# Chapter 18 The Micro/Macro Connection

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1 Chapter 18 The Micro/Macro Connection Chapter Goal: To understand a macroscopic system in terms of the microscopic behavior of its molecules. Slide 18-2

2 Announcements

3 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-3

4 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-4

5 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-5

6 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-6

7 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-7

8 Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-8

9 Molecular Speeds and Collisions A gas consists of a vast number of molecules, each moving randomly and undergoing millions of collisions every second. Shown is the distribution of molecular speeds in a sample of nitrogen gas at 20 C. The micro/macro connection is built on the idea that the macroscopic properties of a system, such as temperature or pressure, are related to the average behavior of the atoms and molecules. Slide 18-19

10 Mean Free Path A single molecule follows a zig-zag path through a gas as it collides with other molecules. The average distance between the collisions is called the mean free path: (N/V) is the number density of the gas in m 3. r is the the radius of the molecules when modeled as hard spheres; for many common gases r m. Slide 18-20

11 QuickCheck 18.1 The temperature of a rigid container of oxygen gas (O 2 ) is lowered from 300 C to 0 C. As a result, the mean free path of oxygen molecules A. Increases. B. Is unchanged. C. Decreases. Slide 18-21

12 QuickCheck 18.1 The temperature of a rigid container of oxygen gas (O 2 ) is lowered from 300 C to 0 C. As a result, the mean free path of oxygen molecules A. Increases. B. Is unchanged. C. Decreases. λ depends only on N/V, not T. Slide 18-22

13 Example 18.1 The Mean Free Path at Room Temperature Slide 18-23

14 Pressure in a Gas Why does a gas have pressure? In Chapter 15 we suggested that the pressure in a gas is due to collisions of the molecules with the walls of its container. The steady rain of a vast number of molecules striking a wall each second exerts a measurable macroscopic force. The gas pressure is the force per unit area (p = F/A) resulting from these molecular collisions. Slide 18-24

15 Pressure in a Gas The figure shows a molecule which collides with a wall, exerting an impulse on it. The x-component of the impulse from a single collision is: If there are N coll such collisions during a small time interval Δt, the net impulse is: Slide 18-25

16 Pressure in a Gas The figure reminds you that impulse is the area under the force-versustime curve and thus J wall = F avg Δt. The average force on the wall is: where the rate of collisions is: Slide 18-26

17 Pressure in a Gas The pressure is the average force on the walls of the container per unit area: (N/V) is the number density of the gas in m 3. Note that the average velocity of many molecules traveling in random directions is zero. v rms is the root-mean-square speed of the molecules, which is the square root of the average value of the squares of the speeds of the molecules: Slide 18-27

18 QuickCheck 18.2 A rigid container holds oxygen gas (O 2 ) at 100 C. The average velocity of the molecules is A. Greater than zero. B. Zero. C. Less than zero. Slide 18-28

19 QuickCheck 18.2 A rigid container holds oxygen gas (O 2 ) at 100 C. The average velocity of the molecules is A. Greater than zero. B. Zero. C. Less than zero. Slide 18-29

20 Example 18.2 Calculating the Root-Mean- Square Speed Units of velocity are m/s. Slide 18-30

21 Example 18.2 Calculating the Root-Mean- Square Speed Slide 18-31

22 Example 18.2 Calculating the Root-Mean- Square Speed Slide 18-32

23 Example 18.3 The RMS Speed of Helium Atoms Example 18.3 The rms Speed of Helium Atoms pv = Nk T Using, B Slide 18-33

24 Temperature in a Gas The thing we call temperature measures the average translational kinetic energy є avg of molecules in a gas. A higher temperature corresponds to a larger value of є avg and thus to higher molecular speeds. Absolute zero is the temperature at which є avg = 0 and all molecular motion ceases. By definition, є avg = ½mv rms2, where v rms is the root mean squared molecular speed; using the ideal-gas law, we found є avg = 3/2 k B T. By equating these expressions we find that the rms speed of molecules in a gas is: ε avg 1 2 mvrms 2 = 3 2 k B T Slide 18-36

25 QuickCheck 18.3 A rigid container holds both hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) at 100 C. Which statement describes their rms speeds? A. v rms of H 2 < v rms of N 2. B. v rms of H 2 = v rms of N 2. C. v rms of H 2 > v rms of N 2. Slide 18-34

