Homework Causes of WWI

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1 Homework Causes of WWI Read Chapter 27, Section 1 The Stage is Set Outline (good notes) on the MAIN causes that lead to World War I DBQ 19 Due Friday Crash Course in World History - WWI

2 MAIN Causes of World War I Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism

3 4 MAIN Causes of WWI *sources of tension leading up to 1914 Militarism countries beefing up their militaries led to increased hostility; link to Industrialization of Europe as stimulus Alliances countries had each other s backs; based on rivalries and past conflicts Imperialism competition for colonies led to tensions Nationalism pride in one s country/ethnicity led to desires for expansion/independence

4 DBQ 19 Causes of WW I: classify the documents into chart Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism

5 Causes of World War I DBQ 19 Militarism Doc 1 chart $ spent on armaments Doc 5 Russian mobilization Doc 6 mobilization Alliances Doc 2 map Triple alliance vs. Triple Entente Doc 4 Germany and her allies to blame by the winners Doc 7 two armed camps Imperialism Doc 5 German protest Nationalism Doc 3 Serbian nationalists

6

7 Europe on the brink of war Summer of 1914 The Balkan Powderkeg Serbian Nationalism Assassination in Sarajevo Diplomatic crisis and breakdown Military mobilization and outbreak of war

8 The Spark =June August of In 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were visiting Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Gavrilo Princip, of the Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand, assassinated the Archduke and his wife 2. Austria-Hungary made threats to Serbia, whom they blamed for the assassination. Russia supported Serbia, and readied their military for war. 3. Germany declared war on Russia, and on France, Russia's ally. Germany then invaded Belgium as a prelude to invading France 4. This resulted in Great Britain declaring war on Germany, which was the start of World War I.

9 World War I: Who was to blame? *Identify why each nation believed it had reasons for going to war Germany Austria-Hungary Russia Britain France

10

11

12 The War begins War on 2 FRONTS Western front = in France; stalemate and trench warfare Eastern front = in Russia; huge and costly New (modern) weapons of war = deadly and destructive Poison gas, tanks, machine guns, planes and submarines

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14 New Type of War - Trench warfare

15

16 Trench Foot

17 Mustard & chlorine gases were used British Gas Casualties: Deaths Non-Fatal Chlorine 1, ,457 Mustard Gas 4,086 16,526

18 The Sinking of the Lusitania Sunk in May 1915 off the coast of Ireland 1201 people were killed Sunk in 18 minutes The Lusitania was in fact carrying weapons This ruined relations with the U.S. and would eventually lead to U.S. entry into war

19 An end to the stalemate: By 1917, European societies were cracking under the strain of war. Fighting on other fronts Africa and the Middle East The Home Front = TOTAL war; committing ALL of the nation s resources to the war effort Russia leaves (withdraws) due to Revolution at home = Power shifts to Central powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary) United States enters the War = new soldiers and supplies Final offensives = huge effort to end the war; merely serves to increase the casualty totals

20 German generals informed the Kaiser the war could not be won in Sept WWI ended on the 11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month of 1918 November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am, all the involved countries agreed to a ceasefire. An armistice

21 Casualties of World War I Deaths Wounded in Battle in Battle Allies France 1,357,800 4,266,000 British empire 908,371 2,090,212 Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 Italy 462, ,886 United States 50, ,690 Others 502, ,585 Central Powers Germany 1,808,546 4,247,143 Austria-Hungary 922,500 3,620,000 Ottoman empire 325, ,000

22 NOTES Copy this! The Costs of War More than 8.5 million people died. Twice that number had been wounded. Famine threatened many regions. Across the European continent, homes, farms, factories, roads, and churches had been shelled to rubble. People everywhere were shaken and disillusioned. Governments had collapsed in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire.

23 The Paris Peace Conference The delegates to the Paris Peace Conference faced many difficult issues: The Allied leaders had different aims (goals). The BIG THREE: 1. Pres. Wilson (U.S.) = peace with honor, peace without victory 2. Lloyd George (England) = preserve the British Empire 3. Clemenceau (France) = punish Germany the aggressor The Italians insisted that the Allies honor their secret agreement to gain Austria-Hungary. Such secret agreements violated Wilson s principle of self-determination. Many people who had been ruled by Russia, Austria-Hungary, or the Ottoman empire now demanded national states of their own. The territories claimed by these people often overlapped, so it was impossible to satisfy them all. Result = MANDATES (A territory that was given to a European nation to administer by the League of Nations following the end of World War I.)

24 The Big Three (+ Versailles 1918 Lloyd George of England Vittorio Orlando of Italy Georges Clemenceau of France ( Le Tigre ) Woodrow Wilson from the US

25 Wilson s Fourteen Points Peace without victory Called for an end to secret treaties Wanted freedom of the seas Free trade Large scale reduction of arms Self-determination right to people to choose own form of government & fair treatment of colonial peoples League of Nations NOTES Copy this!

26 The Treaty of Versailles The Treaty: forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war. imposed huge reparations upon Germany. The Treaty aimed at weakening Germany by: limiting the size of the German military, returning Alsace and Lorraine to France, removing hundreds of miles of territory from Germany, stripping Germany of its overseas colonies. The Germans signed the treaty because they had no choice. But German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years and lead to an even deadlier world war (cue Hitler and World War II)

27 NOTES Copy this! Treaty of Versailles (1919) Signed in the Palace of Versailles 10 miles outside of Paris isn t it ironic? Don t ya think? It was signed in the Hall of Mirrors Germany must assume full blame for war Germany had to pay $30 Billion in reparations (war damages) Germany s military was extremely limited/reduced Alsace & Lorraine were returned to France (remember the Franco-Prussian War?) Germany was stripped of its overseas colonies

28 Why weren t the other nations of the Central powers (aka losers ) punished as harshly as Germany?

29 1914 Europe in 1914 and 1920

30 Europe in 1914 and

31

32 World War I: Cause and Effect Immediate Causes Austria-Hungary s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Fighting in the Balkans Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand German invasion of Belgium Long-Term Causes Imperialist and economic rivalries among European powers European alliance system Militarism and arms race Nationalist tensions in Balkans Immediate Effects Enormous cost in lives and money Russian Revolution Creation of new nations in Eastern Europe **see maps 1914 vs Requirement that Germany pay reparations German loss of its overseas colonies Balfour Declaration League of Nations Long-Term Effects Economic impact of war debts on Europe Emergence of United States and Japan as important powers Growth of nationalism in colonies Rise of fascism World War II

33 WARNING!!! Widespread Dissatisfaction Eastern Europe remained a center of conflict. Colonized peoples from Africa to the Middle East and across Asia were angry that self-determination was not applied to them. Italy was angry because it did not get all the lands promised in a secret treaty with the Allies. Japan was angry that western nations refused to honor its claims in China. Russia resented the reestablishment of a Polish nation and three Baltic states on lands that had been part of the Russian empire.

34 QUIZ Chapter 27: World War I and its Aftermath Multiple Choice (20-25) Regents Prep only has 7 practice questions 1 Short response question HOMEWORK: Read Chapter 28, Section 1 Two Revolutions in Russia. Complete the Section 1 Review Questions on page

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