1 Welcome to the TEACH Trust Grammar and Punctuation Workshop ~ Key Stage 2 Whilst you are waiting, please have a little go at the warm up quiz on your tables..!!
2 1. What is grammar and punctuation? 2. What should my child already know? 3. What is my child being taught? 4. How will they be tested? 5. Brushing up on skills.
3 BY THE START OF YEAR THREE, THIS IS WHAT THEY HAVE ALREADY BEEN TAUGHT. Year 2: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Formation of nouns using suffixes such as ness, er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman] Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as ful, less (A fuller list of suffixes can be found on page 57 in the year 2 spelling section in English Appendix 1) Use of the suffixes er, est in adjectives and the use of ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs Sentence Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but) Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon] Text How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting] Punctuation Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences Commas to separate items in a list Terminology for pupils Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl s name] noun, noun phrase statement, question, exclamation, command compound, suffix adjective, adverb, verb
4 WHAT YOUR CHILD WILL LEARN IN YEAR 3 Year 3: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes [for example super, anti, auto ] Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel [for example, a rock, an open box] Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning [for example, solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble] Sentence Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions [for example, when, before, after, while, so, because], adverbs [for example, then, next, soon, therefore], or prepositions [for example, before, after, during, in, because of] Text Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group related material Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past [for example, He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play] Punctuation Terminology for pupils Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech preposition, conjunction word family, prefix clause, subordinate clause direct speech consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter inverted commas (or speech marks )
5 WHAT YOUR CHILD WILL LEARN IN YEAR 4 Year 4: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word The grammatical difference between plural and possessive s Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms [for example, we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done] Sentence Noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair) Fronted adverbials [for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.] Text Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition Punctuation Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech [for example, a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, Sit down! ] Apostrophes to mark plural possession [for example, the girl s name, the girls names] Use of commas after fronted adverbials Terminology for pupils determiner pronoun, possessive pronoun adverbial
6 WHAT YOUR CHILD WILL LEARN IN YEAR 5 Year 5: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes [for example, ate; ise; ify] Verb prefixes [for example, dis, de, mis, over and re ] Sentence Relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs [for example, perhaps, surely] or modal verbs [for example, might, should, will, must] Text Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph [for example, then, after that, this, firstly] Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time [for example, later], place [for example, nearby] and number [for example, secondly] or tense choices [for example, he had seen her before] Punctuation Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity Terminology for pupils modal verb, relative pronoun relative clause parenthesis, bracket, dash cohesion, ambiguity
7 WHAT YOUR CHILD WILL LEARN IN YEAR 6 Year 6: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word The difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, find out discover; ask for request; go in enter] How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms [for example, big, large, little]. Sentence Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence [for example, I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)]. The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, the use of question tags: He s your friend, isn t he?, or the use of subjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some very formal writing and speech] Text Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections [for example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence], and ellipsis Layout devices [for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text] Punctuation Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses [for example, It s raining; I m fed up] Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within lists Punctuation of bullet points to list information How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity [for example, man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover] Terminology for pupils subject, object active, passive synonym, antonym ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points
8 The Key Stage Two Test Introduced in 2013 at Key Stage 2 but different for 2016 to reflect the new, harder curriculum. Two sections spelling - and grammar, punctuation and vocab. Paper one grammar, punctuation and vocab questions: (50 marks) 45 minutes to complete. Paper two spelling: 20 words 20 marks. At KS2, it has to be administered on the same day for all schools nationally Tuesday 10 th May The tests are sent away and marked externally at KS2. They are reported formally to parents at KS2 for Year 6. Take five mins to have a browse through it see what the expectations are for the end of KS2.
9 Let s go!!
10 We know more than we thought 1. The old man jumped quickly over the rusty fence. 2. He jumped over it. Where are the nouns what is their job? Where are the adjectives what is their job? Where is the verb what is its job? Where is the adverb what is its job? Where are the pronouns what is their job Where is the preposition what is its job? And the is a? Is subject, verb, object the typical order of a sentence in English? Julia Strong & Pie Corbett -
11 1. The old man jumped quickly over the rusty fence. 2. He jumped over it. (subject) (verb) (object) nouns name the things talked about adjectives describe the nouns verbs say what the action is adverbs describe the verb pronouns stand in the place of a noun prepositions tell you the position of the action determiners pin down the noun precisely Typical sentence order in English is subject (carries out action), verb, object (action is done to it).
