# Waves: Undulatory Motion of a Water Surface

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Key Ideas Wind waves form when energy is transferred from wind to water. Waves transmit energy, not water mass, across the ocean s surface. The behavior of a wave depends on the relation between the wave s size and the depth of water through which it is moving. Waves can change direction by refraction and diffraction, can interfere with one another, and reflect from solid objects. 1 Waves: Undulatory Motion of a Water Surface Parts of a wave - wave crest, wave trough, wave height (H), wave amplitude, wave length (L),and wave period (T). Wave period - basis for classifying waves. 2 1

2 Geometry of a Progressive Wave 3 Most Waves: Wind-Generated Size and type of wind-generated waves: affected by wind velocity, wind duration, fetch, and original state of the sea surface. As wind velocity increases, wavelength, period and height increase, but only if wind duration and fetch are sufficient. 4 2

3 Progressive Waves As waves pass, wave form and wave energy move rapidly forward, but not the water. Water molecules move in an orbital motion as the wave passes. Diameter of orbit increases with increasing wave size and decreases with depth below the water surface. 5 A Little Math Wave speed = wave length/wave period C= L/T 6 3

4 Relationship of Wave Length to Depth of Wave Motion 7 Motion of Water as Wave Passes Water in the crest of the wave moves in the same direction as the wave, but water in the trough moves in the opposite direction. 8 4

5 Classifying Waves Waves are classified on the basis of: Disturbing force Free waves vs. forced waves Restoring force Wavelength 9 Classifying Waves 10 5

6 Types of Waves Waves transmit energy across the ocean s surface. 11 Factors Affecting Wind Wave Development Wind strength - wind must be moving faster than the wave crests for energy transfer to continue Wind duration - winds that blow for a short time will not generate large waves Fetch - the uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without changing direction 12 6

7 Factors Affecting Wind Waves: Fetch 13 Properties of Ocean Waves Fully developed sea - sea state where the waves generated by the wind are as large as they can be under current conditions of wind velocity and fetch Significant wave height - average of the highest 1/3 of the waves present; good indicator of potential for wave damage to ships and for erosion of shorelines. 14 7

8 15 The Beaufort Scale for Wind Speed 16 8

9 Wave Dispersion The longer the wave length, the faster the wave speed. 17 Swell Formation and Dispersion Wave separation, or dispersion, is a function of wavelength. Waves with the longest wavelength move the fastest and leave the area of wave formation sooner. The smooth undulation of ocean water caused by wave dispersion is called swell. A wave train. 18 9

10 Interference And Rogue Waves When waves from different directions meet, they interfere with one another. Wave interference can be: Destructive interference two waves that cancel each other out, resulting in reduced or no wave Constructive interference additive interference that results in waves larger than the original waves Rogue waves - freak waves that occur due to interference and result in a wave crest higher than the theoretical maximum 19 Wave Interference 20 10

11 Wave Interference 21 Waves Entering Shallow Water 22 11

12 Shallow-Water Waves When waves enter shallow water: Wave speed decreases Wave length decreases Wave period does not change Wave height increases 23 Wave Motions Wave base - depth to which a surface wave can move water Depth greater than wave base - orbits are circular with no interaction between wave and bottom Depth shallower than wave base - orbits are elliptical and become increasingly flattened towards the bottom 24 12

13 Deep- and Shallow-Water Motion 25 Wind Waves Approaching Shore What happens when wind waves break against the shore? 26 13

14 Waves Entering Shallow Water Wave speed decreases as depth decreases. Wavelength decreases as depth decreases. Wave height increases as depth decreases. Troughs become flattened and the wave profile becomes extremely asymmetrical. Period remains unchanged. Period is a fundamental property of a wave. Refraction is the bending of a wave crest into an area where it travels more slowly. 27 Wave Steepness Maximum height for a given wavelength is based on H/L. If H/L > 1/7, wave becomes too steep

15 Breaking Waves Plunging waves break violently against the shore, leaving an air-filled tube, or channel, between the crest and foot of the wave. Plunging waves are formed when waves approach a shore over a steeply sloped bottom. Spilling waves occur on gradually sloping ocean bottoms. The crest of a spilling wave slides down the face of the wave as it breaks on shore. 29 Breaking Waves In shallow water, wave height increases and wave length decreases. Wave steepness - wave height /wavelength (H/L) When H/L is larger than or equals 1/7 (H/L 1/7), the wave becomes unstable and breaks

