Apostrophe for Omission (missing letters)

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1 Apostrophe for Omission (missing letters) Use an apostrophe to show where you ve left letters out of a shortened word. These are called contractions. you are you re might have- might ve could not- couldn t 1. Shorten these words using an apostrophe. She will They have- Who would He is- They are Where is- It is- That will- We will not 2. Write a sentence, about the summer, using the contracted versions of the words below. a) Should have.. b) Might have.. c) Will not.. d) They are

2 .. Apostrophes for possession (belonging) To show that someone or something owns something, add an apostrophe and s. For singular nouns, you add the s, even if the word ends in s already for most words. Apostrophe + s E.g. the cook s pot the walrus s tusks 1. Complete these phrases by writing out the word underlined to show possession. a) Dog - the tail b) Fox the.. fur c) Clock- the. noise d) Door- the. handle e) Satchel- the. Zip f) Computer the.. screen 2. Add an apostrophe and s to these sentences to show possession. Miss Taylor class had all got new school uniforms for the new academic year. Mia uniform was crisp and her skirt had neat pleats. Willow uniform was bright blue and the school badge was sat in the middle of her jumper. Marley trousers had more pockets than Miss Taylor said he could ever need. Apostrophes for plural possession Plural means more than one. You can use apostrophes to show possession for plural nouns.

3 E.g. The parents evening if a plural noun ends in s, you can only add an apostrophe at the end. If a plural noun doesn t end in s, add an apostrophe and an s. E.g. The men s room 1. Write down whether the plural nouns need an apostrophe after the s or if they need an apostrophe and an s. E.g. belonging to the frogs - the frogs a) belonging to the nurses b) belonging to the teachers - c) belonging to the women d) belonging to the plants e) belonging to the boys- Write down what each group needs an apostrophe after the s or an apostrophe and an s. All nouns are plural. The footballers boots are muddy. The teachers eat cake at break time. The nurses station was elevated. The parents evening was held on a Tuesday evening.

4 The womens rest room was out of order. The students books are heavy. Sentence structures Simple sentences- As the name suggests, simple sentences are easy to read and write. They have one clause: It was raining. Using lots of simple sentences can be very boring for a reader. I went out. It was raining hard. I put up my brolly. I saw my friend Holly. I called loudly to her. She ran over. Write 3 simple sentences about school. Compound sentences- These types of sentences have 2 or more clauses that are as important as each other. They can be joined by conjunctions like for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so E.g. - It was raining hard so I put up my brolly. Can you make your 3 simple sentences into compound sentences now. Use the conjunctions- for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

5 Complex sentences have 2 or more clauses, but one clause is more important than the other. This is called the main clause. A less important clause is called a subordinate clause. A subordinate clause does not make sense by itself. E.g. Despite it being cold, Georgia did not put her jacket on. If you read the underlined clause out loud, it doesn t make sense on its own. If you add the main clause in red, it does! A main clause does make sense on its own. Using some of the subordinate connectives below, write 5 sentences including a main clause and a subordinate clause. although despite since because after E.g. Although it was summer, the weather was cold. Embedding clauses You can also embed clauses in the middle of a sentence- this adds more information in to your sentence. The subordinate clause must be marked by two commas either side. E.g. The girl, who knocked on the door, ran away. The ball, which flew past us, landed in the garden pond.

6 Underline the embedded subordinate clauses in the sentences below. 1. Mr Jones, who wants to be a pilot, is taking private flying lessons. 2. The book, that was falling apart, was removed from the library. 3. Cheryl, who played the drums, was looking for a band to join. 4. The room, where the books are stored, is being repainted. 5. The zoo, which had just opened, was already very busy. Using who, which, that (these are called relative pronouns) write down 4 sentences embedding subordinate clauses. Make sure you add your commas in the correct place.... Nouns- common, collective and abstract Nouns are words that name things. Common nouns are names for things that you can see, touch, smell or hear. E.g. chair, table, tar, owl Collective nouns are names for groups of people or things. E.g. A pack of wolves A gang of thieves Abstract nouns are names for ideas of feelings. Abstract nouns cannot be touched. E.g. happiness, power, success, faith, education. 1. Read the list of nouns below. Next to each one, write down whether they are a common, collective or abstract noun.

7 team desk love sadness dolphin flock colony computer television hope Rewrite the sentence below replacing the underlined nouns with your own nouns. To get to the cinema, I pass through the park with a gaggle of geese. 3. Identify the collective nouns for 1) ants 2) fish 3) dolphins 4) elephants 5) bees 6) football players 7) sheep 8) bananas 9) lions Synonyms and Antonyms Synonyms are words that have the same or similar meaning.

8 E.g. A synonym for big would be gigantic or large. In order to improve writing, you need to use ambitious or wow words. Words that need to be ignored are big, nice, look, said, good and old. Find 3 synonyms for each word, using a thesaurus or a thesaurus online. big old nice look good said Antonyms are words which mean opposite. Find words which mean the opposite of: hot cold large ADJECTIVES Adjectives are words that tell us more about a noun. Her silky hair The fluffy cat The tasty bolognaise Underline the adjectives in the phrases below. Jenny s beautiful cat a dreary morning bizarre ideas straight hair a rare breed violet spots thin lips a crazy pattern

9 Replace the underlined adjectives with interesting and ambitious adjectives. The film was good and the actors were good. I had a good time. The theme park was bad the rides were bad and the food was bad.. Add your own adjectives to the sentences below. There was a smell coming from the school canteen. The. man in the window was very angry. Slowly, the.woman crossed the.. street. Adverbs Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. I quickly ate my dinner quickly is the adverb as it tells us how the dinner was eaten. He didn t do very well on his test- very is the adverb this time. Can you write down why very is the adverb in the above sentence?

10 1. Underline the adverbs in the sentences below. Then write down whether the adverbs are describing a verb or an adjective. a) The pudding was really tasty. b) The disco was bitterly disappointing. c) The bus is incredibly dirty. d) Lois gracefully walked into class. e) Erin seems exceedingly pleased with her result. 2. Add the correct adverb, from the list, to the sentences below. very, cheerfully, severely, honestly, accidentally a) Tasmin.. broke her father s briefcase. b) Daisy said she didn t feel. happy. c) The girls left school. d) The school girl.. answered the Head teacher s question. e) The boat was damaged in the storm. Some adverbs show how possible something is (just like modal verbs!) E.g. Perhaps they ll have a party. E.g. Surely, they ll have a party. Which of these adverbs mean certain and which mean not certain? definitely maybe possibly

11 surely perhaps certainly Rewrite the sentences below, replacing the underlined adverbs with a more certain adverb. 1. We will probably go outside for PE this afternoon. 2. Kate and Hollie are possibly going to France next year. 3. Maybe Lesley will win a gold medal this year. 4. Perhaps Rachel and Sarah will teach Art in New York.

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