12 We know more than we thought the old man bright red across the road Which is the noun phrase? Which is the adjectival phrase? Which is the prepositional phrase? Now turn the noun phrase into an extended noun phrase!
13 Determiners What is their function? Where are they positioned? 1. I saw his dog eat six sandwiches. 2. I saw your dog eat several sandwiches. 3. That dog ate those sandwiches. 4. Some dogs like eating a few sandwiches. 5. I like this dog better than that one.
14 Determiners I have just seen the dog. I have just seen a dog. Which one is definite and which one is indefinite?
15 Determiner OR pronoun Y4 Discuss which of the underlined words below are determiners and which are pronouns. How would you explain the difference to your child? 1. Put that box over there. 2. Put that over there. 3. That box is his. 4. That is his.
16 Verbs doing and being words Infinitive Past Present Future To go He went He goes He will go To come He came He comes He will come To say He said He says He will say To look He looked He looks He will look To have He had He has He will have To be He was He is He will be To jump He jumped He jumps He will jump Massive new emphasis on types of verb tenses in new curriculum.
17 Tense The tense of a verb indicates the time at which an action takes place whether in the present or the past. With the help of a few auxiliaries it can tell you whether it is planned to happen in the future or whether it is likely to happen at all. Tense in all its possible forms in English is best understood in context via reading.
18 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Y3 The PRESENT PERFECT TENSE is formed with a present tense form of "to have" plus the past participle of the verb. This tense indicates either that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the past or that the action extends to the present. E.g. I have walked two miles already [but I'm still walking]. I have run the London Marathon [successfully in the past]. The critics have praised the film Muppets Christmas Carol since it came out [and they continue to do so].
19 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Y3 There is a big difference in meaning between: He has gone out to play. He went out to play.
20 STANDARD ENGLISH Y4 Ensuring children use Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms. It is a national dialect, which usually appears in print and media and which is taught in schools. It may vary from children s local dialect. E.g. We were going to see Santa instead of We was going to see Santa. I did it instead of I done it.
21 MODAL VERBS Y5 Tense: The Is it really going to happen game? I would have ice cream if I could but there isn t any so I will have chocolate instead. Through shared discussion, based on wider reading, draw out from the children the difference the modal verbs would, could, might, can and will make to the meaning of sentences and whether the action is definitely going to happen, may possibly happen or just has the potential to happen.
22 Simple and progressive present and past tense introduced in Y2 The simple past eg: I ran; I danced; I ate The past progressive eg: I was running, I was dancing; I was eating These parallel the two basic forms of the present tense. The simple present eg: I run; I dance; I eat The present progressive eg: I am running, I am dancing; I am eating etc. The progressive tenses usually suggest that the activity is in progress, taking place over a limited period.
23 Simple and progressive present and past tense Y6 SATs question
24 The Subjunctive Year 6 The subjunctive The subjunctive is very important in some languages, eg French, Polish, Turkish and Latin but it is dying out and somewhat archaic in English. There are three types of subjunctive in English The hypothetical subjunctive (the were subjunctive): If I were to do that again, I would try harder. The mandatory subjunctive (the bossy subjunctive): We require that he return the money immediately The formulaic subjunctive (for certain set phrases) God save the Queen! Pie Corbett & Julia Strong -
25 Hypothetical: The Subjunctive If I were Prime Minister, I would order that all Daleks should be melted down. Mandatory: The Minister requires that each teacher accept the new curriculum without question. How does it sound like it should be said?
26 The Subjunctive
27 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE Y6 Using a passive voice allows the writer to affect the presentation of information in a sentence. It can, but doesn t always, hide the subject. I broke the plate. (Active you know who did it it starts with the subject.) The plate got broken. (Passive the subject (or do-er) is hidden. It starts with the object.) The plate got broken by me. (Still passive still starts with the object even though you know who did it.)