16 Spilling, Plunging and Surging Breakers 31 Storm Surge Rise in sea level due to low atmospheric pressure and build-up of water by storm winds Water is deeper at the shore area, allowing waves to progress farther inland Especially severe when superimposed upon a spring high tide 32 16

17 Wave Refraction, Diffraction, and Reflection Wave refraction - the slowing and bending of waves in shallow water Wave diffraction - propagation of a wave around an obstacle Wave reflection - occurs when waves bounce back from an obstacle they encounter. Reflected waves can cause interference with oncoming waves, creating standing waves 33 Wave Refraction 34 17

18 Wave Refraction

19 Wave Diffraction

20 Internal Waves Waves that occur at the boundaries of water layers with different densities are called internal waves. 39 Internal waves Form within the water column along the pycnocline due to density differences Internal waves display all the properties of surface progressive waves including reflection, refraction, interference, breaking, etc. Any disturbance to the pycnocline can generate internal waves, including: flow of water related to the tides, flow of water masses past each other, storms, or submarine landslides

21 Standing Waves or Seiches Water surface seesaws back and forth Node - imaginary line on the surface where water does not oscillate Antinodes - where maximum displacement of the surface occurs as it oscillates; usually located at the edge of the basin 41 Seiches Water rocking back and forth at a specific resonant frequency in a confined area is a seiche. Seiches are also called standing waves. The node is the position in a standing wave where water moves sideways, but does not rise or fall. How does a seiche form? 42 21

22 Standing Waves or Seiches

23 Standing Waves Geometry of basin controls the period of a standing wave Standing waves can be generated by storm surges or earthquakes Resonance amplifies water disturbance at the nodes and occurs when the period of the basin is similar to the period of the force producing the standing wave

24 Tsunami and Seismic Sea Waves Tsunami are long-wavelength, shallow-water, progressive waves caused by the rapid displacement of ocean water. Tsunami generated by the vertical movement of earth along faults are seismic sea waves. What else can generate tsunami? landslides icebergs falling from glaciers volcanic eruptions other displacements of the water surface - asteroid impact 47 Tsunamis Previously called tidal waves, but not related to tides Consist of long-period waves characterized by very long wavelength (up to 100 km) and high speed (up to 760 km/hr) in the deep ocean Because of their large wavelength, tsunamis are shallowwater to intermediate-water waves as they travel across the ocean basin Become a danger when reaching coastal areas where wave height can reach 10 m Tsunamis originate from earthquakes, volcanic explosions, or landslides 48 24

25 Tsunami and Seismic Sea Waves A tsunami, in 1946, was generated by a rupture along a submerged fault. The tsunami traveled at speeds of 212 meters per second. 49 Tsunami Speed Because tsunami have extremely long wavelengths, they always behave as shallow water waves. The speed of a tsunami can be calculated using the same formula used for other shallow-water waves: C = gd g = 9.8 m/s 2 (the acceleration due to gravity) d = depth (a typical Pacific abyssal depth is 4,600 meters) 50 25

26 Tsunami Ten of the tsunami that have struck since

27 Generation of a Tsunami 53 Sumatra-Andaman Island Earthquake Magnitude 9.0 Sunday, Dec. 26, at 7:58 a.m. local time 30 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra 250 km SSE of Banda Aceh Fourth largest in the world since 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, quake More casualties than any other tsunami in recorded history 54 27

28

29

30

31 61 Tsunami Warning Network 62 31

32 Summary Parts of an ocean wave 63 32

### Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium.

Oceanography Chapter 10 Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium. Floating Gull- Figure 10.1 water is not moving only the energy is moving through the water.

