Linear Regression with One Regressor


 Shon Payne
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Linear Regression with One Regressor Michael Ash Lecture 8
2 Linear Regression with One Regressor a.k.a. Bivariate Regression An important distinction 1. The Model Effect of a oneunit change in X on the mean of Y. Role of randomness and idiosyncratic variation. Mean caveats apply. 2. Estimating the Model Computing sample coefficients with Ordinary Least Squares Hypothesis testing
3 The Linear Regression Model Slope, or response β ClassSize = Change in TestScore Change in ClassSize = TestScore ClassSize The Greek capital letter delta stands for change in. The Greek lowercase letter beta β is the symbol for how Y (TestScore) responds to a change in X (ClassSize). In this case, β is measured in test points per student. Other examples: how murder rates (Y ) respond to poverty (X ); how highway deaths (Y ) respond to drunkdriving penalties (X ); how earnings (Y ) respond to years of schooling (X ). Consider the β in each case.
4 Using a known β Suppose we know that β = 0.6 test points per student. (Adding one student to the class reduces the class test score by 0.6 points.) What is the effect of reducing class size by two students? Rearranging the definition of β, and then putting in the particular example. TestScore = β ClassSize ClassSize = ( 0.6) ( 2) = +1.2 In words: Reducing class size by two students will raise test scores by 1.2 points.
5 Building a Model TestScore = β 0 + β ClassSize ClassSize is a statement about relationship that holds on average across the population of districts. TestScore = β 0 + β ClassSize ClassSize + other factors is a statement that is true for any district. β 0 + β ClassSize ClassSize is the average effect of class size. other factors includes teacher quality, textbook quality, community income or wealth, native English speakers, testing variation, luck.
6 Linear Regression Model with a Single Regressor Y i = β 0 + β 1 X i + u i Y is the dependent variable, or outcome variable, or lefthand variable. (No one says regressand with a straight face.) X is the independent variable, or regressor, or explanatory variable, or righthand variable. β 0 + β 1 X is the population regression line, or the expected value (mean) of Y given X, or E(Y X ) = β 0 + β 1 X
7 Linear Regression Model with a Single Regressor Y i = β 0 + β 1 X i + u i β 1 and β 0 are the coefficents, or parameters of the regression line. β1 is the slope, the change in Y associated with a unit change in X. β0 is the intercept, the expected value of Y when X = 0. (Sometimes X = 0 doesn t make any sense.) β 0 raises or lowers the regression line.) u i is the error term or residual, which includes all of the unique, or idiosyncratic features of observation i, including randomness, measurement error, and luck that affect its outcome Y i.
8 Determinism and Randomness Appreciate determinism E(Y i X i ) = β 0 + β 1 X i Appreciate randomness u i Figure 4.1 Better or worse than predicted Determinism and randomness
9 Estimating the Coefficients of the Linear Regression Model Draw a best line through a scatterplot. Figure 4.2 Choosing ˆβ 0 and ˆβ 1 defines a line. What is the best line? Recall that the sample mean Y minimizes n (Y i m) 2 i=1
10 Estimating the Coefficients of the Linear Regression Model Now instead of getting to choose m, we get to choose b 0 and b 1 to minimize n (Y i b 0 b 1 X i ) 2 i=1 Let s focus on the key term: (Y i b 0 b 1 X i ) = (Y i (b 0 + b 1 X i )) = (Y i E(Y i X i ))
11 Estimating the Coefficients of the Linear Regression Model (Y i (b 0 + b 1 X i )) The key term expresses how far the actual value of Y i is from the expected value of Y i given X i according to the proposed line. We want to choose b 0 and b 1 to keep these gaps down. The values of b 0 and b 1 that keep n (Y i b 0 b 1 X i ) 2 i=1 as low as possible are called the ordinary least squares estimators of β 0 and β 1. The estimators are named ˆβ 0 and ˆβ 1.