28 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE Y6 How and why do children use this? - To make their writing more stylish and effective to the reader. E.g. The door opened and the icy breeze flooded through me. I took a deep breath it was only Dad! This doesn t work with Dad opened the door
29 Adverbs and adverbial phrases Adverbs add to the verb how, when and where. He ate slowly. (adverb) He ate very late at night. (adverbial phrase) He ate on the ship s deck. (adverbial phrase)
30 Fronted adverbials (Year 4) Adverbials at the start of sentences: At the end of the lane, Bob paused. Last Friday, Bob was happy. After eating his meal, Bob slept. Carefully, he crept home.
31 What is the difference between a clause and a phrase? Later that day, Jeff came into school with his new dog. Jeff came into school with his new dog, later that day. Running out of breath, Jeff came into school with his new dog. Jeff came into school with his new dog, running out of breath.
32 Different types of sentences Simple sentence (a single main clause a subject and a complete verb) It rained on Sunday. Compound sentence (2 or more main clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions: eg and, but, so) It rained on Sunday but it was sunny on Monday. Complex sentences (a main clause with one or more subordinate clauses not making sense on their own often introduced by subordinating conjunctions: eg if, when, because, although, until, since) Although it rained, we still enjoyed the walk. Minor sentences (no verb) Rain!
33 Which one isn t a simple sentence? 1. A big dog chased me. 2. A big dog chased me all the way down the long lane to the shops at the end of the village. 3. A big dog chased me all the way down the long lane to the shops at the end of the village and I sought refuge in the Spar.
34 Are they all compound sentences? 1. I am happy and I m feeling relaxed. 2. I like coffee but I don t like tea. 3. I can get up enthusiastically and run for miles in the mornings or I can fall asleep again, just like that.
35 How do you know these are all complex sentences? 1. Although I am happy, I am tired. 2. It was raining when we went out. 3. You ll hurt yourself if you re not careful. 4. Because it was bitterly cold, the weather was unpleasant. 5. Where are the biscuits that I bought this morning? 6. Feeling enthusiastic, she decided to walk.
36 Relative Clauses Year 5 1a. John, who was feeling angry, began shouting. 1b. John, since he was very angry, began shouting. 1c. John, feeling very angry, began shouting. 3a. The biscuits, which were scrumptious, have all disappeared. 3b. The biscuits, because they were scrumptious, all disappeared. 3c. The biscuits, being scrumptious, all disappeared.
37 Complex sentence game The parents were excited to be here, despite feeling like there were back at school. Bob, who had never watched EastEnders before, fell asleep. Thinking that she had never seen so many deals, Amanda carried on searching on the Amazon website.
38 Conjunctions need to make sense The cart stopped. The hobbit got down. after but as as soon as because while before although whenever when so then
39 Punctuation for Key Stage Two Year Three: Full stops Capital letters, incl names and I Question marks Exclamation marks Apostrophes Commas for items in a list Inverted commas for direct speech
40 Punctuation for Key Stage Two Year Four: All of Year Three, plus: Inverted commas for direct speech and other correct speech punctuation Apostrophes showing plural possession Commas after fronted adverbials
41 Punctuation for Key Stage Two Year Five: All of Year Four, plus: Brackets Dashes Commas for parenthesis Commas to avoid ambiguity
42 Punctuation for Key Stage Two Year Six: All of Year Five, plus: Semi-colons all uses Colons all uses Dashes Bullet points Hyphens
43 Punctuation for Key Stage Two Further training for parents on accurate use of all this KS2 punctuation will take place, led by Mr Wilson on: Thursday 7 th January pm Canford Heath Junior School hall
44 ANY QUESTIONS!!?? Please quickly complete the evaluation before you leave. Thank you for coming!
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Parent s Corner #3 By Melinda Matthews, SPELD NSW Referral Officer Teachers on the Teachers Certificate Course are having fun learning various strategies to help reluctant students write sentences. For
Grammar III Punctuation and Syntax Bradius V. Maurus III Posnaniae 2006 by the author The Phrase and the Clause A phrase is a group of words. For example, prepositional phrases, participial phrases, infinitive
Fry Instant Phrases The words in these phrases come from Dr. Edward Fry s Instant Word List (High Frequency Words). According to Fry, the first 300 words in the list represent about 67% of all the words