Optics and Image formation

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Optics and Image formation"

Transcription

1 Optics and Image formation Pascal Chartrand chercheur-agrégé Département de Biochimie The Light Microscope Four centuries of history Vibrant current development One of the most widely used research tools 1

2 Main issues of Microscopy In order to observe small objects, three preconditions have to be fulfilled - Magnification - Resolution -Contrast Only fulfillment of these three conditions allows translation of information as accurately as possible from object into an image which represents that object. Waves vs. Photons vs. Rays Quantum wave-particle duality of light Rays: photon trajectories Rays: propagation direction of waves Light as a wave 2

3 Light waves frequency = v = oscillations per seconds (Hz) Rays are perpendicular to wavefronts 3

4 The electromagnetic spectrum shorter, higher v longer, lower v Energy of photons E = hv where: h= Planck s constant (6,63x10-34 J.sec) v= frequency of photons Therefore, blue light is more energetic than red light 4

5 Light interacts with matter It can be: - absorbed - diffracted - reflected - refracted Refraction 5

6 Light velocity c= where: c= speed of light in a vacuum (3x10 8 m/sec) = wavelenght = frequency of photons However, the speed of light is not constant and vary depending on the medium Index of refraction: velocity of light in a material compared to the velocity of light in air v= c/n where v= velocity of light in a medium in the air or in a vacuum, n=1 Light travels more slowly in matter The speed ratio is the Index of Refraction, n v = c/n n = 1 n > 1 n = 1 6

7 Refractive Index Examples Vacuum 1 Air Water Cytoplasm ? Glycerol (anhydrous) Immersion oil Fused silica 1.46 Optical glasses Diamond Depends on wavelength and temperature How refraction works Refraction occurs when a wave front moves into an interface between two substances with different refractive indices Wave Front Air Air 90 o Not 90 o Glass Glass 7

8 Refraction by an Interface Refractive index n 1 = 1 Speed = c Incident wave 1 r Reflected wave Refractive index n 2 Speed = c/n /n 2 Refracted wave Snell s law: n 1 Sin( 1 ) = n 2 Sin( 2 ) Mirror law: r = 1 Which Direction? n 1 n 2 > n 1 Refraction goes towards the normal in the higher-index medium 8

9 Refraction and lenses Lenses Parallel light rays coming from infinity F= focal plane or focal point FL= focal length Axis: axis of the lens Refraction of light rays on the surface of the glass of a bi-convex lens leads to the convergence of the rays toward a point beyond the lens, called focal plane 9

10 Ray Tracing Rules of Thumb (for thin ideal lenses) Parallel rays converge at the focal plane Rays that cross in the focal plane end up parallel f f Rays through the lens center are unaffected What happen if you put an object in front of a lens? The three rules of refraction: 1) an incident ray traveling parallel to the axis of the lens will refract through the lens and travel through the focal point on the opposite side of the lens 2) an indicent ray travelling through the center of the lens will continue in the same direction that when it entered the lens 3) an incident ray travelling through the focal point on the way to the lens will refract through the lens and emerge parallel to the axis of the lens 10

11 What happen if you put an object in front of a lens? When a set of incident and refracted rays are drawn for several points upon a vertical object, each reflected ray intersect at locations which form a vertical image To simplify ray diagrams, only two sets of rays from a single point are usually showed Lenses and magnification An object located over 2X the distance of the focal point (2F) forms a small inverted image of an object on the opposite side of a lens An object located between F and 2F forms a large inverted image of an object on the opposite side of a lens The closer an object is to the focal point, the larger its image will be 11

12 Lenses and magnification object f f image d 1 d 2 p q The lens law: 1 p + 1 q = 1 f Magnification: d 2 M = = d 1 q p Lenses and magnification What happen if an object is at the focal point of a lens? At the focal point, all the refracted rays are parallel, and do not converge toward a specific point to form an image of the object - therefore, there is no image of the object 12

13 Lenses and magnification What happen if an object is between the focal point and the lens? All the refracted rays are divergent, and do not converge toward a specific point to form an image of the object - However, there is a virtual image of the object is formed. This virtual image is bigger than the image, upright and located in front of the lens The compound microscope specimen objective f f Intermediate image plane (I.I.P) I.I.P ocular f f f f f f specimen I.I.P objective ocular 13

