+ - IONIC BONDING Outline: IONIC BONDING: Summary EXAMPLES: IONIC BONDING. Na (metal) unstable. Cl (nonmetal) unstable

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "+ - IONIC BONDING Outline: IONIC BONDING: Summary EXAMPLES: IONIC BONDING. Na (metal) unstable. Cl (nonmetal) unstable"

Transcription

1 IONIC BONDING Outline: Types of bonds: - Ionic - Covalent - Metallic - Seconday bonding Examples: - elation between bond enegy and popeties Summay Example: NaCl Na (metal) unstable Na (cation) stable electon + - Coulombic Attaction Occus between + and - ions. Requies electon tansfe. Lage diffeence in. equied. Cl (nonmetal) unstable Cl (anion) stable D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/1 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/2 EXAMPLES: IONIC BONDING Pedominant bonding in Ceamics NaCl MgO CaF2 CsCl IONIC BONDING: Summay Ionic: electon tansfe fom one atom (cation) to the othe (anion). Moe likely between atoms with lage electonegativity diffeences Typically found between metal and non-metal atoms: NaCl, KF, CsB, MgO Typical bonding enegies: 600 to 1500 KJ/mole (3 to 8 ev/atom) Typical chaacteistics of ionically-bonded mateials:. melting tempeatue ad Bittle... (electical and themal) Give up electons Acquie electons D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/3 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/4

2 COVALENT BONDING EXAMPLES: COVALENT BONDING Requies shaed electons Example: C4 C: has 4 valence e, needs 4 moe : has 1 valence e, needs 1 moe Electonegativities ae compaable. C4 C shaed electons fom cabon atom Adapted fom Fig. 2.10, Calliste 6e. shaed electons fom hydogen atoms 2 2O C(diamond) SiC Molecules with nonmetals Molecules with metals and nonmetals Elemental solids (RS of Peiodic Table) Compound solids (about column IVA) column IVA C 2.5 Si Ge Sn Pb GaAs F2 Cl2 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/5 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/6 COVALENT BONDING: Summay Covalent: electon shaing between atoms each atom contibutes (at least) one electon to the bond Cabon: COVALENT BONDING: Summay Note how the shaing of electons acts to complete the filling of electonic states in each espective atom: 1s 2 (2s 2 2p 2 ) 1s 2 (2s 2 2p 6 ) Each atom ties to achieve a moe stable obital filling configuation Tends to be a highly diectional bond Gives ise to a fixed oientation of the atoms Shaed electons may be consideed to belong to each atom Difficult to assign geneal chaacteistics to covalently-bonded mateials: Bonds may be stong (diamond, T m > 3550 C) o weak (Bi, T m = 270 C) Mateials may be conductive (GaAs) o insulating (diamond) D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/7 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/8

3 Ionic Chaacte MOST MATERIALS ARE NEITER 100% IONIC NOR 100% COVALENT 2 % ionic chaacte = [1 exp{ 0.25( X ) }] x 100% A X B METALLIC BONDING Aises fom a sea of donated valence electons (1, 2, o 3 fom each atom). whee X A, X B ae the electonegativities of the A and B atoms, espectively. Example: Compute the pecentage ionic chaacte of the inteatomic bonds fo TiO 2 and ZnTe. Fo TiO 2, X Ti = 1.5 and X O = 3.5, and theefoe, The electonegativities of the elements ae found in Figue 2.7 Adapted fom Fig. 2.11, Calliste 6e. Valence electons ae not bound to any specific atom but ae fee to dift thoughout the mateial Active bonding electons fom an electon sea Fo ZnTe, X Zn = 1.6 and X Te = 2.1, and theefoe, Pimay bond fo (not supisingly) metals and thei alloys D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/9 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/10 METALLIC BONDING Metallic bonding can be eithe weak (68 kj/mole o 0.7 ev/atom fo g) o stong (850 kj/mole o 8.8 ev/atom fo W) Metallic bonding gives ise to high electical and themal conductivity Metallic bonding also gives ise to ductility (at least moe than in most covalent and ionic solids). Think about why this might be so?. The electons ae loosely held since each atom has seveal unoccupied valence obitals; it is elatively easy fo the electons to move about. In this manne the electons allow atoms to slide past each othe. Seconday Bonding Van de Waals bonding Bond enegy is vey weak compaed to othes Compae typical seconday bonding stengths (10 kj/mole) with typical pimay bonding stengths (50 to 1000 kj/mole) Exists between almost all atoms and molecules Aise fom atomic o molecula dipoles Physical bonds, not chemical D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/11 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/12

