Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

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1 Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

2 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases and verb phrases, as well as different types of clauses that can be used to create simple and advanced sentences. Varying your sentence structure makes for more interesting writing. In Unit 4, you will learn some new types of phrases that will add variety and meaning to your writing. Learning Objectives In this unit, you will learn how infinitive phrases help build sentences. Specifically, after this unit, you should be able to: recognize infinitive phrases and their functions differentiate infinitive phrases from prepositional phrases.

3 3 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Exercise 1 Identifying Infinitive Phrases Highlight or underline the prepositional phrases in this text. You may consult the Answer Key for this unit when you have finished. Improving Your Public Speaking Skills To learn to be an effective public speaker is a valuable skill. One can follow a few simple techniques to improve public speaking skills. First, present an interesting quote or story to capture the audience s attention. Second, establish a theme to give the audience a reason for listening. Third, break your ideas into separate points to make your topic clear to the audience. Towards the end, refer back to a few major points to reinforce your main idea. The purpose of applying these techniques is to provide your audience with a complete package. Many people take speech training courses to try to overcome their fear of public speaking. They hope to improve the use of their voices. However, the best way to practise is to simply go out and speak in public. Infinitives An infinitive is the basic form of a verb without person 1, tense 2 or aspect 3.Generally, an infinitive includes the word to. To be To have To walk To think Some infinitives do not include the word to, such as verbs used after an auxiliary 4 or modal verb 5.* *See appendix for definitions of numbered terms.

4 4 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Infinitive Phrases An infinitive phrase is a grammatical unit which includes a verbal 6, that is a verb part that does not function as a main verb. An infinitive phrase can function as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun. For example, as a noun it can be in the subject or object position in a sentence. Infinitive phrases in the subject position To err is human. subject To compete professionally is his only desire. subject To be successful in life takes more than money. subject infinitive phrases in the object position We don t like to err. object His girlfriend, however, wants to marry. object Most people would just like to be happy. object When an infinitive phrase is the subject of a sentence, a predicate is still required to form a complete sentence. To travel around the world is my greatest dream. subject predicate Notice that when the infinitive phrase is the object of the sentence, both a subject and main verb are required to form a complete sentence. main verb She is planning to buy a house next year. subject object Infinitive phrases can appear at the beginning of a sentence or after the verb. 1. He is very hard to please. subj. infinitive To please him is very hard. subj. 2. Her political opponents are not easy to defeat. subj. infinitive To defeat her political opponents is not easy. subj. 3. The course is almost impossible to pass. subj. infinitive To pass the course is almost impossible. subj.

5 5 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Practice 1 Highlight or underline all the words that are part of an infinitive phrase in each sentence. Be careful: there might be more than one infinitive phrase in a sentence. 1. It s dangerous to ride a motorcycle without wearing a helmet 2. To learn a second language is to adopt a second culture. 3. The dean asked the faculty not to forget to turn in their grade reports. 4. My parents allow me to use their car over the weekend. 5. To tell him the story now might upset him. 6. Many international students come to Canada to study English. 7. The government has promised to eliminate sales tax in 10 years time. 8. During the holidays, I will fly to Calgary to visit my grandparents. Uses of Infinitive Phrases Infinitive phrases can also be used as object complements, subject complements, adjectives, adjective complements, and adverbials. This exhibit shows others to be under-researched. object Her ambition is to fly helicopters. subject subject complement object complement Do you have any clothes to donate to the garage sale? noun adjective Andrea was afraid to tell her instructor the truth. adjective adjective complement Grandma went home to visit her family. verb adverbial

6 6 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Exercise 2 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an object complement. The infinitive is the second verb in the sequence and it completes the main verb. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. We all expected her to win the race. obj. obj. comp. 1. I asked my brother. obj. comp. 2. We wanted to stop the noise. obj. obj. obj. comp. our neighbors to drive me home Exercise 3 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as a subject complement that completes a subject. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. What is important is to inform everyone of the new development. subj. subj. comp. 1. According to the saying, is to believe. 2. The child s wish is. subj. comp. subj. subj. comp. to join his family to see