### A. Deep-Water Waves. 1. Wave Speed (S) = wavelength (L) meters wave period (T) seconds. OCE-3014L Lab 7 Waves & Longshore Currents

A. Deep-Water Waves If the water depth (d) is greater then the wave base (equal to one-half the wavelength, or L/2), the waves are called deep-water waves. Deep-water waves have no interference with the

### Periodic Wave Phenomena

Name: Periodic Wave Phenomena 1. The diagram shows radar waves being emitted from a stationary police car and reflected by a moving car back to the police car. The difference in apparent frequency between

### Waves. Wave Parameters. Krauss Chapter Nine

Waves Krauss Chapter Nine Wave Parameters Wavelength = λ = Length between wave crests (or troughs) Wave Number = κ = 2π/λ (units of 1/length) Wave Period = T = Time it takes a wave crest to travel one

### Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1

Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics Dynamic Theory of Tides. In the equilibrium theory of tides, we assumed that the shape of the sea surface was always in equilibrium with the

### ebb current, the velocity alternately increasing and decreasing without coming to

Slack water (slack tide): The state of a tidal current when its velocity is near zero, especially the moment when a reversing current changes its direction and its velocity is zero. The term is also applied

### Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008

Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008 1. What happened on 26 December 2004 off the west coast of Sumatra? 2. What is the final estimate of the magnitude of the Sumatra 26 December

### Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case

2 ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE WASTE WATER DISCHARGES MWWD 2002 - I STANBUL SEPT. 16 20 Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case Prof.Dr. Sedat Kabdaþlý

### Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

### TIDES. 1. Tides are the regular rise and fall of sea level that occurs either once a day (every 24.8 hours) or twice a day (every 12.4 hours).

TIDES What causes tides? How are tides predicted? 1. Tides are the regular rise and fall of sea level that occurs either once a day (every 24.8 hours) or twice a day (every 12.4 hours). Tides are waves

### UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name:

UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name: 1. These waves travel through the body of the Earth and are called S waves. a. Transverse b. Longitudinal c. Amplitude d. Trough 2. These waves

### Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips

### Standing Waves and the Velocity of Sound

Chapter 8 Standing Waves and the Velocity of Sound 8.1 Purpose In this experiment we will be using resonance points of a sound wave traveling through an open tube to measure the speed of sound in air.

### Internal waves and vortices in satellite images

Internal waves and vortices in satellite images Amelia Carolina Sparavigna Department of Applied Science and Technology Politecnico di Torino, Italy Some recent papers proposed the use of the satellite

### Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

### EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle

EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle Grades 3 and Up This activity is one of several in a basic curriculum designed to increase student knowledge about earthquake science and preparedness. The

### Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

### CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

### Greens functions - solution for earthʼs surface movement due to a slipping patch at depth

Greens functions - solution for earthʼs surface movement due to a slipping patch at depth Need to know slip distribution along the fault as a function of time No closed-form solution for Greens functions

### Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

A great 8.8-magnitude struck central Chile early Saturday. The quake hit 200 miles (325 kilometers) southwest of the capital Santiago. The epicenter was just 70 miles (115 kilometers) from Concepcion,

### Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

### Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 4. How are refraction and the speed of wave in different media related?

Wave Properties Student Worksheet Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 1. A person standing 385 m from a cliff claps her hands loudly, only to hear the sound return

### 1) The time for one cycle of a periodic process is called the A) wavelength. B) period. C) frequency. D) amplitude.

practice wave test.. Name Use the text to make use of any equations you might need (e.g., to determine the velocity of waves in a given material) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes

### COASTAL DAMAGE INSPECTION SOUTHWEST VITI LEVU, FIJI AFTER CYCLONE SINA

COASTAL DAMAGE INSPECTION SOUTHWEST VITI LEVU, FIJI AFTER CYCLONE SINA Brendan J. Holden SOPAC Technical Secretariat July 1992 SOPAC Technical Report 148 Prepared for: South Pacific Applied Geoscience

### NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

### Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude

Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Locating Earthquakes Last time, we learned that we could obtain a rough estimate of the distance in miles to an earthquake epicenter by multiplying the S - P time interval

### The Tsunami Risk to Sydney

The Tsunami Risk to Sydney Michael Paine March 2008 Press Page Down 1 to advance each slide 1 Mega-tsunami A recent example 2 This is a computer model of the disasterous Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December

### Tidal theory 1. INTRODUCTION. Tides: The periodic vertical movement of water on the Earth s Surface (Admiralty Manual of Navigation)

Tidal theory 1. INTRODUCTION Tides: The periodic vertical movement of water on the Earth s Surface (Admiralty Manual of Navigation) Tides are very often neglected or taken for granted, they are just the

### Tide - rhythmic oscillation of the ocean surface due to gravitational & centrifugal forces ( inertia ) between the Earth, Moon and Sun.