4 F F Seconday Bonding Themal vibation fluctuations can disupt chage symmety which leads to a dipole. The pesence of one dipole can induce a dipole in an adjacent molecule (o atom) and so on. PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: T M Bond length, Melting Tempeatue, Tm Enegy () Pola molecule induced dipoles & hydogen bonding Due to pemanent dipole moments in molecules Unshielded, bae poton in - O, -F and -N bonds lead to stong, hydogen bonding ydogen bonding is a special case of seconday bonding. The hydogen bond is geneally stonge than.. Bond enegy, Eo Enegy () unstetched length o Eo= bond enegy o smalle T m lage T m Tm is lage if Eo is lage. D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/13 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/14 Elastic modulus, E PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: E length, Lo undefomed defomed coss sectional aea Ao F F A = E o L o Elastic modulus PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: Coefficient of themal expansion, length, Lo unheated, T 1 heated, T 2 coeff. themal expansion Lo = (T 2 -T 1 ) Enegy Enegy unstetched length o E is lage if Eo is lage. o is lage if Eo is smalle. smalle Elastic Modulus lage lage Elastic Modulus smalle D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/15 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/16

5 State as function of bonding enegy Solid (.) Liquid (. ) Gaseous (..) Bond Enegy The highe the bond enegy. the melting tempeatue. the hadness. etc A compaison of the type of bonding found in diffeent mateials: Fo bass, the bonding is.. Bonding Types: Summay since it is a metal alloy. Fo ubbe, the bonding is with some. Rubbe is composed pimaily of cabon and hydogen atoms Fo BaS, the bonding is pedominantly.. (but with some covalent chaacte) on the basis of the elative positions of Ba and S in the peiodic table. Fo solid xenon, the bonding is. since xenon is an inet gas. Fo nylon, the bonding is.. with pehaps some.. Nylon is composed pimaily of cabon and hydogen seconday bonding Fo AlP the bonding is pedominantly (but with some ionic chaacte) on the basis of the elative positions of Al and P in the peiodic table. D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/17 D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/18 Next time: Cystal stuctue, lattice diections and planes D. M. Medaj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concodia Univesity Mech 221 lectue 3/19

Chapter Outline. Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Quantum mechanics of atoms, Electron states, The Periodic Table

Chapter Outline. Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Quantum mechanics of atoms, Electron states, The Periodic Table Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Quantum mechanics of atoms, Electron states, The Periodic Table Atomic Bonding in Solids Bonding Energies and Forces Periodic Table Chapter Outline

More information

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e -

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e - Periodic Table give up 1e - give up 2e - give up 3e - H Li Be Na Mg K Ca Columns: Similar Valence Structure Sc Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - inert gases S Se F Cl Br He Ne Ar Kr Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister

More information

Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding

Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Interatomic Bonding Bonding forces and energies Primary interatomic bonds Secondary bonding Molecules Bonding Forces and Energies Considering the interaction

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

The Electric Potential, Electric Potential Energy and Energy Conservation. V = U/q 0. V = U/q 0 = -W/q 0 1V [Volt] =1 Nm/C

The Electric Potential, Electric Potential Energy and Energy Conservation. V = U/q 0. V = U/q 0 = -W/q 0 1V [Volt] =1 Nm/C Geneal Physics - PH Winte 6 Bjoen Seipel The Electic Potential, Electic Potential Enegy and Enegy Consevation Electic Potential Enegy U is the enegy of a chaged object in an extenal electic field (Unit

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

Excitation energies for molecules by Time-Dependent. based on Effective Exact Exchange Kohn-Sham potential

Excitation energies for molecules by Time-Dependent. based on Effective Exact Exchange Kohn-Sham potential Excitation enegies fo molecules by Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theoy based on Effective Exact Exchange Kohn-Sham potential Fabio Della Sala National Nanotechnology Laboatoies Lecce Italy A. Göling

More information

Forces & Magnetic Dipoles. r r τ = μ B r

Forces & Magnetic Dipoles. r r τ = μ B r Foces & Magnetic Dipoles x θ F θ F. = AI τ = U = Fist electic moto invented by Faaday, 1821 Wie with cuent flow (in cup of Hg) otates aound a a magnet Faaday s moto Wie with cuent otates aound a Pemanent

More information

1240 ev nm 2.5 ev. (4) r 2 or mv 2 = ke2

1240 ev nm 2.5 ev. (4) r 2 or mv 2 = ke2 Chapte 5 Example The helium atom has 2 electonic enegy levels: E 3p = 23.1 ev and E 2s = 20.6 ev whee the gound state is E = 0. If an electon makes a tansition fom 3p to 2s, what is the wavelength of the