12 The Ordinary Least Squares Estimators From Figure 4.2 to Figure 4.3 Choose b 0 and b 1 to minimize n (Y i b 0 b 1 X i ) 2 i=1 1. Could do this by trial and error. (Choose many alternative pairs b 0 and b 1 and see which gives the smallest sum of squared errors.) 2. Calculus creates simple formulas: ˆβ 1 = n i=1 (X i X)(Y i Y ) n i=1 (X i X ) 2 = s XY s 2 X ˆβ 0 = Y ˆβ 1 X 3. These are an average concept (again!) with all the good properties of sample averages.
13 Some OLS terminology OLS Regression Line Predicted Value of Y i given X i Ŷ = ˆβ 0 + ˆβ 1 X Ŷ i = ˆβ 0 + ˆβ 1 X i Predicted residual of the i th observation û i = Y i Ŷi
14 Test Scores and StudentTeacher Ratio Unit of observation: a California school district (n = 420) Variables: district average test score, district studentteacher ratio OLS Results ˆβ 0 = ˆβ 1 = 2.28 E(TestScore) = β 0 + β STR STR TestScore = STR The slope is 2.28: an increase in the studentteacher ratio (STR) by one student per class is, on average, associated with a decline in the districtwide test score by 2.28 points on the test.
15 Are the results big? Consider reducing STR by two students What would we expect to happen in a district with median studenttoteacher ratio and median test score? (No such district necessarily exists, but it s a useful reference point.) Table 4.1 Reduction of 2 students: from 19.7 (50th percentile) to 17.7 (c. 10th percentile) Expected change in test scores: = +4.6 Expected change in test scores: from (50th percentile) to (c. 60th percentile)? Worth it? Consider reducing STR by five students Beware outofsample predictions
16 Advantages of OLS Estimators Widely used method in social sciences, policy, and administration. Desirable Properties of OLS 1. ˆβ consistent and unbiased estimator of β 2. ˆβ is approximately normally distributed in large samples 3. With additional assumptions, ˆβ may be the smallest variance estimator of β.
Econometrics Simple Linear Regression
Econometrics Simple Linear Regression Burcu Eke UC3M Linear equations with one variable Recall what a linear equation is: y = b 0 + b 1 x is a linear equation with one variable, or equivalently, a straight
More informationExample: Boats and Manatees
Figure 96 Example: Boats and Manatees Slide 1 Given the sample data in Table 91, find the value of the linear correlation coefficient r, then refer to Table A6 to determine whether there is a significant
More informationChapter 9. Section Correlation
Chapter 9 Section 9.1  Correlation Objectives: Introduce linear correlation, independent and dependent variables, and the types of correlation Find a correlation coefficient Test a population correlation
More information2. Linear regression with multiple regressors
2. Linear regression with multiple regressors Aim of this section: Introduction of the multiple regression model OLS estimation in multiple regression Measuresoffit in multiple regression Assumptions
More informationSIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS
SIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS Introduction. Regression analysis is used when two or more variables are thought to be systematically connected by a linear relationship. In simple regression, we have only two
More informationRegression III: Advanced Methods
Lecture 5: Linear leastsquares Regression III: Advanced Methods William G. Jacoby Department of Political Science Michigan State University http://polisci.msu.edu/jacoby/icpsr/regress3 Simple Linear Regression
More informationttests and Ftests in regression
ttests and Ftests in regression Johan A. Elkink University College Dublin 5 April 2012 Johan A. Elkink (UCD) t and Ftests 5 April 2012 1 / 25 Outline 1 Simple linear regression Model Variance and R
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS. Unit ECON 12122 Introduction to Econometrics. Notes 4 2. R and F tests
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS Unit ECON 11 Introduction to Econometrics Notes 4 R and F tests These notes provide a summary of the lectures. They are not a complete account of the unit material. You should also
More informationUnit 31 A Hypothesis Test about Correlation and Slope in a Simple Linear Regression
Unit 31 A Hypothesis Test about Correlation and Slope in a Simple Linear Regression Objectives: To perform a hypothesis test concerning the slope of a least squares line To recognize that testing for a
More informationHedonism example. Our questions in the last session. Our questions in this session
Random Slope Models Hedonism example Our questions in the last session Do differences between countries in hedonism remain after controlling for individual age? How much of the variation in hedonism is
More informationStatistics 112 Regression Cheatsheet Section 1B  Ryan Rosario