Chapter 4: The Changing Level of the Sea Tides Longer Scale Variations Influence on Beaches Tide - rhythmic oscillation of the ocean surface due to gravitational & centrifugal forces ( inertia ) between

### Semester 2. Final Exam Review

Semester 2 Final Exam Review Motion and Force Vocab Motion object changes position relative to a reference point. Speed distance traveled in a period of time. Velocity speed in a direction. Acceleration

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### What causes Tides? If tidal forces were based only on mass, the Sun should have a tidegenerating

What are Tides? Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans as a result of the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun for the water in the oceans of the Earth. Tides start in

### Chapter Overview. Bathymetry. Measuring Bathymetry. Echo Sounding Record. Measuring Bathymetry. CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces

Chapter Overview CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features

### Hurricanes and Storm Surge www.hcfcd.org/tropicalweather

Hurricanes and Storm Surge www.hcfcd.org High-level winds fl ow outward Strong surface winds spiral inward EYE Calm, sometimes cloudfree, sinking air Air sinks in calm area at the storm s eye THUNDERSTORMS

### Waves and Sound. AP Physics B

Waves and Sound AP Physics B What is a wave A WAVE is a vibration or disturbance in space. A MEDIUM is the substance that all SOUND WAVES travel through and need to have in order to move. Two types of

### Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

### PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A bicycle wheel rotates uniformly through 2.0 revolutions in

### Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

### What causes Earth s surface to change?

Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

### 1 of 10 11/23/2009 6:37 PM

hapter 14 Homework Due: 9:00am on Thursday November 19 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View] Good Vibes: Introduction

### Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013

Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013 Review and Discussion: RD5.1 Explain how the Moon produces tides in Earth s oceans. The Moon pulls on the side of Earth facing it with a stronger

### Lesson 11. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, December 8, 15

Lesson 11 Physics 168 1 Oscillations and Waves 2 Simple harmonic motion If an object vibrates or oscillates back and forth over same path each cycle taking same amount of time motion is called periodic

### Antennas & Propagation. CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman

Antennas & Propagation CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman Introduction An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors o Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space o Reception

### 4/14/2012. The Oceans. Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces. Continental Margin. Turbidity Currents. Major Ocean Basins:

The Oceans Major Ocean Basins: Pacific Ocean largest and deepest Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean S. Hemisphere Arctic smallest and most shallow Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces Continental Margin Continental

### Standing Waves Physics Lab I

Standing Waves Physics Lab I Objective In this series of experiments, the resonance conditions for standing waves on a string will be tested experimentally. Equipment List PASCO SF-9324 Variable Frequency

### Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

### Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam

Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Multiple-choice Questions Note: To simplify calculations, you may use g 5 10 m/s 2 in all problems. Directions: Each

### Waves. Overview (Text p382>)

Waves Overview (Text p382>) Waves What are they? Imagine dropping a stone into a still pond and watching the result. A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another in wave fronts.

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### Tides and Water Levels

Tides and Water Levels What are Tides? Tides are one of the most reliable phenomena in the world. As the sun rises in the east and the stars come out at night, we are confident that the ocean waters will

### Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 8. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 8 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 8 The Moon and Mercury Units of Chapter 8 8.1 Orbital Properties 8.2 Physical Properties 8.3 Surface Features on the Moon

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

### v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

### AP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity.

1. A fire truck is moving at a fairly high speed, with its siren emitting sound at a specific pitch. As the fire truck recedes from you which of the following characteristics of the sound wave from the

### Waves-Wave Characteristics

1. What is the wavelength of a 256-hertz sound wave in air at STP? 1. 1.17 10 6 m 2. 1.29 m 3. 0.773 m 4. 8.53 10-7 m 2. The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of

### Chapter 21 Study Questions Name: Class:

Chapter 21 Study Questions Name: Class: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If a fire engine is traveling toward you, the Doppler

### AP1 Gravity. at an altitude equal to twice the radius (R) of the planet. What is the satellite s speed assuming a perfectly circular orbit?