More information

BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES

BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES Every (pure) substance has a unique set of intrinsic properties which distinguishes it from all other substances. What inferences, if any can be made from a

More information

The force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges

The force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges The foce between electic chages Coulomb s Law Two chaged objects, of chage q and Q, sepaated by a distance, exet a foce on one anothe. The magnitude of this foce is given by: kqq Coulomb s Law: F whee

More information

Episode 401: Newton s law of universal gravitation

Episode 401: Newton s law of universal gravitation Episode 401: Newton s law of univesal gavitation This episode intoduces Newton s law of univesal gavitation fo point masses, and fo spheical masses, and gets students pactising calculations of the foce

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table.

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. Chapter 5 Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. How did he organize the elements? According to similarities in their chemical and physical

More information

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding Materials Molecules Atoms Atoms = protons (p) + neutrons (n) + electrons (e) Protons and neutrons are made of quarks Quantitative measurements need units:

More information

COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND

COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND You have seen how elements are similar to us and as you know them closely you will find some more similarities to our behaviour. You must have experienced the law of attraction

More information

The Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion

The Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion ! The Role of Gavity in Obital Motion Pat of: Inquiy Science with Datmouth Developed by: Chistophe Caoll, Depatment of Physics & Astonomy, Datmouth College Adapted fom: How Gavity Affects Obits (Ohio State

More information

9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids

9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids 9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids YOU ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO: Classify non-molecular solids as either network covalent solids, ionic solids, or metallic solids. Relate the physical properties

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Semipartial (Part) and Partial Correlation

Semipartial (Part) and Partial Correlation Semipatial (Pat) and Patial Coelation his discussion boows heavily fom Applied Multiple egession/coelation Analysis fo the Behavioal Sciences, by Jacob and Paticia Cohen (975 edition; thee is also an updated

More information

6. Each column of the periodic table is

6. Each column of the periodic table is 1. Atoms of elements that are in the same group have the same number of 5. Mendeleev left gaps in his periodic table because A. Protons B. Valence Electrons A. the table was too full B. no known elements

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE 19 Jul 04 NMR.1 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE In this expeiment the phenomenon of nuclea magnetic esonance will be used as the basis fo a method to accuately measue magnetic field stength, and to study magnetic

More information

(a) The centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator of the Earth is given by v2. The velocity of the earth can be found by taking the ratio of

(a) The centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator of the Earth is given by v2. The velocity of the earth can be found by taking the ratio of Homewok VI Ch. 7 - Poblems 15, 19, 22, 25, 35, 43, 51. Poblem 15 (a) The centipetal acceleation of a point on the equato of the Eath is given by v2. The velocity of the eath can be found by taking the

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

Ceramic Materials. Chapter 3: Bond Energy and Properties

Ceramic Materials. Chapter 3: Bond Energy and Properties Ceramic Materials Chapter 3: Bond Energy and Properties F. Filser & L.J. Gauckler ETH-Zürich, Departement Materials frank.filser@mat.ethz.ch HS 27 1 Goal of this Chapter is to develop semiquantitative

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Crystal Chemistry. This document last updated on 22-Sep-2014

Crystal Chemistry. This document last updated on 22-Sep-2014 Page 1 of 14 EENS 2110 Tulane University Crystal Chemistry Mineralogy Prof. Stephen A. Nelson This document last updated on 22-Sep-2014 As we have been discussing for the last several weeks, crystals,

More information

Charges, Coulomb s Law, and Electric Fields

Charges, Coulomb s Law, and Electric Fields Q&E -1 Chages, Coulomb s Law, and Electic ields Some expeimental facts: Expeimental fact 1: Electic chage comes in two types, which we call (+) and ( ). An atom consists of a heavy (+) chaged nucleus suounded

More information

Voltage ( = Electric Potential )

Voltage ( = Electric Potential ) V-1 Voltage ( = Electic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage is

More information

Physics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation

Physics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation Chapte 5 Gavitation In this Chapte we will eview the popeties of the gavitational foce. The gavitational foce has been discussed in geat detail in you intoductoy physics couses, and we will pimaily focus

More information

Gauss Law. Physics 231 Lecture 2-1

Gauss Law. Physics 231 Lecture 2-1 Gauss Law Physics 31 Lectue -1 lectic Field Lines The numbe of field lines, also known as lines of foce, ae elated to stength of the electic field Moe appopiately it is the numbe of field lines cossing