Statistics 112 Regression Cheatsheet Section 1B  Ryan Rosario I have found that the best way to practice regression is by brute force That is, given nothing but a dataset and your mind, compute everything
More informationSimple Regression Theory I 2010 Samuel L. Baker
SIMPLE REGRESSION THEORY I 1 Simple Regression Theory I 2010 Samuel L. Baker Regression analysis lets you use data to explain and predict. A simple regression line drawn through data points In Assignment
More informationUnivariate Regression
Univariate Regression Correlation and Regression The regression line summarizes the linear relationship between 2 variables Correlation coefficient, r, measures strength of relationship: the closer r is
More informationNonlinear Regression Functions. SW Ch 8 1/54/
Nonlinear Regression Functions SW Ch 8 1/54/ The TestScore STR relation looks linear (maybe) SW Ch 8 2/54/ But the TestScore Income relation looks nonlinear... SW Ch 8 3/54/ Nonlinear Regression General
More informationIAPRI Quantitative Analysis Capacity Building Series. Multiple regression analysis & interpreting results
IAPRI Quantitative Analysis Capacity Building Series Multiple regression analysis & interpreting results How important is Rsquared? Rsquared Published in Agricultural Economics 0.45 Best article of the
More informationMULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH CATEGORICAL DATA
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Posc/Uapp 86 MULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH CATEGORICAL DATA I. AGENDA: A. Multiple regression with categorical variables. Coding schemes. Interpreting
More informationSection 14 Simple Linear Regression: Introduction to Least Squares Regression
Slide 1 Section 14 Simple Linear Regression: Introduction to Least Squares Regression There are several different measures of statistical association used for understanding the quantitative relationship
More informatione = random error, assumed to be normally distributed with mean 0 and standard deviation σ
1 Linear Regression 1.1 Simple Linear Regression Model The linear regression model is applied if we want to model a numeric response variable and its dependency on at least one numeric factor variable.
More informationSimple Regression Theory II 2010 Samuel L. Baker
SIMPLE REGRESSION THEORY II 1 Simple Regression Theory II 2010 Samuel L. Baker Assessing how good the regression equation is likely to be Assignment 1A gets into drawing inferences about how close the
More information2. Simple Linear Regression
Research methods  II 3 2. Simple Linear Regression Simple linear regression is a technique in parametric statistics that is commonly used for analyzing mean response of a variable Y which changes according
More informationRegression with a Binary Dependent Variable
Regression with a Binary Dependent Variable Chapter 9 Michael Ash CPPA Lecture 22 Course Notes Endgame Takehome final Distributed Friday 19 May Due Tuesday 23 May (Paper or emailed PDF ok; no Word, Excel,
More informationRegression, least squares
Regression, least squares Joe Felsenstein Department of Genome Sciences and Department of Biology Regression, least squares p.1/24 Fitting a straight line X Two distinct cases: The X values are chosen
More informationNumerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301
Numerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301 Motivation... In the previous session, we used graphical techniques to describe data. For example: While this histogram provides useful insight, other interesting
More informationChapter 13 Introduction to Linear Regression and Correlation Analysis
Chapter 3 Student Lecture Notes 3 Chapter 3 Introduction to Linear Regression and Correlation Analsis Fall 2006 Fundamentals of Business Statistics Chapter Goals To understand the methods for displaing
More informationOutline. Topic 4  Analysis of Variance Approach to Regression. Partitioning Sums of Squares. Total Sum of Squares. Partitioning sums of squares
Topic 4  Analysis of Variance Approach to Regression Outline Partitioning sums of squares Degrees of freedom Expected mean squares General linear test  Fall 2013 R 2 and the coefficient of correlation
More informationSimple linear regression
Simple linear regression Introduction Simple linear regression is a statistical method for obtaining a formula to predict values of one variable from another where there is a causal relationship between
More informationLinear Regression. Chapter 5. Prediction via Regression Line Number of new birds and Percent returning. Least Squares
Linear Regression Chapter 5 Regression Objective: To quantify the linear relationship between an explanatory variable (x) and response variable (y). We can then predict the average response for all subjects
More information, has mean A) 0.3. B) the smaller of 0.8 and 0.5. C) 0.15. D) which cannot be determined without knowing the sample results.