14 Back focal plane Back focal plane f 0 Object f 0 f 0 objective Tube lens Rays that leave the object with the same angle meet in the objective s back focal plane The Compound Microscope Exit pupil Eyepiece Primary or intermediate image plane Tube lens Objective Sample Back focal plane (pupil) Object plane 14

15 The Compound Microscope Final image Eye Exit pupil Eyepiece Intermediate image plane Tube lens Objective Sample Back focal plane (pupil) Object plane Microscope conjugate planes: Planes which are in focus with each other Field or Image forming conjugate set The Compound Microscope Eye Eyepiece Tube lens Final image Exit pupil Intermediate image plane Objective Sample Back focal plane (pupil) Object plane 15

16 The Compound Microscope Microscope conjugate planes: Planes which are in focus with each other Aperture or Illumination conjugate set Eye Eyepiece Tube lens Objective Sample Final image Exit pupil Intermediate image plane Back focal plane (pupil) Object plane Finite vs infinity-corrected microscope Finite-tube lenght microscope 160 mm specimen I.I.P objective ocular 16

17 Finite vs infinity-corrected microscope Infinity-corrected microscope Parallel light beam (infinity space) specimen I.I.P objective tube lens ocular Magnification of microscope = magnification of objective x magnification of the ocular Function of any microscopy is NOT simply to magnify! Function of the microscope is to RESOLVE fine detail. 17

18 Resolution RESOLUTION means objects can be seen as separate objects Resolution Resolution The resolution of a microscope is the shortest distance two points that can be separated and still be observed as 2 points Well resolved just resolved Not resolved d N.A. MORE IMPORTANT THAN MAGNIFICATION!! 18

19 WHAT DETERMINES RESOLUTION? 1. Contrast is necessary to detect detail (edges) from background 2. Diffraction fundamentally limits resolution diffraction occurs at the objective lens aperture Diffraction 19

20 The Huygens principle and diffraction Huygens Principle All points on a wave front act as point sources of spherically propagating wavelets. At a short time Δt later, the new wave front is the unique surface tangent to all the forward-propagating wavelets. In phase Interference constructive interference + = Opposite phase + = destructive interference 20

21 Diffraction of waves passing through a single slit negative interference positive interference Single-slit diffraction pattern 21

22 Diffraction by an aperture drawn as waves Light spreads to new angles Larger aperture weaker diffraction Diffraction by an aperture drawn as rays The pure, far-field diffraction pattern is formed at infinity Tube lens or can be formed at a finite distance by a lens Objective pupil Intermediate image as happens in a microscope 22

23

24 Aperture and Resolution Diffraction spot on image plane Objective Tube lens Intermediate image plane Sample Back focal plane aperture Aperture and Resolution Diffraction spot on image plane Objective Tube lens Intermediate image plane Sample Back focal plane aperture 1

25 Aperture and Resolution Diffraction spot on image plane Objective Tube lens Intermediate image plane Sample Back focal plane aperture Aperture and Resolution Diffraction spot on image plane Objective Tube lens Intermediate image plane Sample Back focal plane aperture Image resolution improves with aperture size Numerical Aperture (NA) NA = n sin( ) where: = light gathering angle n = refractive index of sample 2

26 Numerical Aperture of objectives 100X / 0.95 NA = X / 0.20 NA = 11.5 Role of immersion medium NA=n sin (α) Refractive indices: Air: Water: 1.33 Glycerol: 1.47 Oil: 1.52 Immersion media increases the NA of an objective or a condenser by bringing the beams with higher incidence angle into the light path 3

27 The Rayleigh criterion and resolution Generally accepted criterion of resolution Single point source Just resolved d Well resolved Central maximum of one peak overlies 1 st minimum of neighboring peak The Rayleigh criterion and resolution Minimal distance between two points of an object that can be resolved Rayleigh criterion: d = 0.61 for self-luminous object) N.A. N.A. : Numerical aperture of the objective Ex. : NA = 1.4, = 520 nm (GFP, FITC ) d = 226 nm (human eye: d ~ 100 μm) Thus, the best resolution that can be achieved by an optical microscope is ~ 200 nm 4

28 Effect of wavelength on resolution Decreasing wavelength increases the resolution between two points Objective of NA 0.95 d = nm d = nm The point spread function (PSF) The Airy disk correspond to a slice of a point spread function x x z y The PSF correspond to the image produced by the microscope of a point source of light 5