More information

12.1. FÖRSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER

12.1. FÖRSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER ndei Tokmakoff, MIT epatment of Chemisty, 3/5/8 1-1 1.1. FÖRSTER RESONNCE ENERGY TRNSFER Föste esonance enegy tansfe (FR) efes to the nonadiative tansfe of an electonic excitation fom a dono molecule to

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

More information

We will not be doing these type of calculations however, if interested then can read on your own

We will not be doing these type of calculations however, if interested then can read on your own Chemical Bond Lattice Energies and Types of Ions Na (s) + 1/2Cl 2 (g) NaCl (s) ΔH= -411 kj/mol Energetically favored: lower energy Like a car rolling down a hill We will not be doing these type of calculations

More information

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP Today: Ionic Bonding vs. Covalent Bonding Strengths of Covalent Bonds: Bond Energy Diagrams Bond Polarities: Nonpolar Covalent vs. Polar Covalent vs. Ionic Electronegativity Differences Dipole Moments

More information

Magnetic Bearing with Radial Magnetized Permanent Magnets

Magnetic Bearing with Radial Magnetized Permanent Magnets Wold Applied Sciences Jounal 23 (4): 495-499, 2013 ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.23.04.23080 Magnetic eaing with Radial Magnetized Pemanent Magnets Vyacheslav Evgenevich

More information

Voltage ( = Electric Potential )

Voltage ( = Electric Potential ) V-1 of 9 Voltage ( = lectic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION

STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION Page 1 STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION C. Alan Blaylock, Hendeson State Univesity ABSTRACT This pape pesents an intuitive appoach to deiving annuity fomulas fo classoom use and attempts

More information

2 r2 θ = r2 t. (3.59) The equal area law is the statement that the term in parentheses,

2 r2 θ = r2 t. (3.59) The equal area law is the statement that the term in parentheses, 3.4. KEPLER S LAWS 145 3.4 Keple s laws You ae familia with the idea that one can solve some mechanics poblems using only consevation of enegy and (linea) momentum. Thus, some of what we see as objects

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

VISCOSITY OF BIO-DIESEL FUELS

VISCOSITY OF BIO-DIESEL FUELS VISCOSITY OF BIO-DIESEL FUELS One of the key assumptions fo ideal gases is that the motion of a given paticle is independent of any othe paticles in the system. With this assumption in place, one can use

More information

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take!

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity

Electronegativity and Polarity and Polarity N Goalby Chemrevise.org Definition: is the relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself. is measured on the Pauling scale (ranges from 0 to

More information

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups Periodicity and the Periodic Table the result Dmitri Mendeleev arranged elements in order of their atomic numbers, such that elements with similar properties fell into the same column or group. The Periodic

More information

Revision Guide for Chapter 11

Revision Guide for Chapter 11 Revision Guide fo Chapte 11 Contents Student s Checklist Revision Notes Momentum... 4 Newton's laws of motion... 4 Gavitational field... 5 Gavitational potential... 6 Motion in a cicle... 7 Summay Diagams

More information

Carter-Penrose diagrams and black holes

Carter-Penrose diagrams and black holes Cate-Penose diagams and black holes Ewa Felinska The basic intoduction to the method of building Penose diagams has been pesented, stating with obtaining a Penose diagam fom Minkowski space. An example

More information

Determining solar characteristics using planetary data

Determining solar characteristics using planetary data Detemining sola chaacteistics using planetay data Intoduction The Sun is a G type main sequence sta at the cente of the Sola System aound which the planets, including ou Eath, obit. In this inestigation

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s Section 8.5 Objectives Describe how electronegativity is used to determine bond type. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent bonds and polar and nonpolar molecules. Generalize about the characteristics

More information

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

More information

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 1.Group I elements do not occur free (native state) in the nature because a. They are unstable b. Their compounds with other elements are highly

More information

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

More information

Periodic Table and Periodic Trends

Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Periodic Table The first reasonably successful attempt to organize the elements was made by Dimitri Mendeleevin 1869. He had the idea of arranging elements in order of

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

Worksheet 11 - Periodic Trends

Worksheet 11 - Periodic Trends Worksheet 11 - Periodic Trends A number of physical and chemical properties of elements can be predicted from their position in the Periodic Table. Among these properties are Ionization Energy, Electron

More information

Gravitation and Kepler s Laws Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation in vectorial. Gm 1 m 2. r 2

Gravitation and Kepler s Laws Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation in vectorial. Gm 1 m 2. r 2 F Gm Gavitation and Keple s Laws Newton s Law of Univesal Gavitation in vectoial fom: F 12 21 Gm 1 m 2 12 2 ˆ 12 whee the hat (ˆ) denotes a unit vecto as usual. Gavity obeys the supeposition pinciple,