BA 275 Review Problems  Week 9 (11/20/0611/24/06) CD Lessons: 69, 70, 1620 Textbook: pp. 520528, 111124, 133141 An SRS of size 100 is taken from a population having proportion 0.8 of successes. An
More informationIntroduction to Regression and Data Analysis
Statlab Workshop Introduction to Regression and Data Analysis with Dan Campbell and Sherlock Campbell October 28, 2008 I. The basics A. Types of variables Your variables may take several forms, and it
More informationAPPLICATION OF LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL FOR POISSON DISTRIBUTION IN FORECASTING
APPLICATION OF LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL FOR POISSON DISTRIBUTION IN FORECASTING Sulaimon Mutiu O. Department of Statistics & Mathematics Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Abstract
More informationBasic Statistics and Data Analysis for Health Researchers from Foreign Countries
Basic Statistics and Data Analysis for Health Researchers from Foreign Countries Volkert Siersma siersma@sund.ku.dk The Research Unit for General Practice in Copenhagen Dias 1 Content Quantifying association
More information5. Linear Regression
5. Linear Regression Outline.................................................................... 2 Simple linear regression 3 Linear model............................................................. 4
More informationDEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER MSC IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS ANALYSING AND INTERPRETING DATA 2 PART 1 WEEK 9
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER MSC IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS ANALYSING AND INTERPRETING DATA 2 PART 1 WEEK 9 Analysis of covariance and multiple regression So far in this course,
More informationAnswer: C. The strength of a correlation does not change if units change by a linear transformation such as: Fahrenheit = 32 + (5/9) * Centigrade
Statistics Quiz Correlation and Regression  ANSWERS 1. Temperature and air pollution are known to be correlated. We collect data from two laboratories, in Boston and Montreal. Boston makes their measurements
More informationInstitute of Actuaries of India Subject CT3 Probability and Mathematical Statistics
Institute of Actuaries of India Subject CT3 Probability and Mathematical Statistics For 2015 Examinations Aim The aim of the Probability and Mathematical Statistics subject is to provide a grounding in
More informationElementary Statistics. Scatter Plot, Regression Line, Linear Correlation Coefficient, and Coefficient of Determination
Scatter Plot, Regression Line, Linear Correlation Coefficient, and Coefficient of Determination What is a Scatter Plot? A Scatter Plot is a plot of ordered pairs (x, y) where the horizontal axis is used
More information17. SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION II
17. SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION II The Model In linear regression analysis, we assume that the relationship between X and Y is linear. This does not mean, however, that Y can be perfectly predicted from X.
More informationYiming Peng, Department of Statistics. February 12, 2013
Regression Analysis Using JMP Yiming Peng, Department of Statistics February 12, 2013 2 Presentation and Data http://www.lisa.stat.vt.edu Short Courses Regression Analysis Using JMP Download Data to Desktop
More informationWooldridge, Introductory Econometrics, 4th ed. Chapter 15: Instrumental variables and two stage least squares
Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics, 4th ed. Chapter 15: Instrumental variables and two stage least squares Many economic models involve endogeneity: that is, a theoretical relationship does not fit
More informationSolución del Examen Tipo: 1
Solución del Examen Tipo: 1 Universidad Carlos III de Madrid ECONOMETRICS Academic year 2009/10 FINAL EXAM May 17, 2010 DURATION: 2 HOURS 1. Assume that model (III) verifies the assumptions of the classical
More informationPrediction and Confidence Intervals in Regression
Fall Semester, 2001 Statistics 621 Lecture 3 Robert Stine 1 Prediction and Confidence Intervals in Regression Preliminaries Teaching assistants See them in Room 3009 SHDH. Hours are detailed in the syllabus.
