Overview of CO2 emissions in the Arab Region: National versus Sectoral Emissions

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1 Overview of CO2 emissions in the Arab Region: National versus Sectoral Emissions Hammamet December, 2013 Economic Development and Globalisation Division

2 Outline 1. Introduction 2. World Regions and CO2 Emissions 3. Arab MDG Report: Goal 7 4. Performance of Arab Countries Total CO2 emissions CO2 emissions growth CO2 emissions from transport Sectoral CO2 emissions 5. Arab Survey on INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS 6. Conclusions

3 Introduction Climate change has emerged as an important threat to economic development, environment, and public health The transport sector contributes 13% of global GHG and 23% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Three-fourths of transportation-related emissions are from road traffic. Emissions from transportation are rising faster than from other energy-using sectors and are predicted to grow globally by 80% from 2007 and Empirical analysis suggests that national commitment is significantly affected by the national government s incentives

4 Sectoral Radiative Forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions An assessment of total climate impact due to emissions from major sectors Power and Onroad transportation are estimated to exert the largest net positive radiative forcing effect on the climate

5 Share of transport CO2 emissions in world regions and countries Share of transport CO2 emissions in the Middle East resemble the world share Approximately double shares of biggest growing economies such as China, India and Russia

6 Growth of CO2 Emissions (Transport and Total) Middle East has shown a growth of over 100% in CO2 emissions (both total and transport) Ranks 2 nd after China in growth during the period

7 ARAB MDG 2013: Goal 7: CO2 Emissions

8 CO2 Emissions (KT) West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates Tunisia Syrian Arab Republic Sudan Saudi Arabia Qatar Oman Morocco Kuwait Lebanon Libya Jordan Iraq Egypt, Arab Rep. Bahrain Algeria 0 50, , , , , , , , , ,000

9 CO2 Emissions (KT) Growth 199% West Bank and Gaza 49% 49% Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates 30% 21% Tunisia Syrian Arab Republic 156% Sudan 56% Saudi Arabia 103% Qatar 161% Oman 49% Morocco 70% Kuwait 33% 34% 25% Lebanon Libya Jordan 58% Iraq 45% Egypt, Arab Rep. 40% 30% Bahrain Algeria

10 CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates Tunisia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Saudi Arabia Qatar Oman Morocco Kuwait Lebanon Libya Jordan Iraq Egypt, Arab Rep. Bahrain Algeria

11 CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) Growth

12 CO2 emissions (kg per 2005 US$ of GDP) West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates Tunisia Syrian Arab Republic Sudan Saudi Arabia Qatar Oman Morocco Kuwait Lebanon Libya Jordan Iraq Egypt, Arab Rep. Bahrain Algeria

13 CO2 emissions from transport (million metric tons) Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates Tunisia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Saudi Arabia Qatar Oman Morocco Kuwait Lebanon Libya Jordan Iraq Egypt, Arab Rep. Bahrain Algeria

14 CO2 emissions from transport (million metric tons) Growth

15 Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage (current 1000 US$) West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. United Arab Emirates Tunisia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Saudi Arabia Qatar Oman Morocco Kuwait Lebanon Libya Jordan Iraq Egypt, Arab Rep. Bahrain Algeria - 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000

16 Co2 Emissions per Sector (% of total fuel combustion) MAGHREB 2010 Electricity and heat production 15% Manufacturing industries and construction 23% Other sectors 9% Electricity and heat production 3% Manufacturing industries and construction 34% MOROCCO ALGERIA Other sectors 13% Transport 36% Transport 37% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 17% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 13% Manufacturing industries and construction 27% Other sectors 10% Manufacturing industries and construction 24% Other sectors 4% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 12% Electricity and heat production 5% TUNISIA LIBYA Transport 34% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 24% Electricity and heat production 0% Transport 60%

17 Co2 Emissions per Sector (% of total fuel combustion) MASHREQ 2010 JORDAN LEBANON Manufacturing industries and construction 12% Electricity and heat production 48% SYRIA Transport 28% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 10% Other sectors 2% Electricity and heat production 60% IRAQ Transport 27% Residential buildings and commercial and public services Other sectors 6% 0% Manufacturing industries and construction 7% Electricity and heat production 50% Transport 21% Residential buildings and commercial and public services Other 10% sectors 4% Manufacturing industries and construction 15% Electricity and heat production 52% Other sectors 0% Transport 28% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 12% Manufacturing industries and construction 8%

18 Co2 Emissions per Sector (% of total fuel combustion) GCC 2010 Electricity and heat production 39% UAE Transport 17% SAUDI ARABIA Electricity and heat production 56% Transport 24% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 0% Other sectors 0% Manufacturing industries and construction 44% Other sectors 0% Manufacturing industries and construction 19% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 1% Electricity and heat production 53% Electricity and heat production 69% QATAR Transport 14% KUWAIT Transport 13% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 0% Other sectors 0% Manufacturing industries and construction 33% Residential buildings and commercial and public services 1% Manufacturing industries and construction 17% Other sectors 0%

19 QUESTIONNAIRE ON INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS A. To reduce inland transport CO2 emissions in your country or region 71% 57% 57% 57% 43% Do you have a strategy or a target? If yes, is this strategy or target consistent with your country's international obligations? Have you implemented legal instrument(s)? Have you had effective or positive results? Do you have policy measures in preparation?

20 QUESTIONNAIRE ON INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS B. Regarding statistical data collection on inland transport CO2 emissions 57% 57% Do you use national or regional procedure/approach to collect the data? Could such statistical data be made available for the United Nations?

21 QUESTIONNAIRE ON INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS C. For the assessment of local/national/regional inland transport CO2 emissions 43% 43% 29% Do you use specific mathematical models/tools for the different transport modes? Would it be possible to use your models/tools for the purpose of the United Nations Development Account project? Could your models/tools assess greenhouse gases other than CO2?

22 QUESTIONNAIRE ON INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS D. Regarding policy measures on the reduction of inland transport CO2 emissions 71% 57% 29% 29% have you performed have you developed any studies on the possibility best practice to implement to reduce CO2 emissions? such measures (e.g. with a simulation model/various policies)? have you implemented such policy measures on a local/national/regional level? 0% have you evaluated the effectiveness of these measures? Are you planning further measures on a local/national/regional level?

23 Conclusions

24 Conclusions 1. Middle East has shown a growth of over 100% in CO2 emissions (both total and transport) 2. CO2 emissions in the Arab region have doubled since the 1990s lead by GCC and Mashreq countries 3. Saudi Arabia leads in CO2 emissions in KT. However, fastest growth in CO2 emissions and per capita are Palestine, Oman and Sudan 4. Oman and Iraq have the highest CO2 emissions (kg per 2005 US$ of GDP) 5. Saudi Arabia has the largest CO2 emissions from transport (million metric tons). However, Qatar currently has fastest growth rate

25 Conclusions 5. The composition of Co2 Emissions per Sector (% of total fuel combustion) shows a very specific block (Mashreq, GCC, Maghreb) 6. QUESTIONNAIRE ON INLAND TRANSPORT CO2 EMISSIONS 7 out of 14 respondents answered 71% have a strategy 57% implemented legal instruments 43% have had positive results 57% have statistical data 29% use specific models/tools for assessment 29% implemented policy measures on a local scale 0% evaluated the effectiveness of the policy measures

26 Thank you! Be the change you want to see in the world. Mahatma Gandhi

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