26 QuickCheck 18.3 A rigid container holds both hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) at 100 C. Which statement describes their rms speeds? A. v rms of H 2 < v rms of N 2. B. v rms of H 2 = v rms of N 2. C. v rms of H 2 > v rms of N 2. v rms ~ 1/ m For nitrogen (N 2, m= 28 u), v rms =1440/(7) 1/2 =1440/2.65= 540 m/s. Speed of sound= 340 m/s. Slide 18-35

27 QuickCheck 18.4 A rigid container holds both hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) at 100 C. Which statement describes the average translational kinetic energies of the molecules? A. є avg of H 2 < є avg of N 2. B. є avg of H 2 = є avg of N 2. C. є avg of H 2 > є avg of N 2. Slide 18-37

28 QuickCheck 18.4 A rigid container holds both hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) at 100 C. Which statement describes the average translational kinetic energies of the molecules? A. є avg of H 2 < є avg of N 2. B. є avg of H 2 = є avg of N 2. C. є avg of H 2 > є avg of N 2. Slide 18-38

29 The Micro/Macro Connection for Pressure and Temperature Slide 18-39

30 Example 18.4 Total Microscopic Kinetic Energy Slide 18-40

31 Example 18.5 Calculating an RMS Speed Slide 18-41

32 Example 18.6 Mean Time Between Collisions Slide 18-42

33 Thermal Energy and Specific Heat The thermal energy of a system is E th = K micro + U micro. The figure shows a monatomic gas such as helium or neon. The atoms in a monatomic gas have no molecular bonds with their neighbors, hence U micro = 0. Since the average kinetic energy of a single atom in an ideal gas is є avg = 3/2 k B T, the total thermal energy is: Slide 18-43

34 Thermal Energy and Specific Heat If the temperature of a monatomic gas changes by ΔT, its thermal energy changes by: In Chapter 17 we found that the change in thermal energy for any ideal-gas process is related to the molar specific heat at constant volume by: Combining these equations gives us a prediction for the molar specific heat for a monatomic gas: This prediction is confirmed by experiments. Slide 18-44

35 The Equipartition Theorem Atoms in a monatomic gas carry energy exclusively as translational kinetic energy (3 degrees of freedom). Molecules in a gas may have additional modes of energy storage, for example, the kinetic and potential energy associated with vibration, or rotational kinetic energy. We define the number of degrees of freedom as the number of distinct and independent modes of energy storage. Slide 18-45

36 QuickCheck 18.5 A mass on a spring oscillates back and forth on a frictionless surface. How many degrees of freedom does this system have? A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4. E. 6. Slide 18-46

37 QuickCheck 18.5 A mass on a spring oscillates back and forth on a frictionless surface. How many degrees of freedom does this system have? A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4. E. 6. It can hold energy as kinetic energy or potential energy. Slide 18-47

38 Thermal Energy of a Solid The figure reminds you of the bedspring model of a solid with particle-like atoms connected by spring-like molecular bonds. There are 3 degrees of freedom associated with kinetic energy + 3 more associated with the potential energy in the molecular bonds = 6 degrees of freedom total. The energy stored in each degree of freedom is ½ Nk B T, so: Slide 18-48

39 Diatomic Molecules In addition to the 3 degrees of freedom from translational kinetic energy, a diatomic gas at commonly used temperatures has 2 additional degrees of freedom from end-over-end rotations. This gives 5 degrees of freedom total: Slide 18-49

40 Thermal Energy and Specific Heat Slide 18-50

41 QuickCheck 18.6 Systems A and B are both monatomic gases. At this instant, A. T A > T B. B. T A = T B. C. T A < T B. D. There s not enough information to compare their temperatures. Slide 18-51

42 QuickCheck 18.6 Systems A and B are both monatomic gases. At this instant, A. T A > T B. B. T A = T B. C. T A < T B. A has the larger average energy per atom. D. There s not enough information to compare their temperatures. Slide 18-52

43 Thermal Interactions and Heat Consider two gases, initially at different temperatures T 1i > T 2i. They can interact thermally through a very thin barrier. The membrane is so thin that atoms can collide at the boundary as if the membrane were not there, yet atoms cannot move from one side to the other. The situation is analogous, on an atomic scale, to basketballs colliding through a shower curtain. Slide 18-53

44 Thermal Interactions and Heat The figure shows a fast atom and a slow atom approaching the barrier from opposite sides. During the collision, there is an energy transfer from the faster atom s side to the slower atom s side. Heat is the energy transferred via collisions between the more-energetic (warmer) atoms on one side and the less-energetic (cooler) atoms on the other. Slide 18-54

45 Thermal Interactions and Heat Equilibrium is reached when the atoms on each side have, on average, equal energies: Because the average energies are directly proportional to the final temperatures, Slide 18-55