More information17.0 Linear Regression
17.0 Linear Regression 1 Answer Questions Lines Correlation Regression 17.1 Lines The algebraic equation for a line is Y = β 0 + β 1 X 2 The use of coordinate axes to show functional relationships was
More informationLesson Lesson Outline Outline
Lesson 15 Linear Regression Lesson 15 Outline Review correlation analysis Dependent and Independent variables Least Squares Regression line Calculating l the slope Calculating the Intercept Residuals and
More informationCausal Forecasting Models
CTL.SC1x Supply Chain & Logistics Fundamentals Causal Forecasting Models MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics Causal Models Used when demand is correlated with some known and measurable environmental
More informationNCSS Statistical Software Principal Components Regression. In ordinary least squares, the regression coefficients are estimated using the formula ( )
Chapter 340 Principal Components Regression Introduction is a technique for analyzing multiple regression data that suffer from multicollinearity. When multicollinearity occurs, least squares estimates
More informationHeteroskedasticity and Weighted Least Squares
Econ 507. Econometric Analysis. Spring 2009 April 14, 2009 The Classical Linear Model: 1 Linearity: Y = Xβ + u. 2 Strict exogeneity: E(u) = 0 3 No Multicollinearity: ρ(x) = K. 4 No heteroskedasticity/
More informationPenalized regression: Introduction
Penalized regression: Introduction Patrick Breheny August 30 Patrick Breheny BST 764: Applied Statistical Modeling 1/19 Maximum likelihood Much of 20thcentury statistics dealt with maximum likelihood
More informationRegression and Correlation
Regression and Correlation Topics Covered: Dependent and independent variables. Scatter diagram. Correlation coefficient. Linear Regression line. by Dr.I.Namestnikova 1 Introduction Regression analysis
More informationChapter 10. Key Ideas Correlation, Correlation Coefficient (r),
Chapter 0 Key Ideas Correlation, Correlation Coefficient (r), Section 0: Overview We have already explored the basics of describing single variable data sets. However, when two quantitative variables
More informationCorrelation key concepts:
CORRELATION Correlation key concepts: Types of correlation Methods of studying correlation a) Scatter diagram b) Karl pearson s coefficient of correlation c) Spearman s Rank correlation coefficient d)
More informationMultiple Linear Regression in Data Mining
Multiple Linear Regression in Data Mining Contents 2.1. A Review of Multiple Linear Regression 2.2. Illustration of the Regression Process 2.3. Subset Selection in Linear Regression 1 2 Chap. 2 Multiple
More informationFinancial Risk Management Exam Sample Questions/Answers
Financial Risk Management Exam Sample Questions/Answers Prepared by Daniel HERLEMONT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Statistics FRM99, Question 4 Random walk assumes that returns from one time period
More informationCourse Objective This course is designed to give you a basic understanding of how to run regressions in SPSS.
SPSS Regressions Social Science Research Lab American University, Washington, D.C. Web. www.american.edu/provost/ctrl/pclabs.cfm Tel. x3862 Email. SSRL@American.edu Course Objective This course is designed
More informationStatistics  Written Examination MEC Students  BOVISA
Statistics  Written Examination MEC Students  BOVISA Prof.ssa A. Guglielmi 26.0.2 All rights reserved. Legal action will be taken against infringement. Reproduction is prohibited without prior consent.
