45,000 this becomes our alternative hypothesis. The level of significance is already given, α =.01 Because there is no data set we use the Z- Test, to get there we click STATS and scroll over to "TEST" then scroll down to "Z-Test". This asks for the null hypothesis in the form of µ 0: the standard deviation denoted by σ, the mean x, and n the sample size. Now, because we want to know if the mean salary is less than that of the competing firm we chose µ: <µ 0. We then click enter on calculate and get our p- value of.0571.] Using Normal CDF 1

3 [We want to know what the area to the left of 43,500 is. To do this we use normalcdf and the syntax within normalcdf is (x, x µ, µ, σ/ (n) ^1/2). Because we want to know the area to the left of \$4, 3500 (µ < 45000) we say,.5-normalcdf(43500,4500,4500,5200/(30)^1/2. Our p-value is.0571] Using Table and calculating Z value [To get the z score we use the equation,, where x is the sample mean and µ is the population mean, and σ/(n)^1/2 is the population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. This gave us a Z-score of when rounded to three significant figures. To find the corresponding p-value we go to row labeled Z, scroll down to -1.5 and to the right until we go down to the row containing.008.] Step 4: p-value > α Fail to reject the null hypothesis. Step 5: There is not significant evidence at the.01 level of significance to conclude that the mean salary of the accountants is less than that of the competitors. Part2: Ex: Account empts survey 150 executives it showed that 44% of them say that little or no knowledge of the company is most common mistake made by candidates during job interviews (based on data from USA Today). Use a.05 significance level to test claim that less than half of all executives identify that error as being most common job interviewing error. Step 1: H 0: p =.5 H 1: p <.5 Step 2: α =.05 2

4 Step 3: Using 1PropZTest [We use 1-PropZTest because we have to deal with proportions. We are given the proportion we are to test, p 0:.5, we are also given the proportion of those with the given characteristic we are testing for, which is.44 however to get X we multiply (.44) (150) and get 66. We enter these values into 1-PropZTest and get a p- value of.0708] Using Normal CDF [Because there was no standard deviation given, the normal cdf could not be used until the curve was standardized. To do this the Z score was calculated by conducting the test statistic, the p with a carrot above it is the population proportion with given characteristic(.44), and p 0 is the population proportion(.5). The mean is then equal to zero and the standard deviation is equal to 1. Our value calculated was when rounded we then use this value for the normalcdf and get our p-value of.0708 when rounded.] 3

5 Using Table and calculating Z value [Using the value found from the test statistic, the p-value was located on the table. The calculated z- value is when rounded. Go to row labeled Z and stop when -1.4 is hit, proceed to the right when the row.07 is reached. The p-value is.0708.] Step 4: p-value > α Fail to reject the null hypothesis. Step 5: There is not significant evidence at the.05 level of significance to claim that less than half of all executives identify that error as being most common job interviewing error. Part 3: Ex: Tests in past Statistics classes have had scores with a standard deviation equal to A sample of 27 scores from the current classes has a standard deviation of 9.3. Use the 0.01 level of significance to 4

6 test the claim that this current class is more consistent that past classes. Assume that test scores are normally distributed. Step 1: H 0: µ = 14.1 H 1: µ < 14.1 Step 2: α =.01 Step 3: Using Test1 SD 5

7 [This test can be found under programs. Because we were given a summary of the stats we select choice 2 under "The sample info" We press enter and then enter 27 for the sample size and again press enter. We then move along to the sample standard deviation and enter 9.3 and press enter then select "<" for less than because we are testing to see if 14.1 is < current classes. We would then like to calculate the p- value, after clicking enter we then press 2 to select "P-value Method". After, we enter the population standard deviation of The p-value calculated is ] Using Normal Cdf (X 2 Chi square) [To calculate the p-value using X 2 (chi Square) cdf, we first calculate the critical value. To do this we use the formula X 2 = ((n-1) s 2) /σ 2. Where (n-1) is the degrees of freedom, s is the sample standard deviation and σ is the population standard deviation, however when we square this it then becomes the population variance (σ 2 ). After calculating, we get the critical value of when rounded. We then use this value in X 2 cdf (0, critical value, degrees of freedom). This then gives us the p- value; we calculated a p-value of when rounded to three significant figures.] 6

8 Using Chi Square table [When using the table we see degrees of freedom to the top left. We scroll down to 26 degrees of freedom, and we then see the p-value to the top right of.005.] Step 4: p-value α Reject the null hypothesis Step 5: There is enough evidence at the.01 level of significance to conclude that this current class is more consistent that past classes. Part4 EX: A firm wishes to estimate the economic composition of a community where they are opening a branch office. They have examined data concerning this and similar communities and have obtained a hypothetical distribution of income that they feel to be accurate. To check this accuracy, they take a random sample of 500 families and family incomes. They have hypothesized the following distribution of income levels: Category Income level Under Proportion The sample yields the following results: Category Total Number Do these results differ from the hypothesized distribution? Step 1: H 0: p 1=0.4, p 2=0.2, p 3=0.2, p 4=0.1, p 5=0.1 H 1: The proportions differ from those specified. Step 2: α=0.05 7

9 Step 3: Using X 2 - Goodness of Fit Test [To perform this test we place the numbers observed from each of the categories into L 1, we then calculate the proportions which will go into L 2. To do this we take the given proportions for each number and multiply them by the total. For example, (.4) (500) = 200. You can see that 200 is the first number on the list of L 2. We then go to X 2 GOF- Test and enter L 1 in observed and L 2 in expected, we then scroll down to df (degrees of freedom, found by (n-1)) and enter 4, then enter on calculate and record our p-value of 2.98X10-4. ] Using GOF program 8

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13 [To perform the GOF, we go down to programs and enter the information it asks for, however, keep in mind that when it asks for the null hypothesis we are not expecting them to be all equal, rather equal to the proportions given, so we enter 2 and then enter each individual proportion to its corresponding category. At the end of this program we are given a p- value of 2.98X10-4.] Using Table [To find the p-value using the table, first we must calculate the chi-square test statistic: X 2 =SUM (observed frequency-expected frequency) 2 /expected frequency). We take the observed frequency and subtract it from the proportion we expect multiplied by the total number and square the quantity, we then divide it by the expected frequency. After calculating the summation we get a chi-square test statistic value of When we take a look at the table we will see that we have a p-value less than.001 and will not be displayed on the table itself.] Step 4: p-value α Reject the null hypothesis. Step 5: There is significant evidence at the.05 level of significance to conclude that the proportions are different. 12

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### Exercise 1.12 (Pg. 22-23) Individuals: The objects that are described by a set of data. They may be people, animals, things, etc. (Also referred to as Cases or Records) Variables: The characteristics recorded about each individual.

### CHI-SQUARE: TESTING FOR GOODNESS OF FIT CHI-SQUARE: TESTING FOR GOODNESS OF FIT In the previous chapter we discussed procedures for fitting a hypothesized function to a set of experimental data points. Such procedures involve minimizing a quantity One-Way Analysis of Variance Note: Much of the math here is tedious but straightforward. We ll skim over it in class but you should be sure to ask questions if you don t understand it. I. Overview A. We Introduction to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) The Structural Model, The Summary Table, and the One- Way ANOVA Limitations of the t-test Although the t-test is commonly used, it has limitations Can only