29 PSF and axial (Z) resolution The axial resolution can be defined as FWHM = the full width at half maximal intensity of a z line of a point source Z-POSITION FWHM INTENSITY or d = 2 n for = 520 nm, NA= 1,4, n= 1,52 NA 2 the axial resolution is ~ 820 nm Contrast Live cells are largely transparent, absorbing almost no light and scatter relatively little - little contrast between cell and surrounding medium How can we increase this contrast? brightfield darkfield phase contrast Differential interference contrast 6

30 Which properties of light can we change to increase contrast Amplitude => increase illumination intensity or put in an absorbent stain Wavelength => use fluorescent molecules Direction of propagation: Look only at light refracted by sample (dark field microscopy) Velocity=> Phase; Altering phase of incident light can lead to interference with background light (Phase contrast, DIC) Effect of the specimen on the phase of incident light - Amplitude specimen changes the intensity of incident light - Phase specimen changes the phase of incident light - Most unstained biological specimens are phase ones 7

31 A Diffracted Light Background Light 1/4 Phase Contrast Phase Contrast produces destructive interference. A) When incident light pass through a specimen, the diffracted light is ¼ wavelength out of phase with the background light. B Diffracted Light Background Light 1/2 Destructive interference B) A Phase plate, at the back focal plane of the objective, further retards diffracted light by ¼ wavelength - This creates a ½ wavelength difference between the background and diffracted light. Phase Contrast Brightfield Phase Contrast Benefits and Negatives of Phase Contrast Microscopy Benefits Much better resolution (dark edges) Good for unstained cells (Tissue Culture) Better Contrast Negatives White halo around the edges A Phase Ring Equipped Objective is required Optimized for 548nm wavelength 8

32 Differential interference Contrast (DIC) 4 3 1) A single ray of light is split by the Wollaston prism - generates 2 rays separated by a distance of ~ 0,2 um and slightly out of phase (90 ) 2) Both rays go through the specimen 1 2 3) A second Wollaston prism combines the split rays 4) An analyzer brings the rays in the same plane - if both rays are in phase, this results in positive interference Differential interference Contrast (DIC) A) If both rays go through a medium with the same refractive index, both ray will stay in phase, leading to positive interference when both rays combine (bright) B) If one of the two rays goes through the cytoplasm of a cell, this will result in a shift of its phase compared to the sister ray, leading to negative interference when both rays combine (dark-grey) C) If both rays go through a cell, both will have the same phase alteration, leading to positive interference when both rays combine (bright) 9

33 Differential Interference Contrast Phase Contrast DIC Benefits and Negatives of DIC Microscopy Benefits Best Resolution (3D effect) Best depth discrimination (but be careful - What you see is NOT always what you get) Good contrast Negatives Cannot do both low power and high power DIC (lower Wallaston) Due to use of polarizers, DIC cannot be used with plastic dishes. Change in RI can be mistaken for depth 10

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

More information

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information

Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror

Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror Convex Mirrors Center of curvature and focal point both located behind mirror The image for a convex mirror is always virtual and upright compared to the object A convex mirror will reflect a set of parallel

More information

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Chapter 4 Microscopy, Staining, and Classification 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Microscopy and Staining 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

More information

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

More information

Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope

Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope Frederick National Laboratory Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope Stephen J Lockett, PhD Principal Scientist, Optical Microscopy and Analysis Laboratory Frederick National

More information

Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil.

Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. Lenses Notes_10_ SNC2DE_09-10 Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. ) Most lenses are made of transparent glass

More information

Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

More information

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

More information

Study Guide for Exam on Light

Study Guide for Exam on Light Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

More information

THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE In microbiology, the microscope plays an important role in allowing us to see tiny objects that are normally invisible to the naked eye. It is essential for students to learn how

More information

EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY

EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY Brightfield Compound Light Microscope The light microscope is an important tool in the study of microorganisms. The compound light microscope uses visible light to directly illuminate

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it. --Edith Wharton Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

More information

2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec.

2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4e (Giancoli) Chapter 33 Lenses and Optical Instruments 33.1 Conceptual Questions 1) State how to draw the three rays for finding the image position due to a thin

More information

waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

More information

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same 1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

More information

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope.

