1. Energy sources & / power stations. Electricity. & Waves

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1 Energy

2 2. Renewable energy sources. 1. Energy sources & / stations 6. Waves 3. Energy sources & the environment 4. Comparing energy sources 5. Electricity & the National Grid P1 Electricity & Waves 8. Sound waves 9. Origin of the Universe 7. EMS & communication

3 Will all run out All damage environment Provide most of our energy Fossil fuels coal Fossil fuel (Chemical potential energy) oil Natural gas Non- Renewable stations Uranium & Plutonium Nuclear wind Energy sources & stations Wave Tidal Renewable Geothermal hydroelectric solar Biofuel Will never run out. Do not do as much damage to the environment. Unreliable. Provide small amounts of energy. Burn (thermal energy) Boiler Water steam Nuclear reactors Turbine Kinetic energy Same EXCEPT radioactive decay of fuel produces the heat to turn water into steam Generator Electrical energy Nuclear fission

4 7. Biofuel 1. Wind 6. Geothermal 2. Solar Renewable energy sources 3. Hydroelectric 5. Tidal 4. Wave

5 Turbine drives generator (electrical energy) No pollution (except manufacture) No permanent damage to landscape Minimal running costs (no fuel costs) Noisy High start up costs Wind drives a turbine (Kinetic energy) Disadvantages Need a lot of them High visual impact Wind Advantages Unreliable energy source Need a lot of space Renewable energy source - will not run out No chance to increase supply when there is high demand Need to be in a windy place

6 Generates currents directly from sunlight Solar cells are expensive No pollution (except manufacture) Solar Used in remote places No environmental damage (except manufacture) Advantages Almost no running costs Disadvantages Unreliable energy source (unless very sunny country) Renewable energy source - will not run out Does not work at night! Solar cells only generator small amounts of electricity No chance to increase supply when there is high demand

7

8 Water drives a turbine (Kinetic energy) Hydroelectric Peak demand Renewable energy source - will not run out Reliable energy source (if no drought!) Turbine drives generator (electrical energy) Advantages Good in remote areas No pollution when running High start up costs Disadvantages Huge environmental cost Look unsightly when they dry up! Pumped storage Minimal running costs (no fuel costs) Pump water back up Flooding valley; destroys habitat. rotting vegetation releases methane +CO 2. People can lose homes

9 NOT the same as Tidal! Water drives a turbine (Kinetic energy) Turbine drives generator (electrical energy) Renewable energy source - will not run out Wave Disadvantages Good in remote Island areas Advantages High start up costs No pollution when running Visual impact Unreliable energy source Minimal running costs

10 Quite reliable energy source (twice a day & can predict height) Renewable energy source - will not run out Advantages Good for storing energy for peak demand environmental cost Disadvantages NOT the same as Wave! Minimal running costs Sun & Moon s gravity move water... drives a turbine (Kinetic energy) Turbine drives generator (electrical energy) Tidal Quite high start up costs Remember the source of the energy is the gravitational force of the Moon & Sun Height of tide varies (energy will vary)

11 Geothermal Can only happen where the Earth s crust is thin. Pump water down drill shaft Radioactive decay in rocks produces heat Advantages Minimal running costs Disadvantages Limited number of possible locations Reliable energy source Renewable energy source - will not run out High start up cost compared to the amount of energy out Water Steam which comes up another drill shaft Turbine Kinetic energy Generator Electrical energy

12 Create jobs locally Reliable Made from plants and waste solids Straw / woodchips liquids Sources gas Methane biogas from sludge digesters Biofuel Disadvantages Advantages Quick to obtain Carbon neutral Renewable energy source - will not run out Cost of fuel Ethanol from fermenting crops biodiesel from plant oils Generate electricity in the same way as fossil fuels deforestation Loss of habitat Loss of food crops Burning increases CO 2.

13 Acid rain Fossil Fuels Nonrenewables Extraction damages environment & affects habitats Release CO 2 increases greenhouse effect global warming/climate change Nuclear No greenhouse gases Pump into empty gas & oil fields Energy sources & the environment Disposal of waste & consequence of accidents is dangerous Renewables Depends on the source but they generally have less affect on the environment than fossil fuels Carbon capture & storage Collect CO 2 from station before it goes into atmosphere Reduce amount of CO 2 going into atmosphere New technology so ideas are being developed (algae)

14 Hydroelectric & nuclear have huge engineering costs for safety. non-renewable is more reliable...until runs out! Renewable is often weather dependant weather dependence Renewable need bigger stations for the same output compared to non-renewable...costs more Set up costs reliability Visual impact 4. Comparing energy sources Environmental issues Atmospheric pollution Depends on size of station Planning issues Set-up decommissioning time Using up resources Depends on complexity of engineering Often location near energy source Running / fuel costs Renewables are lowest Danger from accidents (dam burst / nuclear accident/ contamination) Disrupting habitats Noise pollution Gas = quickest Nuclear = longest & costs most to decommision

15 Electricity distribution network for UK. ( station homes / industry) Power can be generated anywhere on grid. Need a high voltage or high current Problem: high I lose lots of energy as heat... So high V + low I. Step Up transformer. Distribution Electricity & the National Grid Use transformers to get high V for grid. ( V) Use transformers to get safe V for Step Down transformer. Or more efficient? home. (230V) More plants? Problem... Supply & demand Less waste? Pylons or underground cables. Cheaper. Lots of maintenance. Easy to repair. Ugly. Just Affected learn by pros weather. & cons Less reliable. for Pylons. Hard For cables to set up. it is Disturb land when laying the opposite... Simples!! Is increasing Consumers energy efficient appliances?

16 Waves v = f m/s Hz m ( ) wavelength vibration (A) Amplitude vibration Wave / energy direction longitudinal waves Transverse waves Light & all other EMS waves, water (f ) frequency - Hz Vibrations = perpendicular (90 ) to direction of energy transfer Vibrations = parallel to direction of energy transfer Compression + rarefaction (slinky) Sound (ultrasound)

17 Reflection Wave Properties Refraction Diffraction Caused by change of speed as wave enters medium with different density. Image is... virtual. upright. laterally inverted. Waves slow down

18 Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency (f) increases Wavelength ( ) increases Radio Micro Infra-Red Light Ultra-Violet X rays Gamma Gate X Usually Lets In Most Radiation All EMS travels at the same speed 300 x 10 6 m/s in a vacuum. Mobile And TV s! phones Radiation therapy seeing Sunbeds bones To see! Night vision

19 Radio waves & communication Short-wave signals reflect off the ionosphere microwaves long-wave signals can be diffracted, they follow the Earth s curvature

20 Microwaves & communication For satellite For communication remote sensing AND satellites; mobile phones Microwaves pass through Earth s watery atmosphere

21 Infrared (IR) waves & communication Different patterns (commands) are emitted by the remote & received by the TV. The data is carried as pulses of light or IR very quickly + over long distances.

22 Longitudinal waves Sound waves compression rarefaction Reflection = echo! Can also be refracted. 1 wavelength

23 Uniformly spread through the universe CMBR Cosmic microwave background radiation Big bang is only explanation for existence of CMBR Evidence? Expanding Universe Origin of the universe 14 billion years old Big Bang Other theories? Limitations What caused it? Should be slowing down? Red shift (like Doppler effect) of light from other galaxies The further away the galaxy the bigger the red shift. (moving faster)

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