WORLD HISTORY Chapter 18

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1 WORLD HISTORY Chapter 18 The Muslim world expands Section 1, Chapter 18 1

2 2

3 The Muslim World Expands, Three great Muslim powers the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires emerge between 1300 and By 1700 all three were in decline. Section 1, Chapter 18 3

4 The Muslim World Expands, SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire CASE STUDY: Cultural Blending The Mughal Empire in India Section 1, Chapter 18 4

5 5

6 Section 1, Chapter 18 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire The Ottomans establish a Muslim empire that combine many cultures and lasted for more than 600 years. Section 1, Chapter 18 6

7 Section 1, Chapter 18 Turks Move into Byzantium Turkish Warriors Many Turks live in Anatolia, on edge of Byzantine Empire Many see themselves as ghazis warriors who fight for Islam Section 1, Chapter 18 7

8 8

9 Section 1, Chapter 18 Turks Move into Byzantium Osman Establishes a State From 1300 to 1326, Osman, successful ghazi, builds state in Anatolia Europeans call him Othman and followers Ottomans Ottomans win battles because they use muskets and cannons Successors expand state through alliances and land buying Section 1, Chapter 18 9

10 Section 1, Chapter 18 Turks Move into Byzantium Osman Establishes a State Orkhan, Osman s son, declares himself sultan overlord In 1361, Turks conquer Adrianople Ottomans rule fairly over conquered peoples Section 1, Chapter 18 10

11 Section 1, Chapter 18 Turks Move into Byzantium Timur the Lame Halts Expansion Timur the Lame Tamerlane rises to power in Central Asia Timur defeats Ottomans in 1402, burning Baghdad Section 1, Chapter 18 11

12 Section 1, Chapter 18 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Murad II Murad II begins expansion Mehmed II Conquers Constantinople Murad s son, Mehmed II, conquers Constantinople in 1453 Opens city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims and rebuilds Section 1, Chapter 18 12

13 13

14 Section 1, Chapter 18 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Ottomans Take Islam s Holy Cities In 1512, Selim the Grim, Mehmed s grandson, comes to power He defeats Persian Safavids and pushes into North Africa Conquers Mecca, Medina, and Cairo: important Muslim cities Section 1, Chapter 18 14

15 Section 1, Chapter 18 Suleyman the Lawgiver A Great Ruler Suleyman the Lawgiver, Selim s son, rules from 1520 to 1566 Section 1, Chapter 18 15

16 Section 1, Chapter 18 Suleyman the Lawgiver The Empire Reaches Its Limits Suleyman conquers Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) Ottomans control eastern Mediterranean Turks take North African coastline, control inland trade routes Suleyman s forces advance to Vienna By 1526, Ottoman Empire is the largest in the world Section 1, Chapter 18 16

17 17

18 Section 1, Chapter 18 Suleyman the Lawgiver Highly Structured Social Organization Suleyman creates law code, reduces bureaucracy, simplifies taxation Army uses devshirme drafts boys from conquered lands Trains 30,000 elite soldiers janissaries loyal only to the sultan Jews and Christians allowed to practice own 18 religion Section 1, Chapter 18

19 Section 1, Chapter 18 Suleyman the Lawgiver Cultural Flowering Suleyman s broad interests lead to flourishing of arts, learning Sinan, brilliant architect, designs magnificent Mosque of Suleyman Section 1, Chapter 18 19

20 20

21 Section 1, Chapter 18 The Empire Declines Slowly Gradual Fall Suleyman kills one son and exiles another Third son inherits throne but rules weakly Later sultans kill their brothers and leave their sons uneducated Long line of weak sultans leads to empire s eventual fall Section 1, Chapter 18 21

22 Section 2, Chapter 18 Cultural Blending Section 2, Chapter 18 22

23 Section 2, Chapter 18 Cultural Blending CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire produce a rich and complex blended culture in Persia. Section 2, Chapter 18 23

24 24

25 Section 2, Chapter 18 Cultural Blending The Safavid Empire Cultural Blending in Persia Between16th and 18th centuries a Shi ite Muslim dynasty ruled Persia Safavid Empire Shi ite Muslim dynasty from 16th to18th centuries Section 2, Chapter 18 25

26 Section 2, Chapter 18 Cultural Blending CASE STUDY:The Safavid Empire Causes of Cultural Blending Changes occur through migration, conquest, trade, or religion Section 2, Chapter 18 26

27 Section 2, Chapter 18 Cultural Blending CASE STUDY:The Safavid Empire Results of Cultural Blending Changes in language, religion, government, use of technology Racial and ethnic blending, intermarriage Cultural styles adapted into arts and architecture Section 2, Chapter 18 27

28 28

29 Section 2, Chapter 18 The Safavids Build an Empire Safavid Origins Begins as religious order named for founder Safavids concentrate on building powerful military Section 2, Chapter 18 29