7 7 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Exercise 4 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an adjective that qualifies a noun. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. His wish to be an astronaut started when he was very young. noun 1. The professor gave us a list of to buy for the course. 2. The government does not have the political strength. noun noun books to fight corruption Exercise 5 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as a complement to an adjective. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. People are unhappy to see their taxes increase. obj. comp. 1. The students were to see the movie stars. 2. The workers are now ready. comp. comp. to negociate fortunate

8 8 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Exercise 6 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an adverbial that modifies a verb. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. To learn his art, he moved to Paris. adv. verb 1. I went to Halifax. adv. 2. To catch the morning train, I at five. verb adv. verb to see my brother got up

9 9 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Practice 2 Some underlined phrases in this text are infinitive phrases, while some are not. Circle the infinitive phrases and strike out those which are not infinitive phrases. The Father of the Tamil Press Padre Henrique Henriques ( ) was a Roman Catholic missionary from Portugal. He joined the Franciscan order to become a friar, but had to leave as he was descended from Jewish parents. After initial years in Goa, he moved to India. Henriques strongly felt that, for his mission to be successful, books of religious doctrines had to be adapted to local languages. To this end, he wrote books in Tamil. Apart from being the first to produce a Tamil-Portuguese dictionary, he set up the first Tamil press and printed books in Tamil script. With his efforts, Tamil became the first non-european language to be printed with a printing press. Hence, he is sometimes referred to as the Father of the Tamil Press.

10 10 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Practice 3 Indicate for each sentence whether the text in bold is an infinitive phrase or a prepositional phrase. Infinitive phrase Prepositional Phrase 1. Last weekend, Sue invited me to join her for a movie. 2. The teachers said to the students, Speak slowly and clearly. 3. The supervisor reminded the workers not to forget their helmets. 4. The supervisor said to the workers, Don t forget to wear your helmets. 5. The Internet brings new technologies to the whole world. 6. Professor Taylor expected his students to hand in assignments on time. 7. at this rate, the companies will not have any trees to cut in twenty years. 8. What is important in a job interview is to show that you can provide value to the company. 9. he lacked strength to resist any change to the rules. 10. To be denied access to the new market would mean death to the company.

11 11 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Appendix 1) PERSON the pronoun used as the subject of a verb Singular plural First Person: i We The subject is the speaker I am a student. We are students. Second Person: you you Speaking to someone else You are a student. You are students. Third Person: he She It They Speaking about an individual or thing He is a student. They are students. that is outside the context 2) TENSE the form of the verb that indicates time A verb tense indicates past, present or future action. I walked to the store. Past I walk to the store. Present I will walk to the store. Future 3) ASPECT shows whether the action or state is complete (perfect) or incomplete (progressive) She walked all the way home. (complete perfect aspect) She is walking all the way home. (incomplete progressive aspect) 4) AUXILIARY a verb that modifies the main verb and helps to make distinctions in mood, person, aspect, and tense. The most common auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have. He is walking to the store in the snowstorm. I do like the snow, but not the cold. My father has never seen snow. A question often begins with an auxiliary verb: Did you have enough to eat? Have you done your homework? Notice how the subject is placed between the helping verb and the main verb in these questions.

12 12 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing 5) MODAL an auxiliary verb used to express possibility, intention, obligation or necessity. The most common modals are: can, could, will, would, shall, should, ought to, dare, and need. I should have told you. They would like some help. You need more practice. 6) VERBAL a verb that doesn t act as a verb, but rather as a noun or an adjective Verbals include: Infinitive phrases To be a student is a great responsibility and privilege. Gerunds Being a student is a great responsibility and privilege. Present participles The student reading at the desk is frustrated. More on gerunds and participial phrases in Units 5 and 6.

