Outline. Membranes of Living Organisms. Phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipid Structure. Cell Membrane Components. Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane

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1 Membranes of Living Organisms Outline Membrane Structure Diffusion and Osmosis Why proteins are important across the of small s of large s 2 hospholipid Structure hospholipid bilayer olar Head heads Hydrophobic Nonpolar Tails heads Hydrophobic tails Copyright 2005 earson Education, Inc. ublishing as Benjamin Cummings Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane Cell Membrane Components Glycoprotein rotein Carbohydrate hospholipid Bilayer Cholesterol Outside Cell Glycolipid rotein Cytoplasm (inside cell) 1. hospholipid bilayer 2. Membrane proteins 3. Carbohydrates 4. Cholesterol Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure Copyright 2005 earson Education, Inc. ublishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2005 earson Education, Inc. ublishing as Benjamin Cummings 1

2 Roles of Membrane roteins Cell surface identity marker Cell adhesion Cytoskeleton attachment Enzyme Roles of Membrane roteins Signal Transduction Messenger rotein Receptor Activated AT Copyright 2005 earson Education, Inc. ublishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ermission required for reproduction or display. Diffusion dissolves in a solvent. Lump of s sugar move Sugar from a high to a low concentration. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ermission required for reproduction or display. Osmosis is Diffusion Across a Semipermeable Membrane s Selectively permeable Figure 5.17 How animal & plant cells behave in different solutions External environment of a cell can vary Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic Animal cell Osmoregulation Controlling Balance Osmotic Survival Mechanisms 1. Extrusion Contractile vacuoles (1) Normal (2) Lysed (3) Shriveled lasma 2. Isotonic solutions Blood protein albumin lant cell (4) Flaccid (5) Turgid (6) lasmolysis (shriveled) 3. Live with it Turgor pressure Copyright 2005 earson Education, Inc. ublishing as Benjamin Cummings 12 2

3 Moving Molecules into & out of Cells ROTEINS control movement into or out of cells assive Cell energy not required Channels Carriers ores Active Requires cell energy (AT) umps Exocytosis Endocytosis roteins act as channels protein Side view K + ion channel Top view assive transport of 1) -soluble s 2) Ions roteins act as carriers assive transport of 1) ions 2) Sugars 3) amino acids Facilitated Diffusion in Red Blood Cells 1) Cl - and bicarbonate ions 2) Glucose carrier Outside cell roteins act as pores orin rotein leated folds orins are transport pores 1.Allow movement of small s Ions Organic Wastes 2003 Nobel rize in Chemistry Aquaporin Channels Inside cell Aquaporin-0 Aquaporin-1 Aquaporin-2 Aquaporin-3 * Aquaporin-4 Aquaporin-5 Aquaporins are Channels Major Sites of Expression Comments Eye: lens fiber cells Fluid balance within the lens Red blood cells Osmotic protection Kidney: proximal tubule Concentration of urine Eye: ciliary epithelium roduction of aqueous humor Brain: choriod plexus roduction of cerebrospinal fluid Lung: alveolar epithelial cells Alveolar hydration state Kidney: collecting ducts Mediates antidiuretic hormone activity Kidney: collecting ducts Reabsorbtion of water into blood Trachea: epithelial cells Secretion of water into trachea Kidney: collecting ducts Reabsorbtion of water Brain: ependymal cells CSF fluid balance Brain: hypothalamus Osmosensing function? Lung: bronchial epithelium Bronchial fluid secretion Salivary glands roduction of saliva Lacrimal glands roduction of tears Active transport occurs against a concentration gradient. Active proteins that move s = umps protein AT AD rotein changes shape hosphate detaches 1 binding 2hosphorylation 3 4 rotein reversion 3

4 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large s across s A cell uses two mechanisms for moving large s across s Exocytosis is used to export bulky s, such as proteins or polysaccharides Endocytosis is used to import substances useful to the livelihood of the cell Exocytosis transfers s into cells In both cases, material to be transported is packaged within a vesicle that fuses with the Copyright 2009 earson Education, Inc. Fig Endocytosis transfers s into cells Examples of Across Cell Membranes Endocytosis of a Bacterial Cell 21 Fig (TEArt) Extracellular Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ermission required for reproduction or display. Sodium otassium ump Example: Active and assive Na + AT A Intracellular 1. rotein in binds intracellular sodium. K + A AT 2. AT phosphorylates protein with bound sodium. A AD 3. hosphorylation causes conformational change in protein, allowing sodium to leave. A AD 4. Extracellular potassium binds to exposed sites. A AD+ i 5. Binding of potassium causes dephosphorylation of protein. A AT 6. Dephosphorylation of protein triggers change back to original conformation, potassium moves into cell, and the cycle repeats. 4

5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ermission required for reproduction or display. Example: Carrier - Mediated Endocytosis Example of Neurotransmitter Movement from Cell to Cell Coated pit Clathrin Receptor protein Coated vesicle Reuptake transporter Summary of Mechanisms Molecular assive transport - movement from high to low concentration Movement through proteins Channels & carriers & pores Active transport - movement from low to high concentration Movement through proteins umps Require AT (energy source) END Membranes & Bulk requires entire s Exocytosis Endocytosis 5

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