30 Section 2, Chapter 18 The Safavids Build an Empire Isma il Conquers Persia Fourteen-year-old Isma il conquers Iran by 1451 Takes title of shah king Makes Shi a Islam official religion; kills Sunnis Son, Tahmasp, greatly expands empire Section 2, Chapter 18 30

31 Section 2, Chapter 18 A Safavid Golden Age Abbas the Great Shah Abbas Abbas the Great takes throne in 1587 Section 2, Chapter 18 31

32 Section 2, Chapter 18 A Safavid Golden Age Abbas the Great Shah Abbas Abbas the Great takes throne in 1587 Reforms Helps create a thriving Safavid culture Reforms military and government; brings in Christian trade Section 2, Chapter 18 32

33 33

34 Section 2, Chapter 18 A Safavid Golden Age A New Capital Esfahan new capital is one of world s most beautiful cities Art Works Chinese artisans blend Chinese and Persian styles Carpets Carpet weaving becomes national industry Section 2, Chapter 18 34

35 Section 2, Chapter 18 The Dynasty Declines Quickly The Safavid Empire Weakens Abbas kills and blinds his ablest sons Safi, Abbas s incompetent grandson, leads to empire s decline By 1722, the empire is losing land to the Ottomans and Afghans Nadir Shah Afshar expands the empire, but it falls apart in Section 2, Chapter 18

36 Section 3, Chapter 18 The Mughal Empire in India Section 3, Chapter 18 36

37 Section 3, Chapter 18 The Mughal Empire in India The Mughal Empire brings Turks, Persians, and Indians together in a vast empire. Section 3, Chapter 18 37

38 38

39 Section 3, Chapter 18 The Mughal Empire in India Early History of the Mughals Mongol Invaders Mughals, or Mongols, invade northwestern India Conflict Muslims and Hindus fight for almost 300 years In 1000, loose empire of Turkish warlords Delhi Sultanate forms Section 3, Chapter 18 39

40 Section 3, Chapter 18 The Mughal Empire in India Early History of the Mughals Delhi Sultanate Sultans rule from Delhi between 13th and 16 th centuries Timur the Lame destroys Delhi in 1398 Section 3, Chapter 18 40

41 Section 3, Chapter 18 Early History of the Mughals Babur Founds an Empire Babur becomes king of small land in Central Asia at age 11 Is dethroned and driven south into India Army conquers much of northern India, forming Mughal Empire Son Humayun loses most of the territory Babur conquered Babur s grandson succeeds Humayan 41 Section 3, Chapter 18

42 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Golden Age Babur s Grandson Akbar Greatest One rules India from 1556 to 1605 A Military Conqueror Akbar uses cannons; names native Indians as officers Section 3, Chapter 18 42

43 43

44 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Golden Age A Liberal Ruler Akbar allows religious freedom and abolishes tax on non-muslims Akbar allows all people a chance to serve in high government office Hindu finance minister develops better tax plan; income grows Akbar gives land to his officials, then reclaims it when they die Section 3, Chapter 18 44

45 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Golden Age A Flowering of Culture Many cultures blend, mixing art, education, politics, and language New languages like Hindi and Urdu emerge Section 3, Chapter 18 45

46 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Golden Age The Arts and Literature Book illustrations, called miniatures, flourish Hindu literature reemerges during Akbar s rule Architecture New architectural style named for Akbar develops Section 3, Chapter 18 46

47 47

48 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Successors Jahangir and Nur Jahan Akbar s son, Jahangir, allows wife Nur Jahan to control government Nur Jahan appoints her father prime minister Nur Jahan favors son Khusrau over other sons Khusrau rebels, supported by Sikhs, nonviolent religious group Sikhs become targets of Mughal hatred Section 3, Chapter 18 48

49 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Successors Shah Jahan Shah Jahan Jahangir s son and successor, marries Persian princess Assassinates all competitors for throne His wife dies while giving birth to her 14 th child in 1631 Section 3, Chapter 18 49

50 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Successors Shah Jahan Taj Mahal huge marble tomb Shah Jahan builds for his wife Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world Section 3, Chapter 18 50

51 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Successors The People Suffer People suffer paying for wars and monuments Shah Jahan s third son Aurangzeb imprisons father and takes over Section 3, Chapter 18 51

52 52

53 Section 3, Chapter 18 Akbar s Successors Aurangzeb s Reign Rules between 1658 and 1707; expands empire to its largest Strictly enforces Islamic law and attempts to get rid of Hindus Hindus rebel and Sikhs become militant Levies oppressive taxes on Hindus, causing more rebellion Section 3, Chapter 18 53

54 Section 3, Chapter 18 The Empire s Decline and Decay The Mughal Empire Crumbles Over 2 million people die of famine while Aurangzeb wages war Emperor becomes a figurehead; empire breaks into separate states Meanwhile, traders arrive from England, Holland, France, Portugal European traders gain key ports Section 3, Chapter 18 54

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