13 13 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Exercise 1 Identifying Infinitive Phrases Highlight or underline the prepositional phrases in this text. Improving Your Public Speaking Skills To learn to be an effective public speaker is a valuable skill. One can follow a few simple techniques to improve public speaking skills. First, present an interesting quote or story to capture the audience s attention. Second, establish a theme to give the audience a reason for listening. Third, break your ideas into separate points to make your topic clear to the audience. Towards the end, refer back to a few major points to reinforce your main idea. The purpose of applying these techniques is to provide your audience with a complete package. Many people take speech training courses to try to overcome their fear of public speaking. They hope to improve the use of their voices. However, the best way to practise is to simply go out and speak in public.

14 14 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Practice 1 Highlight or underline all the words that are part of an infinitive phrase in each sentence. Be careful: there might be more than one infinitive phrase in a sentence. 1. It s dangerous to ride a motorcycle without wearing a helmet 2. To learn a second language is to adopt a second culture. 3. The dean asked the faculty not to forget to turn in their grade reports. 4. My parents allow me to use their car over the weekend. 5. To tell him the story now might upset him. 6. Many international students come to Canada to study English. Be careful! The word to does not always signal an infinitive phrase. It can also be a preposition. See Unit 3 for more on Prepositional Phrases. 7. The government has promised to eliminate sales tax in 10 years time. 8. During the holidays, I will fly to Calgary to visit my grandparents. Be careful! The word to does not always signal an infinitive phrase. It can also be a preposition. See Unit 3 for more on Prepositional Phrases. Exercise 2 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an object complement. The infinitive is the second verb in the sequence and it completes the main verb. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. We all expected her to win the race. obj. obj. comp. 1. I asked my brother to drive me home. obj. obj. comp. 2. We wanted our neighbors to stop the noise. obj. obj. comp.

15 15 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Exercise 3 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as a subject complement that completes a subject. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. What is important is to inform everyone of the new development. subj. subj. comp. 1. According to the saying, to see subj. is to believe. subj. comp. 2. The child s wish is to join his family. subj. comp. Exercise 4 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an adjective that qualifies a noun. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. His wish to be an astronaut started when he was very young. noun 1. The professor gave us a list of books to buy for the course. noun 2. The government does not have the political strengthto fight corruption. noun

16 16 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Exercise 5 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as a complement to an adjective. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. People are unhappy to see their taxes increase. obj. comp. 1. The students were fortunate to see the movie stars. comp. 2. The workers are now ready to negociate. comp. Exercise 6 All three sentences below use an infinitive phrase as an adverbial that modifies a verb. Fill in the spaces with the appropriate labels or text segments, as in the example. To learn his art, he moved to Paris. adv. verb 1. I went to Halifax to see my brother. verb adv. 2. To catch the morning train, I got up at five. verb adv.

17 17 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Practice 2 Some underlined phrases in this text are infinitive phrases, while some are not. Circle the infinitive phrases and strike out those which are not infinitive phrases. The Father of the Tamil Press Padre Henrique Henriques ( ) was a Roman Catholic missionary from Portugal. He joined the Franciscan order to become a friar, but had to leave as he was descended from Jewish parents. After initial years in Goa, he moved to India. Henriques strongly felt that, for his mission to be successful, books of religious doctrines had to be adapted to local languages. To this end, he wrote books in Tamil. Apart from being the first to produce a Tamil-Portuguese dictionary, he set up the first Tamil press and printed books in Tamil script. With his efforts, Tamil became the first non-european language to be printed with a printing press. Hence, he is sometimes referred to as the Father of the Tamil Press.

18 18 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing answer key Practice 3 Indicate for each sentence whether the text in bold is an infinitive phrase or a prepositional phrase. Infinitive phrase Prepositional Phrase 1. Last weekend, Sue invited me to join her for a movie. 2. The teachers said to the students, Speak slowly and clearly. 3. The supervisor reminded the workers not to forget their helmets. 4. The supervisor said to the workers, Don t forget to wear your helmets. 5. The Internet brings new technologies to the whole world. 6. Professor Taylor expected his students to hand in assignments on time. 7. at this rate, the companies will not have any trees to cut in twenty years. 8. What is important in a job interview is to show that you can provide value to the company. 9. he lacked strength to resist any change to the rules. 10. To be denied access to the new market would mean death to the company.

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