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

More information

Deflection of Electrons by Electric and Magnetic Fields

Deflection of Electrons by Electric and Magnetic Fields Physics 233 Expeiment 42 Deflection of Electons by Electic and Magnetic Fields Refeences Loain, P. and D.R. Coson, Electomagnetism, Pinciples and Applications, 2nd ed., W.H. Feeman, 199. Intoduction An

More information

Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of Ceramics. Chapter Outline: Ceramics

Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of Ceramics. Chapter Outline: Ceramics Chapter Outline: Ceramics Chapter 13: Structure and Properties of Ceramics Crystal Structures Silicate Ceramics Carbon Imperfections in Ceramics Optional reading: 13.6 13.10 Chapter 14: Applications and

More information

Section 3: Crystal Binding

Section 3: Crystal Binding Physics 97 Interatomic forces Section 3: rystal Binding Solids are stable structures, and therefore there exist interactions holding atoms in a crystal together. For example a crystal of sodium chloride

More information

An Introduction to Omega

An Introduction to Omega An Intoduction to Omega Con Keating and William F. Shadwick These distibutions have the same mean and vaiance. Ae you indiffeent to thei isk-ewad chaacteistics? The Finance Development Cente 2002 1 Fom

More information

Chapter 17 The Kepler Problem: Planetary Mechanics and the Bohr Atom

Chapter 17 The Kepler Problem: Planetary Mechanics and the Bohr Atom Chapte 7 The Keple Poblem: Planetay Mechanics and the Boh Atom Keple s Laws: Each planet moves in an ellipse with the sun at one focus. The adius vecto fom the sun to a planet sweeps out equal aeas in

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: Hour: Date: Directions: Answer each of the following questions. You need not use complete sentences. 1. Who first published the classification of the

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc The Nature of Bonding Types 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Coordinate covalent Driving

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity Atomic Structure. All atoms have a mass number, A (the number of nucleons), and a proton number, Z (the number of protons). 2.

More information

Instituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049-001 Lisboa E-mail: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt

Instituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049-001 Lisboa E-mail: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt FATIGUE LIFE TIME PREDICTIO OF POAF EPSILO TB-30 AIRCRAFT - PART I: IMPLEMETATIO OF DIFERET CYCLE COUTIG METHODS TO PREDICT THE ACCUMULATED DAMAGE B. A. S. Seano 1, V. I. M.. Infante 2, B. S. D. Maado

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

Structure and evolution of circumstellar disks during the early phase of accretion from a parent cloud

Structure and evolution of circumstellar disks during the early phase of accretion from a parent cloud Cente fo Tubulence Reseach Annual Reseach Biefs 2001 209 Stuctue and evolution of cicumstella disks duing the ealy phase of accetion fom a paent cloud By Olusola C. Idowu 1. Motivation and Backgound The

More information

THERMAL ISOLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CURE MONITORING USING FBG OPTICAL SENSORS

THERMAL ISOLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CURE MONITORING USING FBG OPTICAL SENSORS THERMAL OLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CURE MONITORING USING FBG OPTICAL SENSORS E.K.G. Boateng, P.J. Schubel, N.A. Waio Polyme Composites Goup Division of Mateials, Mechanics and Stuctues Faculty of Engineeing

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

Explain 'Dobereiner's Triads and its drawback.

Explain 'Dobereiner's Triads and its drawback. CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 Page : 1 Question 1: Explain 'Dobereiner's Triads and its drawback. Dobereiner classified elements into groups of three where the atomic weight of the middle

More information

Metals and Nonmetals

Metals and Nonmetals The Periodic Table and Atomic Properties The periodic table originally came from the observation that when the elements are arranged by atomic mass, properties recur periodically. (Mendeleev) Now we understand

More information

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing. (a). oxidation number (b). atomic mass (c). average atomic mass

More information

Organizing the Elements

Organizing the Elements The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year 1700.

More information

Introduction to Electric Potential

Introduction to Electric Potential Univesiti Teknologi MARA Fakulti Sains Gunaan Intoduction to Electic Potential : A Physical Science Activity Name: HP: Lab # 3: The goal of today s activity is fo you to exploe and descibe the electic

More information

Lecture 2 - Semiconductor Physics (I) September 13, 2005

Lecture 2 - Semiconductor Physics (I) September 13, 2005 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Fall 2005 Lecture 2-1 Lecture 2 - Semiconductor Physics (I) September 13, 2005 Contents: 1. Silicon bond model: electrons and holes 2. Generation and recombination

More information