More informationA Primer on Mathematical Statistics and Univariate Distributions; The Normal Distribution; The GLM with the Normal Distribution
A Primer on Mathematical Statistics and Univariate Distributions; The Normal Distribution; The GLM with the Normal Distribution PSYC 943 (930): Fundamentals of Multivariate Modeling Lecture 4: September
More informationSTT 200 LECTURE 1, SECTION 2,4 RECITATION 7 (10/16/2012)
STT 200 LECTURE 1, SECTION 2,4 RECITATION 7 (10/16/2012) TA: Zhen (Alan) Zhang zhangz19@stt.msu.edu Office hour: (C500 WH) 1:45 2:45PM Tuesday (office tel.: 4323342) Helproom: (A102 WH) 11:20AM12:30PM,
More informationBivariate Analysis. Correlation. Correlation. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. Variable 1. Variable 2
Bivariate Analysis Variable 2 LEVELS >2 LEVELS COTIUOUS Correlation Used when you measure two continuous variables. Variable 2 2 LEVELS X 2 >2 LEVELS X 2 COTIUOUS ttest X 2 X 2 AOVA (Ftest) ttest AOVA
More informationThe Big 50 Revision Guidelines for S1
The Big 50 Revision Guidelines for S1 If you can understand all of these you ll do very well 1. Know what is meant by a statistical model and the Modelling cycle of continuous refinement 2. Understand
More informationUsing Minitab for Regression Analysis: An extended example
Using Minitab for Regression Analysis: An extended example The following example uses data from another text on fertilizer application and crop yield, and is intended to show how Minitab can be used to
More informationEcon 371 Problem Set #3 Answer Sheet
Econ 371 Problem Set #3 Answer Sheet 4.3 In this question, you are told that a OLS regression analysis of average weekly earnings yields the following estimated model. AW E = 696.7 + 9.6 Age, R 2 = 0.023,
More informationRegression analysis in practice with GRETL
Regression analysis in practice with GRETL Prerequisites You will need the GNU econometrics software GRETL installed on your computer (http://gretl.sourceforge.net/), together with the sample files that
More informationSimple Regression and Correlation
Simple Regression and Correlation Today, we are going to discuss a powerful statistical technique for examining whether or not two variables are related. Specifically, we are going to talk about the ideas
More informationBasic Statistcs Formula Sheet
Basic Statistcs Formula Sheet Steven W. ydick May 5, 0 This document is only intended to review basic concepts/formulas from an introduction to statistics course. Only meanbased procedures are reviewed,
More informationHYPOTHESIS TESTING: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, TTESTS, ANOVAS, AND REGRESSION
HYPOTHESIS TESTING: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, TTESTS, ANOVAS, AND REGRESSION HOD 2990 10 November 2010 Lecture Background This is a lightning speed summary of introductory statistical methods for senior undergraduate
More informationTo switch back to the ordinary annuity mode, enter
HANDBOOK: HOW TO USE YOUR HP 12C CALCULATOR This document is designed to provide you with (1) the basics of how your HP 12C financial calculator operates, and (2) the typical keystrokes that will be required
More informationUsing Excel for Statistical Analysis
Using Excel for Statistical Analysis You don t have to have a fancy pants statistics package to do many statistical functions. Excel can perform several statistical tests and analyses. First, make sure
More informationCHAPTER 13 SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION. Opening Example. Simple Regression. Linear Regression
Opening Example CHAPTER 13 SIMPLE LINEAR REGREION SIMPLE LINEAR REGREION! Simple Regression! Linear Regression Simple Regression Definition A regression model is a mathematical equation that descries the
More informationExercise 1.12 (Pg. 2223)
Individuals: The objects that are described by a set of data. They may be people, animals, things, etc. (Also referred to as Cases or Records) Variables: The characteristics recorded about each individual.
