Grammar Boot Camp. Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses. (click mouse to proceed)

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1 Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed)

2 Your Mission: To Study Phrases To Study Clauses To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with Question and Answer slides. To access, simply click on the words that are highlighted and underlined.

3 What is a Phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Common Phrases: Prepositional Phrases Infinitive Phrases Participial Phrases Gerund Phrases Appositive Phrases

4 Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition (in, on, under, over, around, of, about, through, etc.) Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective or adverb

5 Examples of Prepositional Phrase 1. The cadets marched through the woods. through is the preposition the is the modifier for the object woods functions as an adverb 2. Everyone in the class wrote an essay. in is the preposition the is the modifier for the object class functions as an adjective

6 Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive: to + verb Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as a noun, adjective or adverb

7 Examples of Infinitive Phrase 1. To exercise every day is a good habit. to exercise is the infinitive every is the modifier for the object day Functions as a noun 2. I was relieved to finish my project. to finish is the infinitive my is the modifier for the object project Functions as an adjective

8 Participial Phrase Begins with a participle: verb ending in - ed, -en, or -ing Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective

9 Examples of Participial Phrase 1. The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a shark. diving is the participle near a are the modifiers for the object reef Functions as an adjective 2. Known for her patience, Mrs. Garcia was his favorite teacher. known is the participle for her are the modifiers for the object patience Functions as an adjective

10 Gerund Phrase Begins with a gerund: verb ending in -ing Followed by object and any modifiers Functions as a noun

11 Examples of Gerund Phrase 1. Marching in unison builds teamwork. marching is the gerund in is the modifier for the object unison Functions as a noun 2. The student enjoys taking morning classes. taking is the gerund morning is the modifier for the object classes Functions as a noun

12 What is a Clause? A clause is a group of related words that contains both a subject and a verb. Two Types of Clauses: Independent Clause Dependent Clause

13 Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is a type of noun phrase that follows the noun or pronoun it modifies and amplifies or restricts its meaning. Examples: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.

14 Independent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Makes a complete statement Can stand alone

15 Examples of Independent Clause 1. Del Mar is a community college. Del Mar is the subject is is the verb a community college completes the thought 2. The Writing Center offers a variety of services. The Writing Center is the subject offers is the verb a variety of services completes the thought

16 Dependent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Does not make a complete statement Cannot Stand Alone Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun: after who although whom as that relative pronouns because which before subordinating conjunctions whose if since until when

17 Examples of Dependent Clause 1. Because the student prepared for the exam, she answered all of the questions correctly. because is the subordinating conjunction the student is the subject prepared is the verb for the exam completes the dependent clause 2. The uniform that I am required to wear is green and brown. that is the relative pronoun I is the subject am is the verb required to wear completes the dependent clause

18 Exercise Your Muscles: Phrases Identify the type of phrase in the following: 1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party. 2. To be elected president is his objective. 3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house. 4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting.

19 Answer Key: Identify the type of phrase in the following: 1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party. Participial Phrase 2. To be elected president is his objective. Infinitive Phrase 3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house. Prepositional Phrase 4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting. Gerund Phrase

20 Exercise Your Muscles: Clauses Identify the type of clause in the following: 1. I walk my dog every day. 2. Because he is a teacher. 3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal. 4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer.

21 Answer Key: Identify the type of clause in the following: 1. I walk my dog every day. Independent 2. Because he is a teacher. Dependent 3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal. Dependent 4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer. Independent

22 Congratulations! You have successfully completed Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp. Check out this great web page for additional help with phrases and clauses.

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