An Overview of Islamic Finance

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1 An Overview of Islamic Finance February 2008 Hung Wai Wong Senior Manager Commercial Banking, HSBC Bank Middle East Ltd.

2 Size of Islamic Banking The first modern experiment with Islamic Banking was undertaken in Egypt during mid 1960s. The Islamic financial industry has, over the past 30 years, rapidly extended its scope world wide. It is estimated that Islamic banks total assets are hovering around USD 450 bn (AED 1.6 tn). It is highly expected that this figure would jump to about one trillion dollars by Total deposits of Islamic banks stand at about USD 200bn, with a steady growth expected to range from 10 to 20 per cent per annum. There are about 270 banking and financial institutions in various parts of the world, including 34 in Bahrain, which is the main hub of these banking institutions in the region.

3 Huge Market with population of 1.5 billion in 50+ countries Year 2008 Suriname Africa: Egypt Nigeria Ethiopia Algeria Morocco Sudan Mali Tunisia Senegal Niger Somalia Guinea Gambia Ghana Burkina Faso Libya Uganda Cameroon Chad Mauritania Kenya S.Leone Mozambique Source: CIA world factbook 2008 Europe: United Kingdom Germany France Middle East: Turkey Iran Iraq Yemen Syria Oman Kuwait Lebanon Jordan United-Arab Emirates Bahrain Saudi Arabia Asia: Indonesia India Pakistan Bangladesh Afghanistan Malaysia Philippines Sri Lanka Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Azerbaijan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Kyrgyz Stan

4 Islamic Banking is based on Sharia principals Islamic banking system is a financial system based on Islamic teachings (Koran and prophet teaching) The principles Productive Oriented *Capital and resources are utilized to create wealth and welfare Justice *Idle capital and resources are avoided *Profit-taking is allowable *Prohibition of interest *Risk-sharing basis Ethical investment *No investment in forbidden area: alcohol, gambling, prostitution *No speculation investment Many of modern Islamic banking products and services have equivalent in the conventional system Products Murabaha Ijara Istisna Mudharaba Musharaka Current wadiah Saving mudarabah Conventional equivalent Loan Leasing Bridging finance Venture capital Preferred equity/ private equity Current account Investment account

5 The market has Annual GDP of over USD 3.8 tn (Millions) GDP per Capita (US$) Represent more than USD 3.8 trillion annual GDP or 7.6 % of world GDP In 2007 Total Muslim Population: 1.84 Billion Total Source: CIA world factbook 2008

6 Most of the opportunity lies in Float customers Customer loyal to conventional banks Float customers Customer loyal to Islamic banks X% Y%* Total banking assets Who is float customer? They are potential customers for Islamic Banking Currently is conventional banking customer or non-banking customer that put their money under the mattress They are willing to switch if the incentive is right While most of them are Moslems, some might come from other religion They come across from high to low-income individuals and from corporate to small businesses * Vary country by country, from below 1% in Indonesia, 5% in Malaysia, 12% in Saudi Arabia, 30% in Kuwait to 100% in Pakistan, Iran and Sudan

7 Low Awareness in Islamic Banking Ethical customers Economical customers Customer loyal to conventional banks Float customers X% Return is low priority Appealed to ethical value proposition, e.g.: Comply with Islamic principle Involvement with charity Help economic development Tend to be loyal Expect competitive service in Convenience in depositing and taking money Fast and accurate payment service Risk return Ethical values Expected services Risk and return must be competitive enough compared to conventional banks or other type of investment product Less consideration in ethical or emotional value, moving capital based on the economical consideration Services must be sophisticated enough to support their needs Customer loyal to Islamic banks Y%* Current focus of of Islamic Banks Must be included in in the future Total banking assets I I moved my deposit to to conventional banks because the Islamic bank money transfer service is is poor The rate is is much lower, it s difficult to to resist from next-door bank Former customer of an Islamic bank Time deposit switcher

8 A Brief History of Islamic Baknking 7 th Century 1950s Clear order to forbid interest in economic system during the Islam birth in Saudi Arabia in 7 th Century Interest-free principle applied to many individual transaction or in small cooperative, e.g., Serikat Dagang Islam in Indonesia during s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 21 st century Experiment to create modern Islamic finance bank initiated in 1963 in Egypt without Islamic name In 1967, the experiment grow to 9 banks which function as saving investment institution The Nasir Social Bank established in Egypt in Apply interest-free principle but not refer to Islam name Oil boom bring windfall to many Islamic countries Islamic Development Bank was established in 1974 by Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) A number of Islamic banks were established in Middle East: Dubai Islamic Bank (1975), Faisal Islamic Bank Egypt (1977), Bahrain Islamic Bank (1979) Establishment of Islamic Banking in Southeast Asia: Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (1983) Cooperative Banks (BPRS) in Indonesia (currently 77) Bank Muamalat Indonesia (1992) Opening of several small Islamic banking in western world Standardization of accounting practice led by AAOFI Harvard established HIFIP as center of Islamic finance information (1996) Bahrain & KL tries to develop Global/ Regional Islamic financial market Dow Jones Islamic Market & FTSE Islamic Index was established Internet investment companies / brokerage for Moslem such as IslamiQ.com was established in the late 90 s Islamic financial system encompassed products such as: banking, mortgages, equity funds, fixed income, insurance, project finance, private equity, and even derivatives At growth rates of 15% over the past three years, Islamic finance as an emerging sector is expected to expand further especially with the rapidly increasing demand for petroleum exports, which brings fresh infusions of "petro-dollars. A large number of conventional banking institutions such as Citibank, HSBC, and UBS all provide Shariah compliant financial products throughout both Islamic and non- Islamic regions. 8 Source: Mohammad Ariff paper on Islamic banking; Interviews, HIFIP website, Financial Times,

9 Existing Products Conventional Current Account Time Deposit Import Facilities STL/LTL/OD Construction Finance Finance of Local Purchase TR/CIL Guarantees Long Term Loan/CAPEX Islamic Islamic Bank Current Account Islamic Bank Term Investment Islamic Bank Import Facilities Islamic Bank Commodity Murabaha Islamic Bank Musataha Islamic Bank Goods Murabaha Islamic Bank Import Finance Islamic Bank Guarantee Services Islamic Bank Equipment Ijarah

10 Islamic Bank Current Account Features are similar to the existing Business Current Account Funds deposited will be used only in Shariah compliant activities A separate monthly statement is generated Currencies: AED, USD, GBP, EURO or others

11 HSBC Amanah Established in 1998 with the aim to be a leading provider of Islamic financial services worldwide The value of Islamic finance to HSBC protect existing customer base attract new customers benefit from shift to quality stronger and more diversified portfolio Positioning HSBC in the Islamic financial industry international network respected and imbedded institution in target markets client goodwill in the industry support of Industry R&D

12 HSBC Amanah Presence UK USA Saudi Arabia UAE Bangladesh Malaysia Brunei Indonesia Muslim majority countries and key Muslim minority countries HSBC coverage in Muslim majority countries and key Muslim minority countries Growing Reach - 8 HSBC Amanah onshore franchises

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