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. MICROSCOPY I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. To demonstrate skill in the use of ocular and stage micrometers for measurements of cell size. To recognize

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light 1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

More information

Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams

Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses

More information

Page 1 Class 10 th Physics LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

Page 1 Class 10 th Physics LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Page 1 LIGHT Light is a form of energy, which induces the sensation of vision in our eyes and makes us able to see various things present in our surrounding. UNITS OF LIGHT Any object which has an ability

More information

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

More information

15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS. How we see images. Option C. Understanding the human eye

15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS. How we see images. Option C. Understanding the human eye Option C 15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS The progress of a wave can be modelled using the ray or the wavefront. The change in wave speed when moving between media changes the shape of the wave. Optical microscopes

More information

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

More information

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Instructor: Dr. C.Wang EMA 6518 Course Presentation Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Group Member: Anup Kr. Keshri Srikanth Korla Sushma Amruthaluri Venkata Pasumarthi Xudong Chen Outline Electron Optics

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

First let us consider microscopes. Human eyes are sensitive to radiation having wavelengths between

First let us consider microscopes. Human eyes are sensitive to radiation having wavelengths between Optical Differences Between Telescopes and Microscopes Robert R. Pavlis, Girard, Kansas USA icroscopes and telescopes are optical instruments that are designed to permit observation of objects and details

More information

Introduction to Optics

Introduction to Optics Second Edition Introduction to Optics FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J. Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin Vatican Radio, Rome LENO S. PEDROTTI Center for Occupational Research and Development Waco, Texas

More information

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Urs Ziegler Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation Lenses Convex Concave Mirrors Convex Concave Optical instruments Image formation Laws of refraction and reflection can be used to explain how lenses

More information

Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r)

Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Light GCSE Physics Reflection Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM) Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

More information

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

More information

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics

Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses. We will use what are referred to as thin lenses. Thin lenses are ordinary lenses like eyeglasses and magnifiers, but

More information

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving.

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving. 6/24 Discussion of the first law. The first law appears to be contained within the second and it is. Why state it? Newton s laws are not always valid they are not valid in, say, an accelerating automobile.

More information

Basic Optics System OS-8515C

Basic Optics System OS-8515C 40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

More information

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

More information

Chapter 7 Lenses C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012

Chapter 7 Lenses C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Chapter 7 Lenses C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Lenses are the microscope s jewels. Understanding their properties is critical in understanding the microscope. Objective, condenser, and eyepiece lenses

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #14 Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

More information

- the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

- the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times. Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

More information

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY Adapted from Foundations of Biology I; Lab 6 Introduction to Microscopy Dr. John Robertson, Westminster College Biology Department,

More information

It s shape. Sound Beams foundation for a basic understanding. Anatomy of the beam. Focus. Near Zone. Focal Length. Chapter 10

It s shape. Sound Beams foundation for a basic understanding. Anatomy of the beam. Focus. Near Zone. Focal Length. Chapter 10 It s shape Sound Beams foundation for a basic understanding It begins the size or diameter of the transducer gradually converges to a narrower point then begins to diverge Chapter 10 Anatomy of the beam

More information

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

More information

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 15, 2007 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please

More information

Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted

Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a

More information

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

More information

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

More information

9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS

9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS 9/6 Optics / GEOMETRIC OPTICS PURPOSE: To review the basics of geometric optics and to observe the function of some simple and compound optical devices. APPARATUS: Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target

More information

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL Robert Bagnell 2006 This tutorial covers the following CLSM topics: 1) What is the optical principal behind CLSM? 2) What is the spatial resolution in X, Y,

More information

Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus

Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus Lesson 29: Lenses Remembering the basics of mirrors puts you half ways towards fully understanding lenses as well. The same sort of rules apply, just with a few modifications. Keep in mind that for an

More information

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

More information

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently

More information

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer

Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer Customers have requested additional clarification of true magnifications for inspection needs and quality procedures. This is certainly a valid requirement as

More information

RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION

RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)

More information

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

More information

Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014

Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 What is the Ray Optics Module? Add-on to COMSOL Multiphysics Can be combined with any other COMSOL Multiphysics Module Includes one physics interface,

More information

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical

More information

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

More information

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) 1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

More information

1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft

1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft Lenses and Mirrors 1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft 2. Which of the following best describes the image from

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope

Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope Chapter 3 Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope Units of Measurement Microorganisms are measured by metric units unfamiliar to many of us. The micrometer ( m), formerly known as the micron, is

More information

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

More information

Review for Test 3. Polarized light. Action of a Polarizer. Polarized light. Light Intensity after a Polarizer. Review for Test 3.