More informationModule 3: Correlation and Covariance
Using Statistical Data to Make Decisions Module 3: Correlation and Covariance Tom Ilvento Dr. Mugdim Pašiƒ University of Delaware Sarajevo Graduate School of Business O ften our interest in data analysis
More informationHints for Success on the AP Statistics Exam. (Compiled by Zack Bigner)
Hints for Success on the AP Statistics Exam. (Compiled by Zack Bigner) The Exam The AP Stat exam has 2 sections that take 90 minutes each. The first section is 40 multiple choice questions, and the second
More informationThe aspect of the data that we want to describe/measure is the degree of linear relationship between and The statistic r describes/measures the degree
PS 511: Advanced Statistics for Psychological and Behavioral Research 1 Both examine linear (straight line) relationships Correlation works with a pair of scores One score on each of two variables ( and
More informationLAGUARDIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING, AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
LAGUARDIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING, AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MAT 119 STATISTICS AND ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA 5 Lecture Hours, 2 Lab Hours, 3 Credits Pre
More informationSection Format Day Begin End Building Rm# Instructor. 001 Lecture Tue 6:45 PM 8:40 PM Silver 401 Ballerini
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY ROBERT F. WAGNER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC SERVICE Course Syllabus Spring 2016 Statistical Methods for Public, Nonprofit, and Health Management Section Format Day Begin End Building
More informationGeostatistics Exploratory Analysis
Instituto Superior de Estatística e Gestão de Informação Universidade Nova de Lisboa Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies Geostatistics Exploratory Analysis Carlos Alberto Felgueiras cfelgueiras@isegi.unl.pt
More informationChapter 7: Simple linear regression Learning Objectives
Chapter 7: Simple linear regression Learning Objectives Reading: Section 7.1 of OpenIntro Statistics Video: Correlation vs. causation, YouTube (2:19) Video: Intro to Linear Regression, YouTube (5:18) 
More informationThe basic unit in matrix algebra is a matrix, generally expressed as: a 11 a 12. a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23
(copyright by Scott M Lynch, February 2003) Brief Matrix Algebra Review (Soc 504) Matrix algebra is a form of mathematics that allows compact notation for, and mathematical manipulation of, highdimensional
More informationChapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions (The answers are provided after the last question.)
Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions (The answers are provided after the last question.) 1. What is the median of the following set of scores? 18, 6, 12, 10, 14? a. 10 b. 14 c. 18 d. 12 2. Approximately
More informationStatistical Models in R
Statistical Models in R Some Examples Steven Buechler Department of Mathematics 276B Hurley Hall; 16233 Fall, 2007 Outline Statistical Models Linear Models in R Regression Regression analysis is the appropriate
More informationData Mining and Data Warehousing. Henryk Maciejewski. Data Mining Predictive modelling: regression
Data Mining and Data Warehousing Henryk Maciejewski Data Mining Predictive modelling: regression Algorithms for Predictive Modelling Contents Regression Classification Auxiliary topics: Estimation of prediction
More informationVariance of OLS Estimators and Hypothesis Testing. Randomness in the model. GM assumptions. Notes. Notes. Notes. Charlie Gibbons ARE 212.
Variance of OLS Estimators and Hypothesis Testing Charlie Gibbons ARE 212 Spring 2011 Randomness in the model Considering the model what is random? Y = X β + ɛ, β is a parameter and not random, X may be
More informationBivariate Regression Analysis. The beginning of many types of regression
Bivariate Regression Analysis The beginning of many types of regression TOPICS Beyond Correlation Forecasting Two points to estimate the slope Meeting the BLUE criterion The OLS method Purpose of Regression
More informationCopyright 2013 by Laura Schultz. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 6
Using Your TINSpire Calculator: Linear Correlation and Regression Dr. Laura Schultz Statistics I This handout describes how to use your calculator for various linear correlation and regression applications.