1. A satellite of mass m S orbits a planet of mass m P at an altitude equal to twice the radius (R) of the planet. What is the satellite s speed assuming a perfectly circular orbit? (A) v = Gm P R (C)

### 2 Wind Erosion and Deposition

CHAPTER 3 2 Wind Erosion and Deposition SECTION Agents of Erosion and Deposition BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How can wind erosion shape the

### CHAPTER 13 - SEA WAVES AND SURGES

CHAPTER 13 - SEA WAVES AND SURGES 13.1 Sea waves and swell 13.1.1 Forecasting wind-wave heights and periods 13.1.1.1 Waves in deep water 13.1.1.2 Waves in shallow waters 13.1.2 Wave conditions at the shoreline;

### Waves-Wave Characteristics

1. What is the wavelength of a 256-hertz sound wave in air at STP? 1. 1.17 10 6 m 2. 1.29 m 3. 0.773 m 4. 8.53 10-7 m 2. The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of

### Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading

Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading J. A. Eicher, H. Guan, and D. S. Jeng # School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES OUTLINE Main Features of Seismic Velocities in the Earth Velocity depth profile Seismic phases and their nomenclature: seismic ray paths and travel time curves

### The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

### TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

### Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

### The concepts developed in this standard include the following: Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth.

Name Date Grade 5 SOL 5.6 Review Oceans Made by SOLpass - www.solpass.org solpass100@comcast.net Reproduction is permitted for SOLpass subscribers only. The concepts developed in this standard include

### Ensys 12 Cert. UNIT: Natural Disasters Mr. Muller

Ensy 12 Unit: Natural Disasters Study Guide Volcanoes: 1. A volcano is a landform where molten rock erupts through the surface of the planet. 2. A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of

### Earth Science Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension. Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion

Reading Comprehension Name 1 How many people have been to the Rocky Mountains or the Grand Canyon? When people go to visit these natural wonders, they may not realize that it took millions of years for

### Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes

Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and

### Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

### Chapter 5: Earthquakes

Chapter 5: Earthquakes 1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand 2. The Science of Ghost Forests and Megaearthquakes 3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics 4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

### Geosciences. Japan Disaster: Tsunami

All right. Thank you Ann, can you all hear me in the back? I don't need the thing? Thanks to Christina for putting this on, I think the idea was just to try to again, get some of the facts out, so we can

### Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.

INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can penetrate well inland from the coastline.

### Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes.

Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes. Reading Strategy Building Vocabulary As you read this section, write a definition for

### Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

### Write True or False in the space provided.

CP Physics -- Exam #7 Practice Name: _ Class: Date: Write True or False in the space provided. 1) Pressure at the bottom of a lake depends on the weight density of the lake water and on the volume of the

### Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

### UNIT 1: mechanical waves / sound

1. waves/intro 2. wave on a string 3. sound waves UNIT 1: mechanical waves / sound Chapter 16 in Cutnell, Johnson: Physics, 8th Edition Properties of waves, example of waves (sound. Light, seismic), Reflection,

### Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins)

Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins) DRAINAGE CONTROL TECHNIQUE Low Gradient Velocity Control Short-Term Steep Gradient Channel Lining Medium-Long Term Outlet Control Soil Treatment Permanent [1] [1]

### Composition. Physical Properties

Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical

### WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

### Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

### Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.

INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge National Hurricane Center Storm Surge Unit BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can

### Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

### 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

Page 1 of 5 Exploring Creation With Physical Science Table of Contents Module 1 : The Basics Atoms and Molecules 1 Experiment 1.1: Atoms and Molecules 1 Measurements and Units 8 The Metric System 8 Manipulating

### Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

### Experiment 1: SOUND. The equation used to describe a simple sinusoidal function that propagates in space is given by Y = A o sin(k(x v t))

Experiment 1: SOUND Introduction Sound is classified under the topic of mechanical waves. A mechanical wave is a term which refers to a displacement of elements in a medium from their equilibrium state,

### Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

### v = λ f this is the Golden Rule for waves transverse & longitudinal waves Harmonic waves The golden rule for waves Example: wave on a string Review

L 23 Vibrations and Waves [3] resonance clocks pendulum springs harmonic motion mechanical waves sound waves golden rule for waves musical instruments The Doppler effect Doppler radar radar guns Review

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 28] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.