Review for Test 3. Polarized light. Action of a Polarizer. Polarized light. Light Intensity after a Polarizer. Review for Test 3. Review for Test 3 Polarized light No equation provided! Polarized light In linearly polarized light, the electric field vectors all lie in one single direction. Action of a Polarizer Transmission axis

More information

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

More information

Microscopy Optical Sectioning. Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010

Microscopy Optical Sectioning. Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010 Microscopy Optical Sectioning Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010 Confocal Microscopy In Principle Point Scanning Confocal Spinning Disk Confocal Swept Field

More information

Image Formation Principle

Image Formation Principle Image Formation Principle Michael Biddle Robert Dawson Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (Dated: December 8, 2015) The aim of this project was to demonstrate

More information

How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light?

How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces that make some reflections better than

More information

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage Optical Storage Technology Optical Disc Storage Introduction Since the early 1940s, magnetic recording has been the mainstay of electronic information storage worldwide. Magnetic tape has been used extensively

More information

Grade 8 Science Chapter 4 Notes

Grade 8 Science Chapter 4 Notes Grade 8 Science Chapter 4 Notes Optics the science that deals with the properties of light. Light a form of energy that can be detected by the human eye. The History of Optics (3 Scientists): 1. Pythagoras

More information

Types of Microscope. Microscope and Microscopy. Body of Microscope. Focusing Knobs. Design of Compound Microscope

Types of Microscope. Microscope and Microscopy. Body of Microscope. Focusing Knobs. Design of Compound Microscope Types of Microscope Microscope and Microscopy Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for

More information

Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass

Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass GlassTrend - ICG TC15/21 Seminar SENSORS AND PROCESS CONTROL 13-14 October 2015, Eindhoven Henning Katte, ilis gmbh copyright ilis

More information

Introduction to microstructure

Introduction to microstructure Introduction to microstructure 1.1 What is microstructure? When describing the structure of a material, we make a clear distinction between its crystal structure and its microstructure. The term crystal

More information

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i.

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i. Physics 1403 Lenses It s party time, boys and girls, because today we wrap up our study of physics. We ll get this party started in a bit, but first, you have some more to learn about refracted light.

More information

Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012

Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 You are sitting at your microscope working at high magnification trying to sort out the three-dimensional compartmentalization

More information

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics

Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics Abstract Laser diode beam propagation characteristics, the collimating and focusing behaviors and the M 2 factor are discussed using equations and graphs.

More information

A new advance in routine inspections INVERTED MICROSCOPE CKX41/CKX31

A new advance in routine inspections INVERTED MICROSCOPE CKX41/CKX31 A new advance in routine inspections INVERTED MICROSCOPE CKX41/CKX31 Phase contrast Relief contrast Incorporation of advanced UIS2 optics ensures the highest level of clarity for cell checking applications.

More information

Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications

Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications Janet E. Semmens Sonoscan, Inc. 2149 E. Pratt Boulevard Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 USA Phone: (847)

More information

Question 2: The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. What is its focal length?

Question 2: The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. What is its focal length? Question 1: Define the principal focus of a concave mirror. ANS: Light rays that are parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror converge at a specific point on its principal axis after reflecting

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images

Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images Lecture Notes for hapter 4: Images Disclaimer: These notes are not meant to replace the textbook. Please report any inaccuracies to the professor.. Spherical Reflecting Surfaces Bad News: This subject

More information

Microscope Activity. The Lab

Microscope Activity. The Lab Microscope Activity On the following pages you will find a copy of a microscope lab I do with my Bio 100 honors students. There have been a few, but not many modifications in this version I have given

More information

Optics Formulas. Light Intensity

Optics Formulas. Light Intensity LENS SELECTION GUIDE 494 Optics Light Right-Hand Rule Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave. The electric E and magnetic M fields are perpendicular to each other and to the propagation vector k, as

More information

Forensic Science: The Basics. Microscopy

Forensic Science: The Basics. Microscopy Forensic Science: The Basics Microscopy Chapter 6 Jay A. Siegel,Ph.D. Power point presentation by Greg Galardi, Peru State College, Peru Nebraska Presentation by Greg Galardi, Peru State College CRC Press,

More information

FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY

FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY 3 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SCIENCE AND MATH OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE SCIENCE AND MATH WEEK 1. PRE: Interpreting data from a graph. LAB: Estimating data and comparing results

More information

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

More information