More informationAnalyzing Intervention Effects: Multilevel & Other Approaches. Simplest Intervention Design. Better Design: Have Pretest
Analyzing Intervention Effects: Multilevel & Other Approaches Joop Hox Methodology & Statistics, Utrecht Simplest Intervention Design R X Y E Random assignment Experimental + Control group Analysis: t
More information" Y. Notation and Equations for Regression Lecture 11/4. Notation:
Notation: Notation and Equations for Regression Lecture 11/4 m: The number of predictor variables in a regression Xi: One of multiple predictor variables. The subscript i represents any number from 1 through
More informationPart 2: Analysis of Relationship Between Two Variables
Part 2: Analysis of Relationship Between Two Variables Linear Regression Linear correlation Significance Tests Multiple regression Linear Regression Y = a X + b Dependent Variable Independent Variable
More informationIntroduction to Linear Regression
14. Regression A. Introduction to Simple Linear Regression B. Partitioning Sums of Squares C. Standard Error of the Estimate D. Inferential Statistics for b and r E. Influential Observations F. Regression
More informationGood luck! BUSINESS STATISTICS FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS. Name:
Glo bal Leadership M BA BUSINESS STATISTICS FINAL EXAM Name: INSTRUCTIONS 1. Do not open this exam until instructed to do so. 2. Be sure to fill in your name before starting the exam. 3. You have two hours
More informationReview of Bivariate Regression
Review of Bivariate Regression A.Colin Cameron Department of Economics University of California  Davis accameron@ucdavis.edu October 27, 2006 Abstract This provides a review of material covered in an
More informationMultiple Linear Regression
Multiple Linear Regression A regression with two or more explanatory variables is called a multiple regression. Rather than modeling the mean response as a straight line, as in simple regression, it is
More informationHOW TO USE YOUR HP 12 C CALCULATOR
HOW TO USE YOUR HP 12 C CALCULATOR This document is designed to provide you with (1) the basics of how your HP 12C financial calculator operates, and (2) the typical keystrokes that will be required on
More informationSection 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode, Median, and Mean
Section 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode, Median, and Mean One number can be used to describe the entire sample or population. Such a number is called an average. There are many ways to compute averages,
More informationAP Statistics 2002 Scoring Guidelines
AP Statistics 2002 Scoring Guidelines The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation in the classroom; permission for any other use must be sought
More informationOutline. Correlation & Regression, III. Review. Relationship between r and regression
Outline Correlation & Regression, III 9.07 4/6/004 Relationship between correlation and regression, along with notes on the correlation coefficient Effect size, and the meaning of r Other kinds of correlation
More information5. Multiple regression
5. Multiple regression QBUS6840 Predictive Analytics https://www.otexts.org/fpp/5 QBUS6840 Predictive Analytics 5. Multiple regression 2/39 Outline Introduction to multiple linear regression Some useful
More informationSPSS Guide: Regression Analysis
SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis I put this together to give you a stepbystep guide for replicating what we did in the computer lab. It should help you run the tests we covered. The best way to get familiar
More informationLeast Squares Regression. Alan T. Arnholt Department of Mathematical Sciences Appalachian State University arnholt@math.appstate.
Least Squares Regression Alan T. Arnholt Department of Mathematical Sciences Appalachian State University arnholt@math.appstate.edu Spring 2006 R Notes 1 Copyright c 2006 Alan T. Arnholt 2 Least Squares
More informationLinear Models for Continuous Data
Chapter 2 Linear Models for Continuous Data The starting point in our exploration of statistical models in social research will be the classical linear model. Stops along the way include multiple linear
More informationInstrumental Variables & 2SLS
Instrumental Variables & 2SLS y 1 = β 0 + β 1 y 2 + β 2 z 1 +... β k z k + u y 2 = π 0 + π 1 z k+1 + π 2 z 1 +... π k z k + v Economics 20  Prof. Schuetze 1 Why Use Instrumental Variables? Instrumental
More informationSession 7 Bivariate Data and Analysis
Session 7 Bivariate Data and Analysis Key Terms for This Session Previously Introduced mean standard deviation New in This Session association bivariate analysis contingency table covariation least squares
More informationAn analysis appropriate for a quantitative outcome and a single quantitative explanatory. 9.1 The model behind linear regression
Chapter 9 Simple Linear Regression An analysis appropriate for a quantitative outcome and a single quantitative explanatory variable. 9.1 The model behind linear regression When we are examining the relationship
More information