46 Thermal Interactions and Heat The final thermal energies of the two systems are: No work is done on either system, so the first law of thermodynamics is: Conservation of energy requires that Q 1 = Q 2. Slide 18-56

47 Example 18.8 A Thermal Interaction Slide 18-57

48 Example 18.8 A Thermal Interaction Slide 18-58

49 Example 18.8 A Thermal Interaction Slide 18-59

50 Example 18.8 A Thermal Interaction Slide 18-60

51 Irreversible Processes and the Second Law of Thermodynamics When two gases are brought into thermal contact, heat energy is transferred from the warm gas to the cold gas until they reach a common final temperature. Energy could still be conserved if heat was transferred in the opposite direction, but this never happens. The transfer of heat energy from hot to cold is an example of an irreversible process, a process that can happen only in one direction. Slide 18-61

52 QuickCheck 18.7 A large 20 C ice cube is dropped into a super-insulated container holding a small amount of 5 C water, then the container is sealed. Ten minutes later, is it possible that the temperature of the ice cube will be colder than 20 C? A. Yes. B. No. C. Maybe. It would depend on other factors. Slide 18-62

53 QuickCheck 18.7 A large 20 C ice cube is dropped into a super-insulated container holding a small amount of 5 C water, then the container is sealed. Ten minutes later, is it possible that the temperature of the ice cube will be colder than 20 C? A. Yes. B. No. C. Maybe. It would depend on other factors. Slide 18-63

54 Molecular Collisions Are Reversible Slide 18-64

55 A Car Crash Is Irreversible Slide 18-65

56 Which Way to Equilibrium? The figure shows two boxes containing identical balls. Once every second, one ball is chosen at random and moved to the other box. What do you expect to see if you return several hours later? Although each transfer is reversible, it is more likely that the system will evolve toward a state in which N 1 N 2 than toward a state in which N 1 >> N 2. The macroscopic drift toward equilibrium is irreversible. Slide 18-66

57 Order, Disorder, and Entropy Scientists and engineers use a state variable called entropy to measure the probability that a macroscopic state will occur spontaneously. It is often said that entropy measures the amount of disorder in a system. Slide 18-67

58 Order, Disorder, and Entropy In principle, any number of heads are possible if you throw N coins in the air and let them fall. If you throw four coins, the odds are 1 in 2 4, or 1 in 16 of getting four heads; this represents fairly low entropy. With 10 coins, the probability that N heads = 10 is /1000, which corresponds to much lower entropy. With 100 coins, the probability that N heads = 100 has dropped to ; it is safe to say it will never happen. Entropy is highest when N heads N tails. Slide 18-68

59 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Macroscopic systems evolve irreversibly toward equilibrium in accordance with the following law: This law tells us what a system does spontaneously, on its own, without outside intervention. Order turns into disorder and randomness. Information is lost rather than gained. The system runs down. Slide 18-69

60 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics is often stated in several equivalent but more informal versions: Establishing the arrow of time is one of the most profound implications of the second law of thermodynamics. Slide 18-70

61 QuickCheck 18.8 A large 20 C ice cube is dropped into a superinsulated container holding a small amount of 5 C water, then the container is sealed. Ten minutes later, the temperature of the ice (and any water that has melted from the ice) will be warmer than 20 C. This is a consequence of A. The first law of thermodynamics. B. The second law of thermodynamics. C. The third law of thermodynamics. D. Both the first and the second laws. E. Joule s law. Slide 18-71

62 QuickCheck 18.8 A large 20 C ice cube is dropped into a superinsulated container holding a small amount of 5 C water, then the container is sealed. Ten minutes later, the temperature of the ice (and any water that has melted from the ice) will be warmer than 20 C. This is a consequence of A. The first law of thermodynamics. B. The second law of thermodynamics. C. The third law of thermodynamics. D. Both the first and the second laws. E. Joule s law. Slide 18-72

63 Chapter 18 Summary Slides Slide 18-73

64 General Principles The micro/macro connection relates the macroscopic properties of a system to the motion and collisions of its atoms and molecules. Slide 18-74

65 General Principles The micro/macro connection relates the macroscopic properties of a system to the motion and collisions of its atoms and molecules. Slide 18-75

66 Important Concepts Slide 18-76

67 Important Concepts Slide 18-77

68 Important Concepts Slide 18-78

69 Important Concepts Slide 18-79

70 Important Concepts Slide 18-80

71 End of chapter problems Concept questions, page 522.

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