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1 A HISTORY OF Ottoman Architecture WITPRESS WIT Press publishes leading books in Science and Technology. Visit our website for the current list of titles. WITeLibrary Home of the Transactions of the Wessex Institute, the WIT electronic-library provides the international scientific community with immediate and permanent access to individual papers presented at WIT conferences. Visit the WIT elibrary at

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3 A HISTORY OF Ottoman Architecture JOHN FREELY Bosphorus University, Istanbul, Turkey Photographs by Anthony E. Baker

4 John Freely Bosphorus University, Istanbul, Turkey Photographs by Anthony E. Baker Published by WIT Press Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK Tel: 44 (0) ; Fax: 44 (0) For USA, Canada and Mexico WIT Press 25 Bridge Street, Billerica, MA 01821, USA Tel: ; Fax: British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A Catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: The texts of the papers in this volume were set individually by the authors or under their supervision. No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher, the Editors and Authors for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. The Publisher does not necessarily endorse the ideas held, or views expressed by the Editors or Authors of the material contained in its publications. WIT Press 2011 Printed in Great Britain by MPG Books Group, Bodmin and King s Lynn. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

5 In Memorium Godfrey Goodwin, Aptullah Kuran, and Hilary Sumner-Boyd

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7 Contents Acknowledgements Turkish Spelling and Pronunciation Introduction CHAPTER I The Ottoman Turks and their Architecture CHAPTER II Early Ottoman Architecture in North-western Anatolia CHAPTER III Ottoman Architecture in Turkish Thrace CHAPTER IV The Conqueror s City CHAPTER V Topkapi Sarayi CHAPTER VI The Emergence of Classical Ottoman Architecture CHAPTER VII Süleyman the Magnificent and Sinan, the Early Buildings CHAPTER VIII The Süleymaniye CHAPTER IX Sinan s Later Works in Istanbul CHAPTER X Sinan s Contemporaries and Successors in the Classical Tradition CHAPTER XI The Eighteenth Century: From Classical to Baroque CHAPTER XII The Last Ottoman Century Turkish Glossary The Ottoman Sultans Bibliography ix xi xiii

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9 Acknowledgements I first learned about Ottoman architecture from my departed colleagues at Robert College-Bosphorus University: Godfrey Goodwin, Aptullah Kuran, and Hilary Sumner-Boyd, and I have relied heavily on their works in writing this book, which is dedicated to them. Their writings have played a seminal role in the study of Ottoman architecture in Turkey, and I hope that my book will encourage readers to consult their magisterial works on this subject, which are listed in the bibliography. I would like to thank Emre Gençer for all of the technical help he has given me in preparing the manuscript for publication. Istanbul, 2010

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11 Turkish Spelling and Pronunciation Throughout this book, modern Turkish spelling has been used for Turkish proper names and for things that are specifically Turkish, with a few exceptions for Turkish words that have made their way into English. Modern Turkish is rigorously logical and phonetic, and the few letters that are pronounced differently from how they are in English are indicated below. All letters have but a single sound, and none is totally silent. Turkish is very slightly accented, most often on the last syllable, but all syllables should be clearly and almost evenly accented. Vowels are accented as in French or German: i.e. a as in father (the rarely used â sounds rather like ay), e as in met, i as in machine, o as in oh, u as in mute. In addition, there are three other vowels that do not occur in English: these are ý (undotted), pronounced as the u in but; ö as in German or as the oy in annoy; and ü as in German or as the ui in suit. Consonants are pronounced as in English, except for the following: c as j in jam: e.g. cami (mosque) = jahmy; ç as ch in chat: e.g. çorba (soup) = chorba; g as in get, never as in gem; g is almost silent and tends to lengthen the preceding vowel; and s as in sugar: e.g. seker (sugar) = sheker Turkish words take a slightly different form when they are modified by a preceding noun; for example, Sultan Ahmet Camii (the Mosque of Sultan Ahmet), whereas Yeni Cami, the New Mosque.

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13 Introduction This is a study of the architecture produced under the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish Muslim state that supplanted the Greek Christian Byzantine Empire in Anatolia and the Balkans at the end of the medieval era, continuing in existence into the first quarter of the twentieth century. The book will describe the extant Ottoman buildings in the northwestern part of the Republic of Turkey, where the Ottomans had their origins, particularly in Bursa (Prusa) and Edirne (Adrianople), the empire s first two capitals, and then going on to Istanbul (Constantinople), the capital from 1453 until 1923, when the modern Republic of Turkey was founded. The book will begin with a short history of the Ottoman Empire, followed by an outline of the main features of Ottoman architecture and its decoration, principally the famous Iznik tiles, as well as a brief biography of the great Ottoman architect Sinan. The successive chapters will follow the development of Ottoman architecture through its successive periods, particularly the reigns of Süleyman the Magnificent and his immediate successors, whose chief architect Sinan erected the most splendid of the mosque complexes that still adorn Istanbul and the other cities of Turkey.

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